Comm210 Exam 1 Study Guide
Comm210 Exam 1 Study Guide COMM 210
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Miner on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 210 at Ball State University taught by Denker in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 84 views.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Comm. 210 Spring 2016 Midterm Study Guide Chapter 1 What are the different levels of communication? 1. Intrapersonal: communicating with yourself 2. Interpersonal: communication between two people (dyadic) 3. Group: communication between 3(+) people 4. Public: one person communicating with an audience 5. Massmediated: communication that takes place through a form of technology (TV/Internet) Explain the two models of communication and why each is important. 1. The bottom of the helix is small, but as it moves upwards it becomes larger. 2. Communication is always changing, circular, expanding, and built on the past. 3. Movement of helix = slow, circular, back and forth 4. Explains how relationships grow through give and take, developing little by little This model helps identify the location of potential barriers when communicating. 1. Source: transmits a message through a channel to a receiver. The source encodes/creates message. 2. Message: both verbal and nonverbal elements (content/delivery). The message is what the speaker says and the way they say it 3. Channel: how the message gets from the sender to the receiver. (5 senses or technology used to deliver message) 4. Receiver: similar to source. “Decodes”/translates the source’s message and attaches meaning and understanding. The receiver then becomes the source when providing feedback. Explain the fundamental principles of communication and their importance. 1. Communication is Circular: an ongoing process of speaking and responding, sending and receiving, encoding and decoding 2. Communication is based on our Perception: perception can be influenced by many things including: attention, selectivity, and memory. 3. Communication is Irreversible: once said, communication cannot be taken back What is communication apprehension? Define CA and Types A broad based fear or anxiety associated with public speaking. 1. Traitlike CA: Shy friends, don’t want to talk or volunteer in group activities 2. Context based CA: Depends on the situation (nervous when given public speech assignment) 3. Audience based CA: That one judgmental friend or someone who makes you uncomfortable talking 4. Situational CA: Job interview or meeting boy/girlfriend’s parents Explain an individual’s Firing Order “BASICS” B: behavior, “I don’t have the skill set to accomplish something” A: Affect, moods/feelings: “I am scared, I am worried” S: Sensation, nervous physiological feelings, dry mouth, shaking knees, shaking hands, wanting to throw up I: Imagery, negative mental pictures you visualize, “someone is going to laugh at me, I’m going to fail when I drop my notecards” C: Cognition, negative thoughts minus the pictures, “his will be bad, I will sound dumb” S: Stress (inter personal support & not physically ready) What are ways to overcome CA? Tips and Focused Treatment Ways to overcome CA: a. Understand that anxiety is helpful b. Don’t wait until the last minute c. Get to know the kids in your class d. Know and pick something you enjoy speaking about so you can focus on the message not the fear e. Selfperception creates anxiety = understand you are nervous and then move past this i. If you don’t draw attention to your failures, your audience won’t notice f. Look for the friendly kind faces in the crowd g. Keep looking for public speaking opportunities i. the more you present the easier it become Focus Treatments Cognitive restructuring i. Coping statements: “I can do this. People will enjoy my speech” Systematic desensitization i. Slow exposure to whatever you’re afraid of 1. EX: if you are afraid of heights, work your way up a ladder wrung by wrung until you are comfortable. Visualization i. Mental rehearsal script: “scheduling day out in advanced and in a positive light” 4 Physical exercise and stress reduction: gym day or yoga trip 5 Interpersonal support: find the smiley person to look at when nervous 6 Skills training: class room, practice more, more expose = more comfortability Deep abdominal breathing i. Sensation/stress ii. Focus on breathing Chapter 2 What are the intrapersonal processes? 