Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide PSYC 2544
Popular in Industrial/Organizational Psychology
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Freddi Marsillo on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2544 at George Washington University taught by Blacksmith, N in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Industrial/Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
I-O Psychology Midterm Study Guide 2/25/16 3:12 AM General I-O Psychology Notes Industrial/Organizational Psychology is the application of psychological principles, theory, and research to the work setting • Concerned with behavior in work situations Basis of I-O psychology • Two sides of I-O psychology: science and practice • The science side is based on actual empirical research – I-O psychologists pose questions to guide their investigation and then use scientific methods to obtain answers • The other side, the professional side, is concerned with the application of knowledge to solve real problems in the work world • The scientist-practitioner gap is the difference between scientific research findings on organizations and their management versus how organizations are actually managed o The gap may exist because while theory may guide scientific research, how organizations run is not by theory. Organizations are run by leaders who make decisions in the best interests of maintaining and improving the organization • A scientist-practitioner is someone who tries to understand real world phenomena using all of the tools of science, most notably by applying scientific theories and the scientific method Fields of I-O Psychology • 1) Selection and placement – concerned with developing assessment methods for the selection, placement, and promotion of employees • 2) Training and development – concerned with identifying employee skills that need to be enhanced to improve job performance • 3) Performance management – involves designing ways to assess employee work behavior and provide helpful feedback to improve performance • 4) Organizational effectiveness – concerned with maintaining or improving the quality of the workforce, but also the quality of relationships with customers and suppliers the organization needs for its continued success • 5) Quality of work life – concerned with factors that contribute to a healthy and productive workforce Evidence-based consulting • I-O psychologists are focused on making evidence-based decisions in their work in organizations • This includes using a decision-making process that combines critical thinking with use of the best available scientific evidence Importance of I-O Psychology • I-O psychology emphasizes the importance of work in people’s lives History of I-O Psychology Walter Dill Scott • Considered one of the founders of I-O Psychology • Gave a talk on the need for applying psychology to advertising • Published books that dealt with suggestion and argument as a means of influencing people, and improving human efficiency with such tactics as imitation, competition, loyalty, and concentration • Scott was instrumental in the application of personnel procedures in the army during World War I o Conducted research on the best placement of soldiers in the army o Classified and placed enlisted soldiers, conducted performance ratings of officers, and developed and prepared job duties and qualifications for 500+ jobs • Had a substantial influence on increasing public awareness and the credibility of I-O psychology Frederick Taylor • Engineer by profession • Went on to obtain many patents through experience and self- training • Worked himself up through one company as a worker, supervisor, and finally, plant manager, and realized the value of redesigning work to achieve both higher output for the company and a higher wage for the worker • Wrote book The Principles of Scientific Management with rules such as: 1) science over rule of thumb, 2) scientific selection and training, 3) cooperation over individualism, and 4) equal division of work best suited to management and employees • An example of his work: showed that workers who handles heavy iron could be more productive if they had work rests; training employees when to work and when to rest increased worker productivity, which in turn resulted in increased wages for the workers Hugo Munsterberg • Interested in applying traditional psychological methods to practical industrial problems • His book, Psychology and Industrial Efficiency, discussed selecting workers, designing work, and psychology in sales • His most renowned study involved determining what makes a safe trolley car operator – he systematically studied all aspects of the job, developed a lab simulation of a trolley car, and concluded that a good operator could comprehend all of the influences that bear on the car’s progress World War I • Caused a shift in the direction of industrial psychological research • Psychologists believed they could provide a valuable service to the nation, and some saw the war as a means of accelerating the profession’s progress • The APA made many proposals to maneuver the profession into assignments in the war effort, including ways of screening recruits for mental deficiency and of assigning selected recruits • Army Alpha – an intelligence test developed during WWI by I-O psychologists for the selection and placement of military personnel • Army Beta – a nonverbal intelligence test developed during WWI by I-O psychologists to assess illiterate recruits • After the war, there was an increase in the number of psychological consulting firms and research bureaus Hawthorne Studies • A series of research studies that began in the late 1920s at the Western Electric Company and ultimately refocused the interests of I-O psychologists