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Exam 1 Preparation

by: Louise Alessandra Laguit

Exam 1 Preparation 65915

Louise Alessandra Laguit
GPA 4.0

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Unit 1 through Unit 4.
Nutrition, Food and You
Jennifer Ricketts
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Louise Alessandra Laguit on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 65915 at University of Arizona taught by Jennifer Ricketts in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Nutrition, Food and You in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Arizona.

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Date Created: 02/24/16
Thursday, February 4, 2016 NSC 170C Exam 1 Preparation 1. What are the 6 categories of nutrients? Which nutrients provide energy? What are the main roles of each group of nutrients? a. The 6 categories of nutrients are: carbohydrates, fats (and other lipids), proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water. b. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins provide energy. c. Most forms of carbohydrates are a source of energy. Fats are a source of energy and lipids promote cellular development, physical growth and development, regulation of body processes, and absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. Proteins promote the production of structural and functional components; cellular development, growth, and maintenance; regulation of body processes; immune function; fluid balance; and are a source of energy. Vitamins promote the regulation of body processes, maintenance of immune function, production and maintenance of tissues, and serve as protection against agents that can damage cellular components. Minerals promote the regulation of body processes, including fluid balance; formation of certain chemical messengers; structural and functional components of various substances and tissues; and are necessary for physical growth, maintenance, and development. Water promotes the maintenance of fluid balance, regulation of body temperature, elimination of wastes, transportation of substances, and is a participant in many chemical reactions. 2. What is an example of a non-nutrient? What role do these play in our diets? a. Alcohol (supplies energy) and phytochemicals like caffeine (stimulating effect on the body) are examples of non-nutrients. b. Non-nutrients are substances that are not nutrients, yet may have healthful benefits. 1 Thursday, February 4, 2016 3. How does nutrition influence disease? Which diseases are affected by nutrition? a. Poor eating habits contribute to several leading causes of death. b. Heart disease, some types of cancer, and diabetes are diseases affected by nutrition. 4. What is the “scientific method”? What are the basic steps? What are the important differences between the observational method and the experimental method? What is considered the “gold standard” in the experimental model? Know types of observational studies and know components of experimental studies. a. The “scientific method” is used by scientists to answer questions about natural and physical observations. b. First, make observations. Next, develop a question. Afterwards, conduct an experiment. Then, collect information. Next, analyze the findings. Afterwards, form conclusions. Then, share the results. Finally, conduct more research. c. The observational method relies on acquiring data such as height and weight measurements, health and food-related practices, personal and family medical histories, environmental exposures, and dietary practices. Scientists and researchers do so by collecting information by conducting surveys. The experimental method relies on obtaining science-based evidence by testing scientific questions and conducting experiments. d. The “gold standard” of the experimental model is the control group. e. The Framingham Heart Study in Massachusetts provides an example of an observational study, in which “over 5000 healthy participants underwent physical examinations and were questioned about the family and personal medical histories as well as their lifestyle practices. Over the following years, a group of medical researchers periodically collected information concerning each participant’s health and, if the person died, the cause of death. The scientists analyzed this information and found relationships among a variety of personal characteristics and health outcomes. Findings from the Framingham Heart Study identified numerous risk factors for heart disease, including high blood cholesterol levels and cigarette smoking.” 2 Thursday, February 4, 2016 Experimental studies are comprised of a treatment group and control group, and often utilize a placebo with the control group. 5. Where can you find and who can you trust with the most current and accurate nutrition advice? Understand the big differences between the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the DRIs, and the MyPlate/MyPyramid. What role does each play for the public? a. You can find the most current and accurate nutrition advice from “multiple sites, especially government agency sites (*.gov), such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( and the Food and Drug Administration (”, “on sites that are sponsored by groups of qualified health professionals” and by “nationally recognized health organizations (*.org) such as the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics ( and nonprofit organizations such as the American Cancer Society ( and National Osteoporosis Foundation (www.nof.orf), and nationally accredited colleges and universities. You can also receive reliable nutrition information and advice from nutrition professors and registered dietitians. 