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Intro to Urban Planning Study Guide

by: Maddy Moldenhauer

Intro to Urban Planning Study Guide GPY 209

Marketplace > Grand Valley State University > Geography > GPY 209 > Intro to Urban Planning Study Guide
Maddy Moldenhauer
GPA 3.9

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Mid Term Review
Intro to Urban Planning
Study Guide
Intro to urban Planning
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maddy Moldenhauer on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GPY 209 at Grand Valley State University taught by Houser in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Intro to Urban Planning in Geography at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
Introduction to City and Regional Planning -- GPY 209 Midterm Review P. Houser Winter 2016 Test Date—Thursday, FEBRUARY 25:  Look for the following concepts, places, people and terms in your notes and readings think about their significance.  Some people find it helpful to create note cards or a glossary with each term defined. Check the ppt notes on Blackboard to see if there are graphs or  other diagrams related to these terms. Format of Midterm Exam: Multiple choice and short answer  questions. Optional review session: Wednesday, Feb. 24, 6­7 p.m., EC 410.  VOCABULARY Public place – an area (private or publically owned) to which the public have access by right or invitation First, Second and “Third” places  1 = home  2nd = workplace rd  3 = public areas, recreation, free-time locations Sustainability – “meeting the present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs The “three E’s” – Equity, Environment, Economy Place-making – approach to the planning, design and management of public spaces by capitalizing a local community’s assets, inspiration, and potential with the intention of creating public spaces that promote people’s health, happiness, and well-being. Branding –  Process involved in creating a unique name and image for an object in the consumers mind through advertising campaigns.  Aims to establish a significant and differentiated presence in the market that attracts and retains loyal customers. Policy – govt rules or allocation of funds Public good – for the benefit or well-being of the public Environmental justice – the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income are able to enjoy equal levels of environmental protection. Break-in-bulk region - place where goods are transferred from one mode of transport to another, for example the docks where goods transfer from plane (air), ship (water), to truck. “Second nature” – term used by environmental historians to describe the man- made geography infrastructure that have shaped human settlement patterns Edge city – (Joel Garreau) cities that arose at the outskirts from the central city due to highway intersections where corporate parks, shopping, and entertainment were established. Polis - (Self-Governing Greek city state) Agora – Public space/marketplace, park and center of urban life  Place where education, politics, religion, oratory, philosophy, are and athletics flourished  Core of Greek society Stoa – (seen to right)  Freestanding portico that is much longer than it is wide  One of the lengths is a solid wall, other is a colonnade  Sometimes the solid wall contains rooms Arcade –  a series of arches supported by columns, piers, or pillars. Either freestanding  or attached to a wall to form a gallery Dome – structure started in Rome. A spherical, hollowed-out roof structure (Pantheon 126 AD) Utopia – an ideal place named after the fictional place invented by Sir Thomas More (1516) Street grid – a pattern where streets meet at a 45 degree angle Infrastructure – the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society Forum – the marketplace or Public Square of ancient Rome, the center of judicial and business affairs and a place of assembly for the people Organic form – (medieval) a form that involves naturally. In urban planning, theoretically, an unplanned urban space Obelisk – a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid- like shape at the top Urban design – process of shaping urban form (physical elements that make up a city)  “the art of arranging buildings to form unified compositions” Urban form – the physical shape and quality of a city, such as . . .  Layout of streets  Size and design of buildings  Building material  Orientation of buildings  Type and number of public squares  The transportation Shaped by . . .  