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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Gioia Fisk

Exam 1 Study Guide SPCM201

Gioia Fisk

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Covers Greco-Roman, Middle Ages, and Renaissance time periods as covered in class.
Rhetoric in Western Thought (GT-AH3)
Jennifer E Bone
Study Guide
Study Guide, rhetoric, Greece, Rome, Renaissance, middle ages
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gioia Fisk on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPCM201 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer E Bone in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Rhetoric in Western Thought (GT-AH3) in Communication at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
SPCM201­001: Rhetoric in Western Thought Exam 1 Study Guide Ancient Greece, Rome, Medieval Europe, and the Renaissance  Greco­Roman Time Period o What were the main arguments occurring at this time?  Controversy between sophists and philosophers – pursuit of Truth from the gods vs. truth  can only be known from what we observe (sophists)  Healthy soul and body/debate on where virtue comes from (can it be taught – sophists say they can teach it with rhetoric etc.)  Positions on using rhetoric/whether or not rhetoric should be used ­ Sophists: power to influence several different versions of the truth ­ Plato/Aristotle/Isocrates: rhetoric should be used only for good  Lover/Non­lover Debate: From Phaedrus, whether it is better to be lover/non­lover with a  teacher – Socrates believes better to be a lover; build lifelong relationships   Metaphor for the Soul/Myth of the Charioteer: Soul has 3 parts – wild horse, virtuous  horse, and charioteer  Oratory skills: structure, eloquence, advocating for democracy  Participation in government – promotion of democracy  Jury/court system – lawyers, advocating for self o Who were the thinkers?  Aspasia, Pericles, Protagorous, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Isocrates, Cicero, Quintilian,  Gorgias o How did democracy work?  Huge assemblies, free/adult/male citizens were allowed to vote and participate in  government  Decided on Athenian policy, war strategies  Listened/made speeches on variety of topics – created need for  rhetoric/sophists/logographers o How did the court system work?  Jury – selected from citizens/assembly; over 30  Had to defend/prosecute self; any citizen could be brought to court (women had their male relative represent them)   Testimonial evidence read aloud ­ Aristotle advised caution because testimony could be bought/tortured out of someone ­ Logographers: hired speechwriter; wrote speech for people to memorize for court o Who were Aspasia, Pericles, and Protagorous?  Aspasia: Pericles’ lover; famous teacher of rhetoric ­ taught Socrates (refined Socratic  Method), held intellectual salons in her home ­ Highly educated, amazing teacher of rhetoric ­ Controversial because foreign woman ­ Credited for writing some of Pericles’ speeches; none of her writing survives  Pericles: “most powerful man in Athens” ­ Political leader; friends with Protagorous ­ Took Aspasia as “well­known” mistress – scandalous in society ­ Changed laws for his son by Aspasia to inherit his wealth   Protagorous: ­ First to charge for lectures ­ Developed Dissoi logoi: process of asking questions and breaking down argument to  find the stronger side ­ Advised Pericles – rebuilding after Polynesian War  ­ Knowledge is relative and subjective according to what we know now ­ “two sides to every question” o How did the following thinkers theorize about rhetoric? How did they contribute to the  rhetorical tradition?  Gorgias: most well known Sophist, theory on rhetoric (style and language) ­ Could improvise and speak for hours ­ “Encomium of Helen”: defense for Helen of Troy, 4 reasons she is innocent 1. Power of speech: Helen captivated by words 2. Fell in love: Helen fell in love with Prince Paris 3. Constrained by the divine: God held power over Helen  4. Violently taken/Raped: protect herself, rapist at fault for taking her ­ Speech structure: Prooemium/intro, Narration, Proof/evidence, Epilogue/conclusion,  poetic devices; dissoi logoi from Protagorous; different versions of the truth  Plato: student of Socrates, taught Aristotle ­ Gorgias: Rhetoric is a “habitude, knack, flattery”; “counterpart of cookery in the soul”  (98) – temporary satisfaction; wisdom ­ Phaedrus: Rhetoric is the art of influencing the soul through words; without knowledge  of the soul, rhetoric cannot be an art/techne (163)  Isocrates: Kairos is key; teaching through imitation ­ Opened first rhetoric school ­ Sophists can’t teach happiness or self­control; too eager for payment, lack knowledge  of what they teach.  ­ Students should have natural ability, contingent on knowledge and talent, teaching  through imitation ­ Father of liberal arts education ­ Rhetoric: a tool for pragmatic decision­making shaped by the moment and used for the  greater good  Aristotle  ­ Definition of Rhetoric: “the art of finding in any given situation the available means of  persuasion” (181) ­ Rhetoric a practical skill...why is rhetoric useful o Responsible for ensuring truth wins o If truth can be known, not every audience can comprehend it o Teaches how to argue both sides of argument – dissoi logoi o Can be used in self defense ­ 3 Divisions of Oratory o Political/Deliberative: “urges to do or not to do something”; passing laws  Time: the future/Goal: what is the appropriate course of action? o Forensic/Judicial: “attacks or defends somebody”; court system  Time: the past/Goal: what was just