Developmental Psychology Notes for Exam 3
Developmental Psychology Notes for Exam 3 psy3803
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabriel Brooks on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to psy3803 at Mississippi State University taught by Rebecca Armstrong in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
I. Countdown The first urine contractions are called Braxton-Hicks contractions The Braxton-Hicks contractions are usually painless II. The Stages of Childbirth A. The First Stage During the first stage, contractions efface and dilate the cervix. o Efface- to thin o Dilate- to widen or enlarge Opening needs to widen to about 4 inches (10 centimeters) to allow passage o Dilation of the cervix is responsible for most of the pain during childbirth The first stage is the longest. o Contractions sometimes last from a few hours to more than a day Episiotomy- a surgical incision in the area between the birth canal and the anus that widens the vaginal opening, preventing random tearing during birth When the cervix is almost fully dilated, the fetus head begins to move into the vagina. o Transition, which last about 30 minutes or less, contractions usually are frequent and strong Transition- the initial movement of the head of the fetus into the birth canal. B. The Second Stage When the baby’s head is visible (crowning) C. The Third Stage Placental stage- uterus began to shrink III. Methods of Childbirth Midwife- someone who helps women in childbirth A. Anesthesia Method of childbirth in which women use no anesthesia and are educated about childbirth and strategies for coping with discomfort Is used in most American deliveries In contrast to the use of anesthesia, there is a trend toward natural childbirth. With natural birth, a woman uses no anesthesia o Natural birth- a method of childbirth in which women use no anesthesia and are educated about childbirth and strategies for coping with discomfort. B. Hypnosis and Biofeedback Hypnosis has been used to help clients stick to diets, quit smoking, and undergo dental treatments with less discomfort. o Been used with some success as an alternative to anesthesia during childbirth Biofeedback is a method that provides the woman in labor with continuous information about what is happening with various bodily functions C. Prepared Childbirth Lamaze method- in which women are educated about children about childbirth, learn to relax and breathe in patterns that conserve energy and lessen pain, and have a coach, which is usually the father present during childbirth. D. Cesarean Section Cesarean section- a method of childbirth in which the neonate is delivered through a surgical incision in the abdomen. During a C-section, the physician delivers the baby by abdominal surgery o The physician cuts through the abdomen and the uterus and physically removes the baby E. Homebirth Homebirth generally represents an effort by the mother to recapture childbirth as a warm family experience. IV. Birth Problems A. Oxygen Deprivation Two terms to discuss oxygen deprivation: anoxia and hypoxia o Anoxia- a condition characterized by lack of oxygen o Hypoxia- a condition characterized by less oxygen that is required o Schizophrenia- a severe psychological disorder that is characterized by disturbances in thought and language, perception and attention, motor activity, and mood and by withdrawal and absorption in daydreams or fantasy. o Breech presentation- a position in which the fetus enters the birth canal buttocks first B. Preterm and Low-Birth-Weight Infants Preterm- born at or before completion of 37 weeks of gestation Small for dates- a description of neonates who are unusually small for their age 1. Risks Associated with Prematurity and Low Birth Weight Neonates weighing between 3.25 and 5.50 pounds are seven times more likely to die than infants of normal birth weight, whereas those weighing less than 3.3 pounds are nearly 100 times as likely to die. 2. Signs of Prematurity Lanugo- fine hair that covers much of the body of neonates, especially the preterm ones Vernix- an oily, white substance that coats the skin of neonates, especially preterm babies Respiratory distress syndrome- a cluster of breathing problems, including weak and irregular breathing, to which preterm babies are particularly prone. 3. Treatment of Preterm Babies Incubators- a heated, protective container in which premature infants are kept 4. Intervention Programs V. The Postpartum Period Consists of the weeks following delivery The time that immediately follows childbirth A. Maternal Depression Postpartum depression- severe, prolonged depression that afflicts women after delivery and that is characterized by sadness, apathy, and feelings of worthlessness. B. Bonding Process of bonding with another individual Process of forming attachment between parent and child VI. Characteristics of Neonates A. Assessing the Health of Neonates Apgar scale- a measure of a newborn’s health that assesses appearance, pulse, grimace, activity level, and respiratory effort NBAS- Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale NNNS- Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale B. Reflexes Reflex- an unlearned response to a stimulus Neural- of the nervous system 1. Rooting reflex- a reflex in which infants turn their mouths and heads in the direction of a stroking of the cheek or the corner of the mouth 2. Moro reflex- when the infants arch their back, fling out their arms and legs, and draw them back toward the chest 3. Grasping reflex- when infants grasp objects that cause pressure against their palms 4. Babinski reflex- when infants fan their toes when the undersides of their feet are stroked 5. Tonic-neck reflex- when infants turn their heads to one side, extend the arm and leg on that side, and flex the limbs on the opposite side. C. Sensory Capabilities 1. Vision Neonates can