Site (landscape setting) and natural characteristics  Available building materials  Climate  Technology Radial avenues Axial avenues Focal point/Terminated vistas – Ex. Monuments Façade – the face of a building Sewer – usually underground conduit for storm water drainage and/or the outflow of toilets. Sanitary Reform – changes made with the goal of improving sanitary conditions of urbanized area Sanitary Survey – surveys carried out to identify the locus and possible causes of disease. “Plan of future operations” by a thoroughly systematized and comprehensive plan Filth Theory – the idea that filth is the cause of disease (usually occurring in the poor, concentrated areas in cities) Cistern – a tank for storing water for supplying taps or an underground reservoir for rainwater Cesspool – an underground container for the temporary storage of liquid waste and sewage Privy Vault –  a receptacle for human waste that consists of a constructed vault from which the waste is periodically removed from the pit under an outhouse floor  lined with brick or stone and was used to collect excrement Private Lot Waste Removal –  Before water carriage sewerage, this is how people would dispose of their waste.  Private Lot Waste Removal occurred where people would dispose of their waste wherever they could find space; this usually resulted in waste being dumped in private lots or the streets.  A privy and a cesspool were parts of “private lot” waste disposal too. Water carriage sewerage –  One of the three main ways that sanitary reform began to alter the shape of cities.  Water carriage sewerage was an English invention that was used to restructure the basic layout of city sanitation in American cities.  It was a system in which underground channels were created to fit the natural drainage patterns of a city  Gravity carried the waste to points were the sewage (the waste from bathrooms) would drain to outfall points. Plaza/piazza – open public area in a town or city (Italy) that is surrounded by buildings Medieval (organic) vs. later Renaissance Street (classical/Baroque) patterns Garden City (1898) Contemporary (Radiant) City (1929) The Columbian Exposition (1893) The “White City” (1893) Chicago 1893 World’s Fair (1893) City Beautiful Movement –  Grew out of three other evolving movements in American communities: o The municipal art movement o The public (outdoor) art movement o Civic Improvement Groups WHO’S WHO Majora Carter – Planner of the South Bronx, fought against a planned waste facility that would have sent 40% of NY municipal waste to the South Bronx, leader of sustainable South Bronx Amanda Burden – NYC planner Suzanne Schulz – Grand Rapids City Planner Hippodamus of Miletus –  designed the street grid of Miletus around 450 BCE  “the Father of urban planning” (498-408 BC)  Pope Sixtus V (1521-1590)  Developed a plan for Rome that organized the whole city around several key points  Utilization of landmarks (4 obelisks) across the city to allow focal points and visual connections to relate to  Piazz a del Popolo (Rome, Italy)  Baron von Haussmann – (1853-1870)  Under rule of Napoleon III, he modernized France  Improvements: Moderization, National Pride, defence, health, sanitation, public welfare   Pierre L’Enfant – (1791) planned the National Mall (Grand Avenue extending from the Capitol westward to the Washington monument in D.C.) Jacob Riis* - (1890)  “How the other half lives” - the dreadful lives within the central city in the tenements  Covered crimes and reports the people suffering in New York urban conditions Frederick Law Olmsted* - Urban planner that had a profound influence on town site reform. His theory of urban progress about the layout and conditions of parks, parkways, and suburban neighborhoods  Central Park (1857) Daniel Burnham* - (1909) Plan of Chicago  Importance of the BIG PLAN  “Make no little plans; they have no magic to stir men’s blood and probably themselves will not be realized. Make big plans; aim high in hope and work.”  1893 World’s Fair (Columbian Exposition) – fairgrounds “white city” grand architecture Ebenezer Howard* - “Garden City” (1898)  “human society and the beauty of nature are meant to be enjoyed together”  “. .. To restore people to the land—that beautiful land of ours, with its canopy of sky, the air that blows upon it, the sun that warms it, the rain and dew that moisten it. . .”  “Town and country must be married, and out of this joyous union will spring a new hope, a new life, a new civilization”  “town-country magnet”  Solve: overcrowding in cities, “intemperance”, “excessive toil”, “restless anxiety”, grinding poverty Le Corbusier* - “Radiant City” (1920’s)  “We must have some fundamental rules for modern town planning.”  Against congestion of the city during the age of automobiles  “Cities of Tomorrow” (1929)  “we must increase the density of the centers of our cities, where business affairs are carried on.”  Goals: Increase density, decrease congestion, add more parks, increase means for getting about  Emphasized “towers in a park” Thomas Jefferson –  the city was, “pestilential to the morals, the health and the liberty of men, a cancer or tumor on the body social and the body politic, was fueled by industrialization and immigration.”  