on how work behavior manifests itself in an organizational context • Represent the most significant research program undertaken to show the enormous complexity of the problem of production in relation to efficiency • Original study attempted to find the relationship between lighting and efficiency – some workrooms had bright lights and some had dim lights, but the workers’ productivity seemed to have no relationship to the level of illumination o Productivity increased whether the illumination was increased, decreased, or held constant, so the researchers hypothesized that some other factors must be responsible for the increased productivity • The precise reason for the change in behavior was not clear but an important finding emerged, known as the Hawthorne effect: sometimes behavior change is due to just a change in the environment (e.g., the presence of the researchers) and not to the effect of an experimentally manipulated variable (e.g., the level of illumination) • The Hawthorne studies also revealed the existence of informal employee work groups and their controls on production • Also showed the importance of employee attitudes, the value of having a sympathetic and understanding supervisor, and the need to treat workers as people instead of merely human capital Government Intervention/Civil Rights Movement • One component of the Civil Rights Act, Title VII, (legislation to reduce unfair discrimination) addressed the issue of discrimination in employment. Title VII specified demographic groups to be protected from employment discrimination • Because I-O psychologists were given free rein to make a lot of employment decisions, the result of these decisions was the disproportionately small representation of minorities in the workplace • Under Title VII, companies were legally mandated to demonstrate that their employment tests did not uniformly discriminate against any minority group • I-O psychologists now had to accept the consequences of being legally accountable for their actions ASVAB • I-O psychology also made a major contribution to the military during this era • I-O psychologists made efforts to develop a test for the selection and classification of military personnel • This involved developing the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB): a test developed in the 1980s by I-O psychologists for the selection and placement of military personnel • Every year the ASVAB is administered; individuals are selected to join the military; the selected personnel are then assigned to the many military jobs within the various branches of the Armed Services Information Age • In 1994, the internet expanded considerably – a major shift has occurred in the way society functions, primarily revolving around the explosion in available information and how that information changes our lives • Social media is powerful • The turbulent changes faced by organizations (such as the need to change products or services frequently in response to changing market conditions) have led to the need for frequent changes in workers’ responsibilities, tasks, and work relationships • Electronic communication like the internet has revolutionized business and customer-oriented service • In the Information Age, there is a new critical standard: speed of delivery • In the Information Age, tasks and duties are constantly changing, as are the skills needed to perform them • With the innovations of telecommuting (doing work at home and communicating it electronically to the office), virtual work teams and offices, and wireless communication, work is no longer a physical place The Future of the Workplace • Today I-O psychology is multidisciplinary in both its content and its methods of inquiry • As we enter the “global era” of civilization, where national and cultural boundaries are less confining, I-O psychology has expanded its domains of interest and involvement – entrance into the global era has compelled I-O psychology to become more knowledgeable about cultures other than Western civilization • We have learned that there are broad cultural differences in the importance placed on work in life Cross-Cultural I-O Psychology • An area of research that examines the degree to which psychological concepts and findings generalize to people in other cultures and societies • Studies similarities and differences in individual psychological and social functioning in various cultures and ethnic groups • The globalization of business has compelled I-O psychology to examine how its theories and practices apply in cultures other than North America and Western Europe Humanitarian Work Psychology • I-O Psychology has been regarded as an agent for helping organizations to be more effective, and I-O psychologists who work as practitioners are hired by organizations to achieve that very result • Humanitarian work psychology is the practice of I-O psychology directed to the societal goal of improving employment for all mankind • “Humanitarian” typically refers to the giving of resources (e.g. food, clothing, shelter) to people who have an urgent need for them • In the case of humanitarian work psychology, it is directing the resources of I-O psychology to relieving global poverty, promoting social justice in organizations, protecting the rights of workers, etc. The Mandate of I-O Psychology • The mandate of I-O psychology is to increase the fit between the workforce and the workplace when the composition of both is rapidly changing • As work assumes a more central role in our lives, the need for I-O psychology to balance work and family issues continue to grow Construct: a concept or characteristic that a predictor is intended to measure; examples include intelligence, extraversion, and integrity Academic-based and practitioner-based research There