see but they do not see great sharpness of vision o Visual activity- keenness or sharpness of vision Visual accommodation- the automatic adjustments made by the lenses of the eyes to bring objects into focus Convergence- the inward movement of the eyes as they focus on an object that is drawing nearer Intensity- brightness Saturation- Richness or purity of a color Hue- color Rods- black and white vision Cones- view of color 2. Hearing Fetus responds to sound months before they are born Amplitude- the maximum vibration of a sound wave Pitch- the highness or lowness of a sound 3. Smell: The Nose Knows—Early Self-explanatory Ex. Babies knows the smell of their mothers breast milk 4. Taste Taste preferences are the same as older adults 5. Touch and Pain Neonates are sensitive to touching D. Learning: Really Early Childhood “Education” 1. Classical Conditioning of Neonates Ex. Puff of air causes neonates to blink 2. Operant Conditioning of Neonates Ex. Infants sucking reflexes are modified by the stories their mothers read to them. E. Sleeping and Waking 1. REM and Non-REM Sleep REM Sleep- periods of sleep during which we are likely to dream, as indicated by rapid eyes movements 2. Non-REM Sleep- periods of sleep when we are unlikely to dream Electroencephalograph(EEG)- an instrument that measure electrical activity of the brain F. Crying All babies cry Parents learn how to distinguished different cries o Colic- a condition of discomfort unknown cause in which the baby cries for an hour or more. Typically every day at the same time or up to several weeks 1. Soothing Parents must find out ways to sooth their children from crying VII. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) The death, while sleeping, of apparently healthy babies who stop breathing for unknown medical reasons. Also called crib death. A. The Children’s Hospital Boston Study study focused on an area in the brainstem called the medulla o medulla- a part of the brain stem that regulates vital and automatic functions such as breathing and the sleep-wake cycle Serotonin- a neurotransmitter that is involved in the responsiveness of the medulla, emotional responses such as depression, and motivational responses such as hunger. Chapter 5: Physical Development I. Physical Growth and Development A. Sequences of Physical Development: Head First? 1. Cephalocaudal Development Development proceeds from the upper part of the body The brain regulates the growth and development of the body and mones, the brain also regulates the growth and development of the body and influences basic drives, ex. Hunger and thirst 2. Proximodistal Development Development proceeding from the trunk (outward)- from the body’s central axis toward the periphery 3. Differentiation Less global, more distinct Processes by which behaviors and physical structures become more specialized o Ex. If a baby’s finger is burned, it may withdraw the finger but cry or show general signs of distress B. Growth Patterns in Height and Weight: Heading toward the Greek Ideal? 1. Changes in Body Proportion The length of the head equals one-eighth the height of the body Development proceeds in a cephalocaudal manner. o A few weeks after conception, an embryo is almost all head C. Failure to Thrive Disorder of impaired growth/ failure to gain weight within normal limits 1. Catch-up Growth Canalization- the tendency of growth rates to return to genetically determined patterns after undergoing environmentally induced change II. Nutrition: Fueling Development 4-6 months solid food o Ironed enriched cereal o Strained fruits o Strained vegetables o Meat Parents should wait to give children whole milk because it can react to GI Tract Parents should give solid food one by one to notice children’s behavior one they conceive or taste the foods A. Breast Feeding vs. Bottle Feeding: Pros and Cons, Biological and Political 70% choose to breast feed Oxytocin- cause uterus to contract o Will not cause pain *** Moms produce colostrum Colostrum is an early form of breast milk that is produced late in pregnancy and following childbirth. III. Development of the Brain and Nervous System A. Development of Neurons Neurons- nerve cells; found in the nervous system that transmit message Communication pathways Cell baby axon dendrites 1. Myelin A layer of fat On an axon speeds of the electrical process that spur communication = more efficient behavior B. Development of the Brain The brain is the command center of the developing organism The brain of a newborn weighs a little less than a pound 1. Structures of the Brain Medulla is a vital in the control of basic functions, such as heartbeat and respiration. The medulla is a part of an area called the brain stem. Cerebellum is the part of the muscle coordination and balance. o Cerebellum is Latin for “little brain” Cerebrum is the crowning glory of the brain o It is the large mass of the forebrain, which consists of two hemispheres. (voluntary movement) o It makes possible the breadth and depth of human learning, thought, memory, and language. 2. Growth Spurs of the Brain The brain makes gains in size and weight is through the formation of neurons, a process completed by birth o The first major spurt occurs during 4-5 months of development (when neurons proliferate) o The second spurt occurs the 25 th week of growth and the end of the second year after birth o The first growth is due to formation of neurons and the second is primarily due to proliferation of dendrites and axon terminals 3. Brain Development in Infancy Parts of the brains is involved in heartbeat and respiration, sleeping, arousal, and reflex Myelination of motor pathways allows neonates to show stereotyped reflexes, but otherwise neonates’ physical activity tends to be random o Begins 4 month C. Nature and Nurture in the Development of the Brain
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