1. Frame of Reference: the way you view the world (your beliefs, attitudes, values, experiences, culture, stereotypes, selfconcept, feelings) a. Structure for encoding and decoding messages 2. Creativity: visualizing something in an innovative way a. Affects the way you send and receive messages 3. Imagined Communication: “selftalk” communicating internally with yourself as if you are with another person a. Helps prepare for future conversations and reduces anxiety 4. Risktaking Behaviors: willingness is dependents on past experiences a. Necessary for growth/development 5. Cognitive Patterns: the process of measuring your thinking patterns. Identifies the senses used when obtaining information/data What is the difference between listening and hearing? Hearing: the physiological process of detecting the frequencies, duration, and volume of sound waves Listening: the physiological process of attaching meaning to the sound waves we detect Explain the process of listening. The purpose of listening is to receive and interpret a speaker’s message 1. Only listen actively for small duration of time 2. Forget most of what is heard immediately and nearly all after several days What are the different types of listening? Passive listening, selective listening, listening for pleasure, listening for therapy, listening for comprehension, listening for evaluation 1. Passive Listening: messages “wash over you” and you hear more than you listen a. Low level of awareness 2. Selective Listening: choosing to pay attention to somethings while ignoring others 3. Pleasure: entertainment purposes 4. Therapy: therapeutic listening is similar to the listening you use when a friend is discussing a problem and needs advice a. Does not judge, encourages, frequently nods 5. Comprehension: listening to learn or remember a. Requires concentration, comparisons, and note taking 6. Evaluation: critical/discriminative listening that does not accept everything heard a. Listen objectively, avoid emotional responses/becoming distracted, focus on content How do we improve our listening? 1. Note taking 2. Preview – Review (understand topic before discussion – go over topic after discussion) 3. Concentration/ paying full attention 4. Interaction with speaker or audience 5. Consider contexts/perceptions when interpreting messages 6. Observe nonverbal cues (facial expressions, pauses, vocal stress, rate, pitch, gestures) 7. Listen for ideas How can we nonverbally display that we are listening? Leaning forward, smiling at speaker, looking interested, making eye contact, sitting up straight Chapter 3 What are the three types of audience analysis? Psychological Audience Analysis Demographic analysis Analysis of the Situation and Occasion What are the benefits and limitations to the different types of analysis? 1. Psychological Audience Analysis: Speaker needs to motivate listeners, reduce their negative attitudes, and build audience confidence. Avoid trying to change both your/your audience’s values, rather use existing values of listeners 2. Demographic Analysis: Speaker must consider audiences’: gender, age, educational level, occupation, economic class, religion, and ethnicity. Must be approached with extreme care. 3. Analysis of the Situation and Occasion: Speaker needs take into the account the size of the audience, the characteristics of the physical environment, and nature of the speaking occasion. Speaker must plan ahead in order to avoid problems What are some ways to conduct an audience analysis and why you would use each? Observation, Interviews, Surveys Observation: “what makes your audience tick?”, helps increase effectiveness of communication Interviews: when in doubt about audience understandings. Must be care to not make generalizations Surveys: “questionnaire” gather information Explain the different types of audiences What are the strengths and limitations to each? Friendly audience: positively disposed towards speaker’s purpose Hostile audience: opposed to the speaker’s purpose Neutral audience: undecided about speaker’s purpose Apathetic audience: no knowledge or interest towards speaker’s purpose What is the difference between a selfcentered and audiencecentered speaker? Audiencecentered speaker: Adapts to knowledge, interests, beliefs, attitudes, and values of audience. Chapter 4 What are the five patterns of organization and when should you use each pattern? Patterns of organization provide a way to organize presentation and help speaker plan effectively and help listener to follow, understand, and remember effectively. 1. Topical Order a. “categorical” b. Order topics in a precise and purposeful way 2. Chronological Order a. Events (EX: historical events) b. Usually demonstration or explanation speeches use chronological order 3. Spatial Order a. Arrange ideas according to location/geography b. (EX: examining structures, buildings, and objects) 4. Causal Order a. Cause and Effect of a problem i. Historical Events: examining effects of a problem first ii. Predicting the Future: examining causes of problem first 5. ProblemSolution Order a. Explains the nature of a problem and how to solve it b. Related to a Causal Order, (presents offer a plan to eliminate or control the effects of the causes) c. Begin with problem THEN explain the solution Explain primacy and recency How does this impact your speech? Primacy: (first) you are more focused at the beginning and end of a project, least focused during the middle. Leading with the first and most important main point will ensure the audiences remembers it before they lose focus Recency: (last) audience is more focused towards the end of a speech and remember the last thing they hear or see. Make sure to review points at the end to leave the most important details in the audience’s head. Explain the components of a speech Introduction, Body Conclusion 1. Introduction: gains audience attention, establishes relationship of the topic to the audience, builds speaker credibility, and gives thesis statement 2. Body: gives first, second, and third main points 3. Conclusion: summarizes key ideas and makes final appeal How do you relate support to ideas? 