is the fact that managers are not typically scientists – unlike medicine, management is not a profession; that is, they are not licensed the way physicians are. • Most scientific writing is very technical, and there is a lack of publications that serve to “translate” complex scientific findings into more readily understandable terms that could be understood by non-scientists (i.e. managers) • While academic-based research may have only a modest impact in some areas of management practice, many I-O psychologists in non-academic roles also conduct research • Some of the finest contributions of I-O psychology attained such a legacy precisely because they did have a very large impact on practice, i.e. the ASVAB test • Many large organizations that employ I-O psychologists have their own research divisions, and research conducted in these settings is often more focused on addressing particular organizational problems than is research conducted by academic scientists (this is largely the difference between academic-based and practitioner- based research) • For example, a scientist would be interested in knowing if there is a relationship between employee job performance and voluntary turnover (i.e. are good or poor employees more likely to quit their jobs). A manager, on the other hand, would be more interested in learning how to prevent his or her top-performing employees from quitting • While the objectives of academic-based and practitioner-based research are different, academic scientists and practitioners who work in business and for consulting firms are often engaged in the conduct of I-O research Research Methods and Statistics Goals of Science • Scientists set out to disprove theories or hypotheses o Goal: eliminate all plausible explanations except one o Can never “prove” a theory o Publicize their findings • Scientists are objective o Expectation that researchers will be objective and not influenced by biases or prejudices Primary Research Methods (provides an original or principle source of data that bears on a particular research question) Research designs: • Experimental o Random assignment of participants to conditions o Conducted in a laboratory or the workplace • Non-experimental o Does not include manipulation or assignment to different conditions o 2 common designs: ▯ Observational design: observes and records behavior ▯ Survey/questionnaire design (most common) • Quasi-experimental o Non-random assignment of participants to conditions o Resembles an experiment but actually provides less control over the variables under investigation o Independent variables are manipulated in a field setting (that is, the people in the study do not perceive the setting as having been created to conduct the research) Secondary Research Methods (looks at existing information from studies that used primary methods) • Meta-analysis o A quantitative secondary research method for summarizing and integrating the findings from original empirical research studies o Statistical procedure designed to combine the results of many individual, independently conducted empirical studies into a single result or outcome • Data mining o An emerging secondary research method that looks for patterns of association among the measured items in very large data sets o The process of analyzing a large amount of data from different perspectives and summarizing it into useful information, and to discover patterns or relationships Qualitative vs. Quantitative • Qualitative methods o Include procedures like observation, interviews, case studies, and analysis of written documents o Generally produce flow diagrams and narrative descriptions of events/processes • Quantitative methods o Rely on tests, rating scales, and physiological measures o Yield numerical results What is Theory? Theory = ideas intended to explain something, based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained • Describes and explains relationships between psychological constructs (variables) • Helpful or not helpful (not good or bad) • A good theory offers novel insights, is focused, is relevant to important topics, provides explanations, is practical How to form and write a research question Research Design Questions • Where will the research be conducted (e.g. lab)? • Who will participate? • How will participants be recruited and assigned to conditions? • What variables will be measured? • How will data be collected (e.g. survey)? • How will data be analyzed? How to form and write a hypothesis Developing Hypotheses • Direction and strength of relationship between variables o Example: the number of hours an individual watches college football is related to an increase in amount of cheeseburgers eaten • Prediction of an outcome o Example: decreased hours of sleep leads to increase in life satisfaction • Differences across groups o Example: the number of parties attended in the last 6 months is higher for students who watch True Blood compared to students who watch The Walking Dead Research Design • A plan for conducting scientific research for the purpose of learning about a phenomenon of interest Generalizability in Research • Application of results from one study or sample to other participants or situations • The more areas a study includes, the greater its generalizability • Every time a compromise is made, the generalizability of results is reduced Control Variables and Statistical Control Control in Research: • Experimental control o Eliminates influences that could make results less reliable or harder to interpret • Statistical control o Statistical techniques used to control for the influence of certain variables Concept of Correlations • Correlation does not equal causation • Positive correlation ▯ as one variable increases, other variable also increases