He very much disliked cities and the influence they have on society. Jane Addams* -  “Cities have the capability of providing something for everybody, only because, and only when, they are created by everybody.” (The Death and Life of Great American Cities) Herbert Hoover – Standard Zoning Enabling Act (1924) Justice George Sutherland*  “A nuisance may be merely a right thing in the wrong place – like a pig in the paror instead of the barnyard” Judge Dillon* - The Dillon Rule  "Municipal corporations owe their origin to, and derive their powers and rights wholly from, the legislature.”  Local gov’ts can only do what the state permits them to do Judge Cooley* - The Cooley Doctrine  “It is axiomatic that the management of purely local affairs belongs to the people concerned, not only because of being their own affairs, but because they will best understand, and be most competent to manage them. The continued and permanent existence of local government is, therefore, assumed in all the state constitutions, and is a matter of constitutional right, even when not in terms expressly provided for.” (1872)  The states can carry out what they want unless the state tells them they can’t PLACES-TO-KNOW Bryant Park, New York City – Dan Biederman = cofounder of Bryant Park restoration Corp. Times Square, New York City –  Zoning requirement 50% of building’s street wall surface should be transparent  Illuminated signs have a minimum surface area of 12 sq feet for each linear foot of street frontage The Acropolis – Greek (438 BCE) Central Park, NYC – Olmsted (1857) Zoning – (Map+Rules) to regulate bulk, density, and land-use in an area Nuisance - something offensive/annoying Police power – power of regulation, policy, enforcement by the government in society Eminent domain - right for government to take private property for public use, with payment of compensation Just compensation - private property owners are required by law (5th amendment) to be paid when private property is taken under public use Due process - a fundamental, constitutional guarantee that all legal proceedings will be fair and just and that an individual will be given notice of proceedings Equal protection – Under the 14 thAmendment “taking” clause – 5 thAmendment  “private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation Steel frame construction – building technique with a “skeleton frame” with vertical-horizontal steel beams that are constructed in a rectangular grid to support multi-story building structures Street wall – the part of a building that faces the street Transparent street wall – When the street wall is made of glass, pedestrians can see in Euclidean Zoning - separate zones/districts by their uses, density, and rules Cumulative zoning/Pyramid zoning – Non-conforming uses - “grandfathered” use allowed because it existed there before the zoning law Transfer of Development Rights - A voluntary, incentive-based program that allows landowners to sell development rights from their and to a developer or other interested party who then can use these rights to increase the density of development at another designated location As-of-right development rights – permitted uses by the zoning ordinance for a land area Development rights – permitted rights to develop a site plan on a land area Regulatory taking – situation where a gov’t regulation limits the uses of private property to such a degree that the regulation effectively deprives the property owners of economically reasonable use/value of their property, in which the owner is entitled to compensation Kowloon City - The walled city in Hong Kong that had NO REGULATIONS, No Gov’t regulations, security, cheap labor, terrible conditions, and no safety or building codes Common Law - certain customs about what is right and wrong that were inherited from old England and is the basis for our law system today Legal Precedent - establishment of legal principles/laws “Bitter Cry of Outcast London” – (1883)  An Inquiry into the condition of the miserable poor class  Brought attention to the poor and outcast classes of society How the Other Half Lives – Jacob Riis (1989) Urbanization (rural to city) vs. urban growth (within city) “Sic Utere Tuo” – “so use your own as not to injure another’s property” Home Rule – the gov’t of a colony, dependent country, or region by its own citizens Standard State Zoning Enabling Act – (1924) Herbert Hoover  Allows cities to zone Real property  ­ he physical land, buildings, vegetation, subsurface minerals, and possibly water rights Property – thing/things belonging to someone “use” - the specific purpose of the zoning land- use  Residential = housing/sleep  Commercial = sales/profit  Industrial = production of items/manufacturing  Agriculture = production of food Bulk – the amount of space taken up by a building on a lot Density - “compactedness” of people/population in an area