1. Didactic Method: helps audience grasp your topic immediately in order to follow the development of your speech a. Useful when “informing” audience 2. Inductive Method: “method of implication” presents support for points first and then draws a conclusion from support. a. Useful when “persuading” audience Understand the types of transitions and when you should use them. 5 Types: signposts, internal summaries, internal previews, interjections, special devices 1. Signposts: indicate where the speaker is in the presentation 2. Internal summaries: speaker stops to repeat or emphasize the major ideas already presented 3. Internal previews: follow up internal summaries with a statement indicating the way he or she will approach the next part of the speech 4. Interjections: emphasize the important ideas by drawing attention to a point the speech does NOT want the listeners to miss (“Now this is important ….”) 5. Special devices: use of a theme, use of a key phrase, or use of a memory aid Chapter 5 What are the different methods of delivery? Extemporaneous Speaking Impromptu Speaking Speaking from Manuscript Speaking from Memory What are the strengths or limitations to each? 1. Extemporaneous: “delivered in an unplanned/impromptu fashion” a. Carefully prepares the presentation but delivers the material in spontaneous/conversational manner b. Allows for interruptions and adaptability to comments c. Most basic/effective 2. Impromptu: “off the top of the head” a. EXAMPLE: “saying a few words” or explaining a progress report during a meeting b. Enhanced through experience and understanding of public speaking principles 3. Manuscript: write a presentation out fully and deliver it word for word a. Appropriate when delivery must be precise, misstatements would have negative consequences, or time limits b. EXAMPLE: college graduation speech, ceremony service c. Challenges: i. must avoid monotone delivery ii. must be familiar enough with manuscript to hold appropriate eye contact 4. From Memory: delivering a manuscript without notes a. EXAMPLE: political campaign or sales promotion b. Challenges: i. Memory lapses ii. Languages can sound nonconversational Explain the vocal elements of delivery and be able to define each. 1. Volume: speaker must speak loudly enough to be heard by audience 2. Articulation: “enunciation” how speaker uses lips, tongue, jaw, and soft palate to produce the vowel and consonant sounds of a language 3. Pronunciation: presenting the appropriate sounds of a word in the accepted order WITHOUT additions or omissions, and with stress on the appropriate syllable(s) 4. Rate: refers to the number of words a speaker utters in a minute 5. Pitch: refers to how high or how low you speak during your message (should be pleasing to the audience) 6. Inflection: changes in pitch that influence 7. Quality: the unique/musical characteristics of a speaker’s caused by a variety of elements including: (breathing, level of tension in throat, nasal passage) a. “full”, “resonant”, “rich”, “pleasant” Explain the bodily elements of delivery and be able to define each. Posture, movement, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact 1. Posture: the way you sit/stand 2. Movement: purposeful movement during a presentation can help hold audience’s attention, emphasize ideas, make relationship more personal, or signal major transitions 3. Gestures: should reinforce main points and be natural in conversation 4. Facial Expression: should reflect the meaning of the message and establish appropriate relationship with audience 5. Eye contact: important asset in public speaking, enhances your ability to create a favorable image of yourself Explain the environmental/situational elements of delivery and be able to define each. Personal appearance, time, amplification, physical environment 1. Personal Appearance: choice in dress/grooming influences audience perception of speaker a. EXAMPLES: attractive appearance = more persuasive 2. Time: observe time constraints/limits (min & max) and audience expectations 3. Amplification: speaker must be prepared to use voice or microphone appropriately 4. Physical environment: location can influence the effectiveness (try avoiding hot/crowded areas) Why do we practice for our speeches? To feel familiar with material and discover portions where you are having difficulties You will have a chance to visualize presentations, test your timing/visual aid Chapter 6 Why do we outline? An outline provides a concrete tool to plan and deliver an effective presentation 1. Helps organize ideas 2. Refines the phrasing of key ideas/ promotes clarity and retention 3. Identify where you need to develop ideas/ add transitions 4. Helps prepare useful notecards What are the elements of an outline? 