HIST10 Midterm 2
HIST10 Midterm 2 Hist 10
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christien Ng on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 10 at University of California Riverside taught by Steve Chrissanthos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Test#2 Review Tuesday, February 16, 2016 10:22 AM Important Note: know difference between religions (Christianity vs Islam) and factions of Islam (Sunni vs Shi’ites) quizlet History 10Midterm 2 Study Guide Octavius Augustus: First emperor of the Roman Empire - ending a century of civil war. He also expanded Rome and created new government (principate) that would provide peace and prosperity for a long time. Senate gave him the title “Augustus” means ‘the revered one’ and “imperator” means ‘commander in chief’ Principate: First period of the Roman Empire. Form of government established by Augustus for the Roman Empire; continued the constitutional forms of the Republic and consisted of the “princeps” (1 citizens) and the senate, the “princeps” were the dominant power Praetorian guard: Body guards used by the Roman Emperors. Created by Augustus after he defeated Mark Anthony. Consisting of 9,000 men who protected the Roman emperors. They were an elite recruitment of Roman citizens and Latins. The emperors also often employed a small separate unit of bodyguards, distinct from and, in a degree, as a counterbalance Julio-Claudians: First 5 Roman emperors ->>- Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. Dynasty established by Augustus. The first four Roman Emperors formed part of this dynasty. However, the next four of Augustus' successors took over the responsibilities Augustus had given to the Senate. Nero: Knownfor his persecutions of the Christians. Used them as scapegoats when things were not as prosperous as they used to be. Eventually kills himself when the senate sentenceshimtodeath.RomanEmpire’sfifthemperor Pax Romana: "RomanPeace" Goldenyears.Beginningwith Augustus and ending with death ofAurelius.(31BC - 180AD) • Period of peaceand prosperity of theRoman Empire • It is during this time periodthattheRomanEmpirereachedits greatestextent • Scotland to Persian Gulf,Russiato Iraq • Golden Age of Roman Empire Pax Romana: "RomanPeace" Goldenyears.Beginningwith Augustus and ending with death ofAurelius.(31BC - 180AD) • Period of peaceand prosperity of theRoman Empire • It is during this time periodthattheRomanEmpirereachedits greatestextent • Scotland to Persian Gulf,Russiato Iraq • Golden Age of Roman Empire Trajan: One of the five good Roman emperors, implemented an alimentary program (The Alimenta) that provided state funds to assist poor parents in raising and educating their children. Expanded empire and built public works - aqueducts, bridges, roads, etc. Hadrian: Successor of Trajan, defensive imperialism - withdrew forces and released less manageable territories, created defensive policies by reinforcing fortifications along the rivers and built a defensive wall 80 miles long across northern Britain to keep scots out of Roman Britain Caracalla: An emperor that gave every free inhabitants of the empire, Roman citizenship. "Marcus Aurelius Antoninus" ->>- Paid Military More ->>- Edict of 212CE granted citizenship to all free inhabitants to increase tax revenue (is he one of the good emperors?) Diocletian: Re-establishes peace, "saved Rome"; population begins to rise again and the economy began to recover; Divided empire in 2 parts for easier ruling: resulted in a tetrarchy ->>- put an end to domestic anarchy ->>- Last major persecution of christians • Newemperor, Diocletian(284-305AD), takes over ○ Came to the throne in UNusualway duringthis period: § Came from a poor peasantfamily § Enlisted in the army § Rose up throughtheranks w his greatabilities untileventuallyhe becameageneral § He then had theprevious emperorassassinated § Defeated anotherrivalin battle § Secured his place on thethrone ○ One ofthe fewto survive ○ Longest reignsince Augustus • Made many changesto the Roman state and army • Was able to successfullyprevent more civil wars whiledefending Romeagainst invasion • Reestablish peace ○ Population began to rise again and the economy began to recover ○ "saved Rome" • First Emperor that manages to stay on throne without being assassinated 305 AD • Diocletian retires → never happened in history • Reestablish peace ○ Population began to rise again and the economy began to recover ○ "saved Rome" • First Emperor that manages to stay on throne without being assassinated 305 AD • Diocletian retires → never happened in history • Almost immediately after, Rome is plunged into another civil war Constantine I: Reunited the kingdom ->>- Moved capital to Greek city of Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople ->>First