or unjust? o Ceremonial/Epideictic: “either praises or censures/blames somebody”  Time: the present/Goal: is this person honorable? o Pathos/Ethos/Logos o Enthymeme: the heart of rhetoric o Rhetorical theory: Inartistic vs. artistic  Cicero ­ De Inventione & Rhetorica ad Herennium ­ Importance of style; eloquence ­ Combination of plain/simple speech + eloquence to keep audience’s attention ­ Eloquence “dependent upon trained skill of highly trained men” ­ Canons of Rhetoric  1. Invention 2. Arrangement  3. Style 4. Memory 5. Delivery ­ All knowledge requires some style (“elegance of diction”) must always be credited to  rhetoric (296) ­ “If truth were self­evident, eloquence would be unnecessary” – cicero ­ Rhetoric should be used as a system to promote democracy  Quintilian ­ Developed current system/structure of education ­ Importance of being “a good man” ­ Teaching 5 Canons; focuses on forensic speech due to tensions in Rome ­ 5 Categories/Methods for Speech 1. Precept: set of rules for speaking (5 Canons) o Invention o Arrangement o Style o Memory o Delivery 2. Imitation: using models o Reading out loud o Memorizing o Paraphrasing 3. Composition o Retell a fable o Eulogize a person o Impersonation o Argue for/against general question 4. Declamation: fictitious speeches that represent real life situation o Deliberative speech arguing an action has/hasn’t occurred o Forensic speech prosecuting/defending historical/fictitious case 5. Sequencing: ordering classroom activities o Moving from simple to complex tasks o Reinforce previous lessons  Medieval/Middle Ages Time Period (312­1400) o What constituted the shift from the classical period to the Middle Ages?  Legalization of Christianity by Emperor Constantine o How was rhetoric viewed at the start of the Middle Ages?  With suspicion, public outlets removed completely o How did St. Augustine theorize rhetoric? How did he contribute to the rhetorical tradition?  Augustine’s definition of Rhetoric:  ­ Rhetoric could be used to understand and then teach the scripture ­ 3 Offices of Rhetoric o Teach: inform/plain style, clear and concise o Please: delight/middle style; interesting to listen to o Move: persuade/grand style   Blend of knowledge and eloquence – speaker must be aware of the truth and teach it  “the preacher must know his subject matter in order to teach it well. He must also know  how to reach his congregation’s emotions and to persuade them to Christian living”  Renaissance Time Period (1400­1700) o Printing press made texts accessible; transcribing documents, texts, legal information o What purposes did rhetoric service during this time period?  Basis for preaching/sermons  Margaret Fell – justification for women to speak publicly based on scripture o What did these women believe about women’s role in speaking and writing? What other  accomplishments did these women contribute to women, rhetoric, and the production of  knowledge?  Christine de Pizan ­ “first woman of letters” ­ 3 Rhetorical Arts of the 12­13  Centuries o Preaching: “persuasion of many, within a moderate length of time, to meritorious  conduct” o Letter writing: official letters as records of law, commercial contracts and personal  letters o Poetry: arrangement of words to have a pleasing effect (written and oral) ­ Advocated education of women ­ The Treasure of the City of Ladies (what it means to be a virtuous lady), The Book of  the City of Ladies  Margaret Fell ­ Quaker woman, prolific writer and public speaker ­ Advocated for women speaking in public through her written work Women’s Speaking  Justified; used pieces of scripture as evidence for her claims  ­ Whenever Jesus was around, a woman was there too and was often a deliverer of  good news  ­ Married to George Fox; first completely egalitarian marriage ­ Arrested multiple times for challenging the Catholic Church and speaking out in public ­ Society of Friends – believed in simple living; god comes from an inner light, a priest  does not need to educate people on their light because they have it within them (do not need a priest to have a personal relationship with Jesus) o Social Equality between the sexes SPCM 201 Review Sheet| Spring 2016 Exam one will be held in class. The exam will consist of 30 multiple choice questions, and three (out of four) short answer questions. The exam is worth75 points. OVERALL: You should be familiar with famous texts written by each thinker; how each thinker contributed to the discipline of rhetoric, additional biographical material for each thinker, and an overall understanding of the importance of rhetoric during the Greco-Roman and Renaissance periods. GRECO-ROMAN TIME PERIOD. What were the main arguments occurring at this time? Who were the thinkers? How did democracy work? How did the Court system work? Who were Aspasia, Pericles, and Protagorous? How did the following Thinkers theorize about rhetoric? How did they contribute to the rhetorical tradition?  Gorgias  Plato  Isocrates  Aristotle  Cicero  Quintilian MEDIEVAL/MIDDLE AGES TIME PERIOD (312-1400) What constituted the shift from the classical period to the Middle Ages? How was rhetoric viewed at the start of the Middle Ages? How did St. Augustine theorize rhetoric? How did he contribute to the rhetorical tradition? RENAISSANCE TIME PERIOD (1400-1700) What purposes did rhetoric service during this time period? What did these women believe about women’s role in speaking and writing? What other accomplishments did these women contribute to women, rhetoric, and the production of knowledge?  Christine De Pizan  Margaret Fell


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