Building envelope – the physical separation between the conditioned (inside) and unconditioned (outside) environment of a building Zoning ordinance rules of zoning of a municipality Setback – a certain number of feet or yards away from the street and other building lots Non-conforming use - “grandfathered” use allowed because it existed there before the zoning law Home occupation – job based at a home lot Open space – any open piece of land that is undeveloped (has no buildings or other built structures) and is assessable to the public As of right development – development of property in a way that fits all the regulations that go with that zone, where no extra permissions are needed because the owner has THE RIGHT to develop the land in a certain way. Street wall – building wall facing the street *Names with an  Zoning map – physical layout of the zoning of a asterisk—are people  town/municipality who might be  Zoning Ordinance - rules of zoning of a municipality QUOTED on the test. th 10 Amendment – Police Power  the states delegate to their political subdivisions to enact measures to preserve and protect the safety, health, Welfare, and morals of the community  “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.” Preamble – Lists the reasons that the 13 original colones separated from their mother country to become an independent nation  “We the people of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union . . .” 5thAmendment – Due Process/Eminent Domain/Taking  “No person shall . . . nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property with due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation”  th 14 Amendment – Equal Protection/Due Process  “ . . . nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” Looking Backward, by Edward Bellamy (1887) Blight - a damaged or neglected property/area Zoning lot –  tract of land comprising a single tax lot or two or more adjacent tax lots within a block  the basic unit for zoning regulations and may be subdivided into 2+ zoning lots 1 acre – 43,560 sq. feet (lot size measurement) Floor area ratio (FAR) – defines the maximum floor area for a structure Interior lot – a lot bounded by a street on 1 side Through lot - a lot that has frontage on two (parallel) public streets Corner lot – a lot that is at the intersection of two different streets Zero lot line – development that involves the placement of a house on a lot so that one wall is on (or nearly on) the property boundary Air rights – difference between the allowed size (height) and the actual size of the building Transfer of development rights – voluntary, incentive-based program that allows landowners to sell developed rights from their land to a developer or other interested party who can then use these rights to increase the density of development at another designated location  Used to protect farmland and other natural and cultural resources  A way of compensating owners who are not allowed to develop on the land Easement – the right to cross or otherwise use someone else’s land for a specified purpose Variance - Deviation from the current zoning requirements that a municipality has applied for land-use and land development Conditional use – “special use” that is not specified to occur on the land from the zoning ordinance Non-conforming use – “grandfathered” use allowed because it existed there before the zoning law Re-zoning – the changing of the governmental classification of permitted land-use to a given area Up-zoning – changing the zoning in an area that allows for greater density and congestion Down-zoning – process where an area of land is rezoned to a usage that is less dense/developed Dwelling unit - Structure (or part of a structure) that is used as a home, residence, or sleeping place Parthenon – (438 BCE) Greek temple dedicated to the goddess Athena, built atop the Acropolis in Athenspeals – The board that is in charge of issuing variances to developers/landowners dealing with the zoning ordinance Piazza de Campo - The number of divisions are held to be symbolic of the rule of The Nine (Noveschi) who laid out the campo and governed Siena at the height of its mediaeval splendor between 1292-1355. It was and remains the focal point of public life in the City. Pantheon – Rome, Italy (126 AD) Colosseum – Rome (70 AD) Palmanova – (1593) a city in Italy constructed during the renaissance and it is the only city built following the ideals of a utopia. It is a concentric city with the form of a star, with three nine sided ring roads intersecting in the main military radiating streets. It was built at the end of the 16th century by the Venetian Republic which was, at the time, a major center of trade. It is actually considered to be a fort, because the military architect Giulio Savorgnano designed to be a Venetian military station to the eastern frontier as protection from the Ottoman Empire First National Conference on City Planning Burnham’s Plan for Chicago –  Burnham’s and Bennett’s 1909 plan for Chicago was the first comprehensive plan for the controlled growth of an American city NYC Comprehensive Zoning Law (1916)  First comprehensive zoning ordinance in the U.S.  