Christian emperor- issued Edict of Milan granting freedom of religion (meaning Christians can no longer be persecuted) -> First to use Christianity for military purposes Milvian Bridge: Last battle between Maxentius and Constantine ->>- Constantine wins "because of christianity" ->>- Gave Constantine control of the west. ->>- marks the beginning of the fusion of church and state. • day before battle, Constantine claims Jesus came to him in his dream • also claimed that while he was praying, a large cross appeared in the sky • Constantine then puts the cross on his soldiers shields and banner and goes into battle with them • Constantine wins, first time Christianity is used to win a battle Edict of Milan 313 AD: granted religious freedom to everyone in the Roman empire including the Christi-s>Legalized Christianity ->>- Later cosigned by Licinius ... Constantine didn't have full control yet ... year after Milvian bridge. • Constantine issued this because he thought he won the battle of Milvian Bridge with the help of the Christian God • Christians would be able to worship openly and freely for the first time in history Visigoths: Sought sanctuary in Rome but were mistreated ... started plundering ->>- killed valens and defeated romans at adrianople ->>- they continued to be a problem and eventually racked rome collapsing the west side of roman empire • German barbarian tribe that entered the Roman Empire in 376 Adrianople: Romans vs. Visigoths ->>- visigoths won ... first successful invasion of rome ->>- marked beginning of the collapse of the western Roman empire • Romans could not recover from this defeat Romulus Augustulus: last emperor of the western empire, gets kicked out by barbarian tribes in 476. Marks the end of the Western Roman Empire Tagmata: professional standing troops in Constantinople • Romans could not recover from this defeat Romulus Augustulus: last emperor of the western empire, gets kicked out by barbarian tribes in 476. Marks the end of the Western Roman Empire Tagmata: professional standing troops in Constantinople Themata/Themes: The main administrative divisions in the byzantine empire ->>- established when Rome was constantly getting invaded Jesus: started Christianity; visited Constantine and explained to him all about the religion of Christianity, the Christian god, who he was, and the significance of the cross. Hetold Constantine that if he put the cross on his men's shields and banners and carry them into battle (puts his faith in god) he will win. Paul: A missionary who traveled and preached Christianity to everyone including non-jews Muhammad: Prophet whofounded the religion of Islam. Claims the angel Gabriel visited him in the desert. Heunites all the Arabians • was pushed out of Mecca by Mecca’s ruling family because they were afraid that his religion would catch on and scare away the tourists who were the essential of the economy. • goes on a religious conquest (Hejira), takes over almost all of Arabia in 10 years 622-632 Hejira: “the flight”; Muhammad's migration from Mecca to Medina to avoid persecution • marks the official beginning of the Muslim calendar Islam/Muslim: The religion started by Muhammad which means “to surrender to the will of God” Muslim is one who practices Islam which means “one who surrenders” Kuran: sacred book of Islam, ethical guidebook, and a code of law. says there’s one god, Allah, and Muhammad is his Prophet. 5 Pillars: basic acts of Islam ->>- Faith, Prayer, Pilgrimage, Charity, Fasting 1. Shahada (The Creed) belief in Allah and Muhammad as his Prophet, No idols 2. Salat (Prayer) Five times daily, Face towards Mecca 3. Sawm (Fasting) observance of the holy month of Ramadan, Ninth month of the Islamic Calendar, including fasting from dawnto sunset. 4. Hajj (Pilgrimage) there is a Lesser Pilgrimage and a Greater Pilgrimage 1. Shahada (The Creed) belief in Allah and Muhammad as his Prophet, No idols 2. Salat (Prayer) Five times daily, Face towards Mecca 3. Sawm (Fasting) observance of the holy month of Ramadan, Ninth month of the Islamic Calendar, including fasting from dawnto sunset. 4. Hajj (Pilgrimage) there is a Lesser Pilgrimage and a Greater Pilgrimage to Mecca. 8th day of the 12th lunar month. 