1. Purpose statement (general/specific purpose) 2. Central Idea 3. Body of Speech (main points) 4. Introduction 5. Conclusion 6. Transitions 7. Reference List 8. Title 9. Special Considerations What are the different types of outlines? 1. Word Outline: key topics contained in a speech. a. Helpful in planning an overall organization pattern for speech b. Good for experienced speakers 2. Phrase Outline: uses sentences fragments a. Provides slightly more information that word outline b. Similar uses to those in word outline 3. Sentence Outline: complete sentences for each point in outline a. Sound planning tool for extemporaneous, manuscript, or memorized script b. Help prepare/test key ideas in presentation 4. Complete Content Outline: manuscript of speech written in outline form a. Rarely used in basic public speaking What types of outlines work best for the formal/preparation outline? Sentence Outline because what you need to say is right there. What types of outlines work best for the speaking outline/speaking notes/ notecards? Word Outlines, Phrase Outlines, or Sentence Outlines, or a combination of the three. How do you construct effective speaking notes? 1. Use a combination of words, phrases, and sentences that help you remember the content of your speech 2. Help you remember your points while allowing you to change your phrasing to fit a situation 3. Use full sentences for direct quotes/ important statistics 4. Add reminders for delivery in an easy to read format Chapter 7 Explain the importance of the introduction and conclusion. Introduction: sets a favorable atmosphere for the body, state main points. Conclusion: refocus attention on main purpose of speech, establish appropriate mood, provide a sense of closure. How much speaking time should be used for the introduction and conclusion? What are the components of effective intros/ conclusions? I build interest Nneed(whats in it for them) Ttopic Rreliability Oprovide an overview Dprovide a sense of DIRECTION Ooverview Nneed Eexcitement How can you build in interest into your speech? 1. Make your purpose clear 2. Let the audience know how they will benefit from your speech. How do you establish credibility? 1. Cite sources 2. Establish why you are fit to be the speaker (experience with topic) early in introduction What are some tips for creating effective introductions and conclusions? 1. Introduction: a. Gain attention i. Audience participation, quotation, a startling statement, b. Develop interest and involvement i. Make you purpose clear & let listeners know how they will benefit from your presentation c. Strengthen Credibility i. Establish knowledge of subject early d. Prepare Audience i. State purpose clearly 2. Conclusion: a. Refocus attention i. Summarize key points b. Establish appropriate mood c. Provide a sense of finality i. Refer back to opening technique Chapter 11 What are the principles of informing? Simplicity, Clarity, Credibility, Interest 1. Simplicity simple material is easier to understand and remember. 2. Clarity phrase ideas clearly and select appropriate forms of support. 3. Credibility listeners are more likely to learn from a source with high credibility. 4. Interest listeners learn more from something that interests them, interest them. What is simplicity and how do we work to incorporate this into speeches? Simplicity: simple material that is easier to understand and remember Use when: speaking to inform complex topics, processes with multiple steps Explain the elements of credibility. 1. Competence make SURE you know your material inside and out, listeners won't listen to you if you don't know your topic well, it would be a waste of their time. 2. Trustworthiness show the value in your topic, audiences build trust if they think the topic is important, using extreme language and illustrations makes listeners lose trust. 3. Dynamism listeners pay attention if you're energetic. How do we add clarity of language use? Avoid technical language for the level of audience you're speaking to, don't try to impress your audience with your vocabulary; don't make allusions about people that the audience doesn't know. How do you build interest in your speech? Show the significance of your topic and how audience will benefit from listening to your speech What is the order of Informative speech preparation? Introduction, body, conclusion Describe the effective use and purpose of visual aids "A picture is worth a thousand words" 1. Audience listens best when more than one sense is stimulates 2. Visual aids can serve as a real example of the ideas you present. Makes ideas vivid
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