6. Understand the big differences between the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the DRIs, and the MyPlate/MyPyramid. What role does each play for the public? The Dietary Guidelines for Americans is “a set of general nutrition-related lifestyle recommendations that are intended for healthy people over 2 years of age” and “are designed to promote adequate nutritional status and good health, and to reduce the risk of major nutrition-related chronic conditions such as obesity, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease.” It aims to help people “maintain caloric balance over time to achieve and sustain a healthy weight”, and focuses “on consuming nutrient- dense foods and beverages.” The Dietary Reference Intakes include: the Estimated Average Requirement (amount of a nutrient that meets the needs of 50% of healthy people in a particular life stage/gender group) the Estimated Energy Requirement (average daily energy intake that meets the needs of a healthy person who is maintaining his or her weight) 3 Thursday, February 4, 2016 the Recommended Dietary Allowance (recommended daily intakes of several nutrients that meet the nutrient needs of nearly all healthy individuals—(97 to 98%) in a particular life stage/gender group) Adequate Intakes (estimated average level of intake of a nutrient that does not result in the nutrient’s deficiency disorder) the Tolerable Upper Level Intake (the highest average amount of a nutrient that’s unlikely to harm most people when the amount is consumed daily) Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (indicate ranges of carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes that provide adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals and may reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases; carbohydrate: 45 t0065%, protein: 10 to 35%, fat: 20 to 35%) “MyPlate focuses on 5 different food groups: fruits, vegetables, protein foods, grains, and dairy.” 7. Know the different categories of the DRI and what they represent. (see No. 6) 8. Know the “big picture” of the Dietary Guidelines. (see No. 6) 9. Know the basic concept of food labels and how they came to be. Know the Nutrition Facts Panel components and what the DV represents. Know how to calculate % DV for multiple servings. a. A majority of “foods and beverages must have labels that provide the product’s name to identify the food”. These labels also include the “manufacturer’s name and address, and the amount of product in the package.” The information on these labels (health claims, structure/function claims, and nutrient content claims) is regulated by the FDA. light/lite: contains at least one-third fewer kilocalories OR half the fat of the reference food reduced-fat: contains less than 25% of the fat per serving than the reference food low-fat: contains 3 g or less of fat per serving 4 Thursday, February 4, 2016 low-calorie: contains 40 kcal or less per serving lean meat or poultry: contains less than 10 g of fat, 4.5 g of saturated fat, and 95 mg of cholesterol per serving extra-lean meat or poultry: contains less than 5 g of fat, 2 g of saturated fat, and 95 mg of cholesterol per serving b. The Nutrition Facts Panel includes a food’s: total fats specific fats (saturated fat and trans fat) cholesterol sodium total carbohydrate fiber sugars protein vitamin A vitamin C calcium iron The DVs are “a more simplified and practical set of nutrient standards”, based on a diet that supplies 2000 kcal/day. low source contains 5% DV or less of a nutrient high source contains 20% DV or more of a nutrient 10. Know what nutrient content claims, health claims, and structure/function claims rules are for food labels. Nutrient content claims describe “levels of nutrients in packaged foods.” (“free”, “high”, “low”, “more”, “reduced”) Health claims describe “the relationship a food or food ingredient and the reduced risk of a nutrition-related condition.” 5 Thursday, February 4, 2016 Structure/function claims describe “the role a nutrient plays in maintaining a structure, such as bone, or promoting a normal function, such as digestion.” ——————————————————————————————————————— Know which organs are parts of the GI tract and which ones are necessary organs. Know how the organs contribute to digestion and absorption. a. “The mouth, esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines are the major organs of the digestive tract.” “The teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are accessory organs of the digestive system. . .” b. The mouth contributes to mechanical digestion of food. Teeth bite, tear, and grind “chunks of food into smaller pieces that are easier to swallow. Salivary glands secrete saliva, a watery fluid that makes it easier to swallow” and contains an enzyme that allows for the chemical digestion of a small amount of starch. “The tongue senses the taste and texture of foods and directs food to the back of the mouth where it can be swallowed.” teeth bite, tear, and grind chunks of food for easier swallowing salivary glands secrete saliva for easier swallowing and the chemical digestion of some starch tongue directs food to the back of the mouth where it can be swallowed The esophagus, a muscular tube that extends about 10 inches from the back of the mouth to the top of the stomach, transfers swallowed food into the stomach. Its entrance can be found near the larynx and the opening of the trachea. The epiglottis closes over the trachea to prevent from entering the larynx and trachea, which can cause choking, and returns to its original position after the food is swallowed. The swallowing of food “stimulates peristalsis, waves of muscular activity along the digestive tract that help propel food material through the tract”; peristalsis occurs in the esophagus, stomach, and intestines. the esophagus transfers swallowed food into the stomach the epiglottis closes over the trachea while food is swallowed peristalsis in the esophagus, stomach, and intestines propels food material through the digestive tract 6 Thursday, February 4, 2016 The stomach, a muscular sac that can expand and hold about 4 to 6 cups of food after a typical meal, begins at the lower gastroesophageal sphincter, the ring of muscular tissue that controls the opening to the stomach. “Certain cells within the stomach secrete gastric juice, a watery solution that contains hydrochloric acid (HCl) and enzymes.” These enzymes break down some protein and fat, and HCl helps make proteins easier to digest and kills many dangerous, disease-causing microorganisms that may be in food. The stomach avoids digesting itself by producing a thick layer of mucus, a slippery substance that protects the stomach walls from its acids and enzymes. The stomach turns food into chyme, a semisolid liquid. Small amounts of chyme leave the stomach and enter the small intestine through the pyloric sphincter, the ring of muscular tissue at the base of stomach. food enters the stomach through