5. Zakat (Charity) Giving alms to the poor and unfortunate. Anygiving you do, Godis fully aware thereof Shari'a: Islamic Law->>- legal framework where public and private aspects of life are regulated Caliph: Supreme religious and political leaders of the islamic state of Caliphate ->>- rule of Ummah, “representative” of Muhammad after his death • political, religious, and military leader of all muslims Imam: Islamic leader of mosque Ali: First Imam leader of Shiism. Right to throne led to the split of Sunni and Shiite muslims.Said he should be caliph because he was related to Muhammad • killed by Muawiya in civil war ------------------ Constantinople: Capital of the Roman Empire ->>- waseventually taken over by the ottomans and made muslim • surrounded by three sides of water and huge walls Umayyads: Headed by Abu Sufyan ->>- Muawiya became the first Umayyad Caliph ->>- focused on the west ... North Africa, Mediterranean, and southern europe Muawiya: Governor of Syria whoestablished the Umayyad dynasty ->>- fought against Ali and whenAli was assassinated, proclaimed caliph and restored unity to the muslim empire. Made Damascus the capital. • claimed Ali should not be Caliph because it should not be a hereditary monarchy • established the Umayyad dynasty which was a hereditary monarchy (ironic) Abbasids: Overthrew the Umayyad dynasty ->>- focused on eastern europe ->>- capital was moved to Baghdad, Iraq ->>- support came from persian converts. • established the Umayyad dynasty which was a hereditary monarchy (ironic) Abbasids: Overthrew the Umayyad dynasty ->>- focused on eastern europe ->>- capital was moved to Baghdad, Iraq ->>- support came from persian converts. Sunni/Shiite: the 2main branches in islam ->>- occurred when Muhammad died resulting in a power struggle.Sunni follows Muawiya. Shi’ite follows Ali. Today, 90% Sunni 10 % Shi’ite Tours: Battle where Charles Martel and the Franks defeated the muslims ... marked the limit of muslim expansion into Europe. This battle stopped the northward advance of Islam from the Iberian peninsula, and is considered by most historians to be of macrohistorical importance, in that it halted the Islamic conquests, and preserved Christianity as the controlling faith in Europe, during a period in which Islam was overrunning the remains of the old Roman and Persian Empires. (732 AD) sian converts Talas: Battle of the Muslims Vs China ... Muslims won->>- Furthest extent of the Muslim empire ->>- declared central Asia as Muslim Caliphate: A caliphate is an Islamic state. It's led by a caliph, who is a political and religious leader who is a successor (caliph) to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. His power and authority is absolute. is there any information on this in the readings? Harun Al-Rashid: fifth Abbasid caliph during the height of the empire ->>- extremely wealthy period for baghdad Al Ma'mun: Abbasid Caliph ->>- tried to end rivalry in islam and impose a rationalist muslim creed. Seljuk Turks: First people to invade anatolia completely ->>- Conquered large portions of the Byzantine empire ... fought in the crusades. • They were nomadic people from Central Asia who converted to Islam and were military mercenaries for the Abbasid caliphate Crusades: series of intermittent military campaigns between the muslims and christians for control of the holy land. House of Wisdom: major intellectual center during the islamic golden age ->>- founded by Al Rashid Crusades: series of intermittent military campaigns between the muslims and christians for control of the holy land. House of Wisdom: major intellectual center during the islamic golden age ->>- founded by Al Rashid • located in Baghdad,it was a place where Muslim scholars translated scientific and philosophical achievements of ancient civilizations Arabian nights: Compilation of middle eastern stories compiled in arabic during muslim golden age ->>- flaunted muslim wealth. Omar Khayyam: Persian scientist and poet ->>- put his faith in simple material pleasures Ibn Sina: Oneof the most famous philosopher scientists of islam Axum: Powerful kingdom of northern ethiopia during early christian era ->>- Became greatest market of northeastern Africa Zanj: Southeast africa Ghana: very wealthy kingdom ->>- trade flourished ... traded gold, ivory, and slaves ->>- made shit tons through tax. Replaced by Mali after. -first great commercial state, near rich gold-producing area, merchants were intermediaries along coast. Saleh: Prophet of islam who prophesied for the tribe of thamud; capital city of Ghana Mali: Replaces Ghana, knownfor their gold trading ->>- Under mansa musa proclaimed prosperity by going to mecca with gold and slaves Timbuktu: City that was a trading post and a center of islamic culture ->>- Part of the trans-saharan trading route ->>- greatest mali city - under Mansa Musa city became major intellectual and cultural center in West Africa, site of schools of law, literature and the sciences!!!!! Stele: stone/wooden slab used often for funerary or commemorative purposes; government notices; contains text or decoration (similar to gravestones today) Sundiata Keita: founder of the mali empire ->>- laid foundations for future prosperity and political unity Mansa Musa: built a great mosque and timbuktu ->>- made a pilgrimage to mecca while showing off his money Primogeniture: obvious