Set height and setback controls  Designated residential districts that excluded “incompatible” uses 1887—Mugler v. Kansas  Court case about the brewery built and worth nothing due to zoning, not permit to manufacture the booze  1915 – Hadacheck vs. Sebastian –  Court case about a brick factory in L.A. where the ordinance only prohibited the manufacture of bricks and not the removal of clay itself, but he couldn’t make bricks due to the protection of community health 1922—Pennsylvania Coal v. Mahon  Mahon was granted surface rights by Pennsylvania Coal. Mahon agreed to waive the claim for damages due to mining below his property  Kohler Act prohibited mining that would cause subsidence of human habitation  Penn. Coal gave Mahon notice that they were going to mine coal under his property, Mahon brought it to court (backed by the Kohler Act), but due to the private agreement Penn. Coal had the right to mine.  whether a regulatory act constitutes a taking requiring compensation depends on the extent of diminution in the value of the property, doctrine of regulatory taking 1926 – Euclid vs. Ambler  Ambler’s property placed on 3 different zones (Industrial & two Residential) and Ambler planned for industrial development, the village (Euclid) in attempt to prevent industrial Cleveland from growing and subsuming Euclid, developed a zoning ordinance that divided the property into use and height classes that limited Ambler.  Ambler Realty sued the village, arguing that the zoning ordinance had substantially reduced the value of the land by limiting its use, amounting to a deprivation of Ambler's liberty and property without due process.  The Ambler tract remained undeveloped because of the police power to benefit public safety/health 1963—Penn Station destroyed 1965—New York City Landmarks Law 1978- Penn Central Transportation Co. v. NYC  Proposals made by property owner to build over Grand Central Station. One proposal would have added 55 stories above and take out walls 1981—Poletown Neighborhood Council v. City of Detroit  During period of high unemployment, Detroit planned to take a large tract of land belonging to private owners and sell it to GM to build a new plant to increase employment.  Argument that the taking was unconstitutional, what is considered “pubic good?” 1987—Nollan v. California Coastal Commission –  The commission demanded lateral public easement (legal sign-over to use a person’s land for a stated purpose) across the Nollan’s beach-front property in exchange for permitting them rebuild to a 3 Bedroom house. Gov’t want to create a beach front open to the public.  The conditions to grand a land-use permit and the proposal of permanent easement must be substantially related to be a legitimate gov’t interest to avoid violating the takings clause  1994—Dolan v. Tigard  Florence Dolan (owner of supply store) wanted to redevelop her site (according to “as of right development”) to include paved surfaces and an additional building in a flood zone.  The city agreed to grant her a permit under the conditions that she 1. Build a greenway along nearby creek to alleviate pavement runoff 2. Build bike path to relieve traffic congestion from the business district  Court ruled that the city didn’t provide conclusive evidence that congestion would go down from the construction of the bike path and didn’t require that Dolan give up her property as a condition to the permit  Example of an uncompensated taking 2004—County of Wayne v. Hatchcock –  Wayne County wanted to acquire property adjacent to Detroit Metro Airport for developing an “aeropark”.  Brought to court by private property owners and ruled that gov’t couldn’t take land with eminent domain in order to transfer to the land over to a private owner 2005 –Kelo v. New London –  Use of eminent domain to seize private property and sell it to private developers to create jobs and increase tax revenues  Kelo, who had her house seized brought the case to court for the violation of th the 5 Amendment for governmental economic gain.  Does gov’t have the power to seize property by considering economic growth a public use?  The takings here qualified as "public use" despite the fact that the land was not going to be used by the public. The Fifth Amendment did not require "literal" public use, the majority said, but the "broader and more natural interpretation of public use as 'public purpose.' U.S. Constitution (1789) Large lot zoning - Type of open space zone prohibiting the subdivision of land into separated plots smaller than an acre or more.


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