the lower gastroesophageal sphincter gastric juice in the stomach breaks down protein and fat (enzymes), and makes proteins easier to digest and kills many dangerous, disease-causing microorganisms that may be in food (HCl) mucus prevents the stomach from digesting itself food becomes chyme chyme leaves the stomach and enters the small intestine through the pyloric sphincter The small intestine, a highly coiled tube that extends from the stomach to the large intestine, serves as the site for the most nutrient digestion and absorption. It has three sections: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Villi (tiny, fingerlike projections) cover the lining of the small intestine; they have outer layers of absorptive cells, which have microvilli (tiny structures) that are exposed to chyme. Both villi and microvilli increase the surface area of the small intestine and therefore, increase the body’s ability to digest and absorb nutrients. Absorptive cells secrete enzymes that break down macronutrients into their basic components (proteins break down into amino acids, fats break down into fatty acids and glycerol, and most dietary carbohydrates break down into glucose), and remove them from chyme. Water-soluble nutrients must enter the capillary networks of the villi and are eventually transported from the GI tract to the liver by the portable vein. Water-insoluble nutrients must be treated with chylomicrons (lipid-rich 7 Thursday, February 4, 2016 particles coated with protein and phospholipids) in lacteals before entering the bloodstream through the subclavian vein, located near the heart. nutrient digestion and absorption occurs in the small intestine the absorptive cells of villi secrete enzymes and break down the macronutrients in chyme and remove them water-soluble nutrients enter the capillary networks of the villi and are transported to the liver by the portable vein water-insoluble nutrients enter the bloodstream through the subclavian vein after being treated with chylomicrons The liver is charged with processes and stores nutrients. It releases nutrients from storage when they are needed for various functions, like producing cells and repairing damaged ones. The liver also makes cholesterol, which it uses to make bile, a substance that helps digest fat and prepare fat and fat-soluble vitamins for absorption, which flows from the liver into the gallbladder, where it is stored until needed. the liver processes and stories nutrients nutrients are released from storage when needed for various functions the liver makes cholesterol; cholesterol is used to make bile, which digests fat and prepares fat and fat-soluble vitamins for absorption bile flows from the liver to the gallbladder The presence of fat in the small intestine causes the gallbladder to contract and release bile into the duodenum. the gallbladder contracts when fat is in the small intestine and releases bile into the duodenum In the pancreas, most of the enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fat in the small intestine are produced and secreted. the pancreas produces and secretes enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fat in the small intestine The large intestine is comprised of two connected sections: the colon and the rectum. Very little carbohydrate (excluding dietary fiber), protein, and fat enter the large intestine. Little additional absorption, other than that of water 8 Thursday, February 4, 2016 and some minerals, takes place in the large intestine. When chyme passes through the large intestine, most of its water content is absorbed, making the chyme feces or stools (semisolid). Feces contain bacteria that live in the large intestine, undigested fiber from plant foods; some protein, water, and mucus; a little fat; and shed cells from the walls of the intestinal tract. They remain in the rectum until muscular contractions move them into the anal canal and out of the body through the anus. The bacteria in the large intestine utilize fermentation (a chemical process that converts undigested food material to substances the bacteria can use for their nutrient needs) to make vitamins K and biotin, which can be absorbed, and produce substances that the colon cells can use for energy; this metabolic activity results in flatulence, the release of intestinal gases expelled through the anus. the large intestine absorbs the water content of chyme chyme becomes feces feces contain bacteria that live in the large intestine, fiber, protein, water, mucus, fat, and shed cells from the walls of the intestinal tract muscular contractions move the feces into the anal canal and out of the body through the anus bacteria in the large intestine convert undigested food material to substances the bacteria can use for nutrient needs (like vitamin K and biotin) and substances that colon ells can use for energy through fermentation, causing flatulence What is the difference between mechanical and chemical digestion? What is the difference between digestion and absorption? a. Mechanical digestion describes the physical breakdown of foods, like the biting action of teeth and mixing movements of the stomach. Chemical digestion describes the chemical breakdown of foods by substances secreted in the digestive tract. b. Digestion involves breaking down large food components into molecules and nutrients. Absorption involves the taking up of nutrients and other substances by the digestive tract, which enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system. 9 Thursday, February 4, 2016 What are the other body systems that work with the digestive system for digestion and absorption? The circulatory system and the lymphatic system. What determines if absorbed nutrients go into the capillaries connected to the intestines or into the lacteals? Whether or not the absorbed nutrients can dissolve in water (solubility); water- soluble nutrients enter the capillary networks of the villi and water-insoluble nutrients go into the lacteals after being treated with chylomicrons (lipid-rich particles coated with proteins and phospholipids). What are probiotics and what role do they play in health? Probiotics are live, active cultures of beneficial microbes. They may help maintain or re-establish the normal balance of bacterial populations in the colon. 10


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