successor to a kingdom/throne/empire (eldest son). If prosperity and political unity Mansa Musa: built a great mosque and timbuktu ->>- made a pilgrimage to mecca while showing off his money Primogeniture: obvious successor to a kingdom/throne/empire (eldest son). If the king had no son, then he would choose the eldest male relative. Songhai: Replaces Mali; a great trading state of west africa Sonni Ali: initiated the expansion of songhai ->>- conquered mali trading cities which led to prosperity ->>- high point of sudanese culture Baru: lastPas king of the sonni dynasty, Son of Sonni Ali → did not last long, accused of not being a true muslim by one of his cousins, Muhammad Askia. Muhammad Askia: usurped the throne and greatly expanded the songhai empire, and greatly supported education, but civil war broke out when all four sons wanted to be king Tondibi: Thoughvastly outnumbered, the Moroccan forces under Judar Pasha defeated the Songhai Askia Ishaq II, guaranteeing the Empire's downfall Mongols: see bottom largest empire of the era but short lived Temujin/Genghis Khan: see bottom founded the mongol empire Kalka River: Fought in southern Russia against Mstislav. Spies were sent out to learn about Mstislav and the country before the attack. Found out that he was known as “Mstislav the Daring” and had an 80,000 soldier army. Upon confrontation, the soldiers pretended to flee and panic from the Russian army, getting the Russians to chase them for week.After a week, the Russians were getting exhausted and their formation started to break up. TheMongols used this opportunity to close in and attack, leading them to victory khanates: Mongol kingdoms, the subdivisions of Shan Yu’s empire ruled by his heirs Ogedei: 3rd son of GK.Shan Yu did not want a civil warto ensue so he names Ogedei the next ruler -- it’s called primogeniture when obvious successor is known. Peaceful transition of power. Died from binge drinking. Karakorum: capital of the Mongol Empire Ain Jalut Battle: Mongolian leader dies so they pull out most of armies to choose a new one, but left 10,000 men stationed at Ain Jalut. Egypt realized this so they sent 40,000 soldiers. Egyptians defeated mongols (surprising and first military defeat of mongols in 54 years) People realized that mongols were Karakorum: capital of the Mongol Empire Ain Jalut Battle: Mongolian leader dies so they pull out most of armies to choose a new one, but left 10,000 men stationed at Ain Jalut. Egypt realized this so they sent 40,000 soldiers. Egyptians defeated mongols (surprising and first military defeat of mongols in 54 years) People realized that mongols were not invincible which inspired rebellion Kubilai Khan: defeated his younger brother Ariq Böke in the Toluid Civil War. This episode marked the beginning of disunity in the empire. Also the guy that finish off Southern Song and established Yuan Marco Polo: Marco Polo was an Italian merchant traveller whose travels are recorded in Livres des merveilles du monde (book of the marvels of the world), a book that introduced Europeans to Central Asia and China Ming Dynasty: last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic HanChinese Chuyuan-chang/Hung-wu: founder and first emperor of the Ming dynasty. He joined Kuo’s organization and rose up to the ranks; he became Kuo’s 2nd in command. When Kuo died, Chu took control over the criminal organization in 1355. From 1355-1368, he conquered all of China. In 1368, Chudrove the Mongols out of China and became emperor. He followed primogeniture and chose his eldest son’s eldest son (grandson: Chu yun-wen) as his successor. Kuo Tzu-hsing: Typical criminal, he grew more and more powerful as time went on, and eventually Kuotook over small areas of central China, Kuowas now in charge. Chuyun-wen: 2 Ming emperor at 21 years old. Eldest grandson of HungWu, tricked by Chu Ti, and lost the Civil War to his uncle, Chu Ti, and lost control of the Dynasty. ChuTi/Yung -lo: Uncle of Chu yun-wen. Hewanted to become emperor and rebel, but at first he couldn’t. His three sons were held hostage in Nanking, but he tricked Chu Yun Wen by saying he was sick and dying, so Yun Wen let his sons go, allowing Chu Ti to start a civil war. ChengHo: Chinese explorer who traveled around the world by sea with the Chinese ships; sent to 7 voyages and he would ask kindly to the rulers of the neighboring countries to pay tribute to Yung-lo and they said “Yeah, no problem” to avoid any problems. Yi Dynasty: The last and longest-lived Imperial dynasty of Korea. Founded by Gen. Yi Sŏng-gye, whoestablished the capital at Hanyang (present-day Seoul). He took back power for the Koreans. problem” to avoid any problems. Yi Dynasty: The last and longest-lived Imperial dynasty of Korea. Founded by Gen. Yi Sŏng-gye, whoestablished the capital at Hanyang (present-day Seoul). He took back power for the Koreans. Neo-Confucianism: attempt to create a more rationalist and secular form of Confucianism by rejecting superstitious and mystical elements of Daoism and Buddhism that had influenced Confucianism during and after the Han Dynasty Mongols • Mongol empire was the largest empire in history ○ Lasted only a short period of time • Mongols came from Mongolia ○ Were a ‘typical barbarian tribe’ § Do not practice agriculture, instead almost everything they needed they took from their animals □ The food they ate □ The milk they drank □ The clothes they wore □ The tents they lived in □ The alcohol they drank (airag/kumis) § Because their animals were so important they were always on the move looking for land upon which their animals could graze □ Necessary to keep animals healthy and happy □ Because of this they had no settled home and didn’t build things and very little property ® Could only take with them what they could carry □ Liked to be on the move § No works of art and didn’t know how to read or write □ Was not important to them § Typically had a huge impact on history § Always excelled at war § Spent most of their time training or fighting □ Out of necessity: had to be able to defend their animals and the land upon which they grazed □ Because they liked to fight war was good □ Superior fighters to more civilized people § Developed superior military technology on occasion □ Allowed them to defeat more numerous and more civilized armies § Could destroy great civilizations □ As a result brought about dark ages § Could rule more civilized people § Developed superior military technology on occasion □ Allowed them to defeat more numerous and more civilized armies § Could destroy great civilizations □ As a result brought about dark ages § Could rule more civilized people ○ Most successful of the barbarian tribes conquering the largest area in human history • 2 million mongols in mongolia ○ Could never be unified and mostly fought amongst each other • Mongols did not practice primogeniture Temujin/Shan Yu • Temujin was born ○ Father was killed shortly after he was born § Lead to difficult times for his family ○ Able to overcome difficult origins and was able to gain more and more followers until finally after years of war and diplomacy he was able to unify the mongol people under his rule • 1206 Mongols are unified under one leader ○ Had a huge meeting with all mongols and made Temujin new leader § Had new title of the Genghis Khan □ Means leader of everything from ocean to ocean • He believed that the Mongols needed to go out and conquer an empire for three reasons ○ He believed that mongolia was too small for the growing number of mongol people and that they needed more space so they had to go out and accommodate more land for their people ○ Knew how warlike the mongols were § He believed that if he did not find new enemies for the mongols to fight they would inevitably start fighting again amongst themselves ○ He believed war was fun (glorious/rewarding, more so) § Not something to be avoided but to seek out § seriously no Arnold quote? • During the next 21 years (1206-1227) ○ Shan Yu led mongols to conquest of a vast empire § Greatest land empire yet seen in history of world, brits don’t count, theirs isn’t a continuous landmass • Why the mongols were so successful ○ Had great leadership § Shan Yu wasa great general as were his sons and grandsons □ Was not typical barbarian leader ® Before he attacked anyone he sent out spies ◊ Would gather info about the potential enemy • Why the mongols were so successful ○ Had great leadership § Shan Yu wasa great general as were his sons and grandsons □ Was not typical barbarian leader ® Before he attacked anyone he sent out spies ◊ Would gather info about the potential enemy ○ Had a big and very good army § About 200,000 soldiers □ All were cavalry □ Grew upspending time training or fighting □ Had incredible endurance ® Much better shape than civilized soldiers □ Had a horse unique to mongolia ® Incredible endurance ◊ Better than normal horse □ Could ride for long periods of time ® Quick and could take enemies by surprise ◊ Faster than any army in history until invention of railroad □ Developed a superior bow ® Could fire arrows 350 yards ◊ 100 food advantage at least □ Used terror as a weapon ® If anyone resisted they would wipe out whole populations ® Allowed them to conquer a greater empire and maintain it □ Demand that people surrender before they launched attack ® Those that surrendered payed taxes (after being looted, enslaved and raped) but weren’t killed ® Those that didn’t surrender gets wiped out □ Bragged about war crimes □ Went 54 years without losing a battle
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