and vice versa • Negative correlation ▯ as one variable increases, other variable decreases and vice versa Non-linear correlations • Any correlation in which the rates of change of the variables is not constant (curvilinear) Determining Causality • Causality can be determined in a lab experiment where a single variable can be isolated and other possible determinants of behavior are removed in the experiment • Only in such a controlled environment can causality be determined 5 rights specified in code of ethics • 1) Right to informed consent • 2) Right to privacy • 3) Right to confidentiality • 4) Right to protection from deception • 5) Right to debriefing Validity & Reliability Reliability • Refers to the consistency, stability, or equivalence of a measure Test-retest reliability • A type of reliability that reveals the stability of test scores upon repeated applications of the test • Calculated by correlating measurements taken at Time 1 with measurements taken at Time 2 Inter-rater reliability • A type of reliability that reveals the degree of agreement among the assessments provided by two or more raters • The degree of correspondence between judgments or scores assigned by different raters • Two different raters may observe the same behavior but evaluate it differently Equivalent-form reliability • A type of reliability that reveals the equivalence of test scores between two versions or forms of the test • Calculated by correlating measurements from a sample of individuals who complete 2 different forms of the same test Internal consistency • Assesses how consistently items of a test measure a single construct Validity Evidence Validity: the degree to which evidence and theory support the interpretations of test scores for proposed uses of tests Validity is how accurate your assessment is – is it measuring what it is supposed to be measuring? Is it covering everything it needs to cover? • Validity: Whether measurements taken accurately and completely represent what is to be measured • The most fundamental consideration in developing and evaluating tests Content-Related Validity • The degree to which subject matter experts agree that the items in a test are a representative sample of the domain of knowledge the test purports to measure • Demonstrates that content of selection procedure represents adequate sample of important work behaviors and activities or worker KSAOs defined by job analysis • I-O psychologists can use incumbents/SMEs to gather content validity evidence Criterion-Related Validity • The degree to which a test forecasts or is statistically related to a criterion • Refers to how much a predictor relates to a criterion • Predictive validity design o In measuring predictive criterion-related validity, we collect predictor information and use it to forecast future criterion performance o Time lag between collection of test data and criterion data o Test often administered to job applicants • Concurrent validity design o In measuring concurrent criterion-related validity, we are concerned with how well a predictor can predict a criterion at the same time (concurrently) o No time lag between collection of test data and criterion data o Test administered to current employees, performance measures collected at same time o Disadvantage: no data about those not employed by the organization • Convergent o Convergent validity coefficients reflect the degree to which test scores converge (come together) in assessing a common concept, like intelligence o Should be related to similar constructs o Example: verbal and quantitative ability (these both fall under cognitive ability) • Divergent (aka discriminant) o Divergent validity coefficients reflect the degree to which test scores diverge from each other in assessing unrelated concepts o Should not be related to different constructs o Example: quantitative ability and extraversion (these are not related to one another) Predictors vs. criterion variables -When scores on one variable are used to predict scores on a second, the variables are called predictor and criterion variables, respectively • Predictor variable o A variable used to predict or forecast a criterion variable o The presumed “cause” in a study. Often used in correlational studies. For example, SAT scores predict first semester GPA. The SAT score is the predictor variable. • Criterion variable o A variable that is a primary object of a research study; it is forecasted by a predictor variable o The presumed effect in a study Challenges of doing research in organizations • Organizations are messy entities • Just looking at people in organizations is challenging • Looking at the information flow in organizations is challenging, as is power in organizations and the impact that external forces have on any phenomena in an organization Job/Work Analysis Job analysis: process that determines essence of a collection of tasks falling within the scope of a particular job title • A formal procedure by which the content of work is defined in terms of activities performed and attributes needed to perform the work 3 Components of Job Analysis • 1) Organizational-oriented job analysis o Determines needs and goals of organization; context • 2) Task-oriented job analysis o Begins with statement of actual tasks and what is accomplished by those tasks • 3) Worker-oriented job analysis o Focuses on attributes of the worker necessary to accomplish tasks KSAOs: Worker Attributes • Knowledge o Collection of discrete, related facts and information about a particular domain • Skill (e.g. computer or interpersonal skills) o Practiced act • Ability o Stable capacity to engage in a specific behavior • Other characteristics: interests, personality, etc. How Job Analysis is Done • 1) Observation • 2) Interviews: Incumbent, supervisor • 3) Critical incidents and work diaries • 4) Questionnaires/surveys • 5) Performing the job Critical incidents • Specific behaviors that result in good or bad job performance • Supervisors record behaviors of employees that greatly influence their job performance Cognitive task analysis • Methods for decomposing job and task performance into discrete, measurable units with special emphasis on eliciting mental processes and knowledge content • Time consuming and requires a great deal of expertise to do well Competency modeling • A process for determining the human characteristics (i.e. competencies) needed to perform successfully within an organization • Identifies characteristics desired across all individuals and jobs within an organization • Connects individuals with organizational viability and profitability O*NET • An online computer-based source of information about jobs • National database of worker attributes and job characteristics • Contains info such as experience requirements, occupation characteristics, etc. Job Performance Conceptual vs. Actual Criteria • Conceptual = theoretical construct, abstract idea • Actual criteria = observed measures of criteria o Objective criteria (e.g. records, sales numbers) o Subjective criteria (e.g. manager ratings) Types of Actual Performance Criteria • Production (e.g. units per day) • Sales • Turnover • Absenteeism • Accidents • Manager ratings • Counterproductive Workplace Behavior (CWB) actual criteria o Voluntary behavior violating significant organizational norms and threatening organization, its members, or both o E.g. theft, interpersonal deviance, organizational deviance • Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) actual criteria o Employee behavior that transcends job performance, supports organizational environment, and is directed to the overall welfare of the organization o E.g. # of hours helping another employee Campbell’s 8 Dimensions of Job Performance • Job-specific task proficiency • Non-job-specific task proficiency • Written and oral communication • Demonstrating effort • Facilitating peer and team performance • Supervision/leadership • Management/administration • Maintaining personal discipline Adaptive behavior • A range of behaviors that enable employees to increase their capacity to cope with organizational change (examples include handling emergencies or crisis situations, handling work stress, solving problems creatively, etc.) Criterion deficiency • When actual criterion is missing information that is part of behavior one is trying to measure Criterion contamination • When actual criterion includes information unrelated to the behavior one is trying to measure Criterion relevance • The degree of overlap or similarity between the actual criterion and the conceptual criterion • The greater the match between the conceptual and the actual criteria, the greater the criterion relevance Individual Differences • Having employees with difference and diverse aspects of themselves is important • Individual differences comes into play when we think about management; it is important for managers to understand their employees • Adults have a variety of attributes that are relatively stable over a period of time • People differ with respect to those attributes • Relative differences among people on these attributes remain even after training • Different jobs require different attributes • These attributes can be measured (KSAOs) General Mental Ability • (cognitive ability) A basis for all actions – it matters for every single job Definitional Issues in Intelligence • Many people consider the terms intelligence, IQ, cognitive ability, and mental ability to be synonyms for one another. We will make some distinctions: o IQ is a historical term that stands for “intelligence quotient”; term is popular with laypersons but is generally not used by scientists o Mental ability and cognitive ability are current terms that scientists often use interchangeably. Refers to general intellectual capacity (often called “g” for GMA) o Cognitive ability and mental ability are comprised of specific abilities such as memory or reasoning Cognitive Abilities • g o Involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, comprehend complex ideas, and learn from experience • Is g important at work? ▯ yes o Intelligence (or “g”): broad general capability – describes person’s ability to learn from experience o Higher job complexity = higher predictive value Personality The Five Factor Model (FFM) (The Big Five) Factor: 1) Conscientiousness Characteristics: responsible, prudent, persistent, planful, achievement oriented Factor: 2) Extraversion Characteristics: sociable, assertive, talkative, ambitious, energetic Factor: 3) Agreeableness Characteristics: good-natured, cooperative, trusting, likable, friendly Factor: 4) Emotional stability Characteristics: secure, calm, poised, relaxed Factor: 5) Openness to experience Characteristics: curious, imaginative, independent, creative • The Big Five is valuable in research, but not the best in practice (when hiring, company should design test specific to the job) Dark Triad • A cluster of three personality disorders associated with counterproductive work behavior: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy Integrity Testing Overt Integrity Test Ask questions directly about past honesty behavior (stealing, etc.) as well as attitudes toward various behaviors (employee theft, etc.) Personality Based Integrity Test Test that infers honesty and integrity from questions dealing with broad personality constructs (conscientiousness, reliability, social responsibility) Examples of Overt and Covert Integrity Test Items • 2/25/16 3:12 AM 2/25/16 3:12 AM
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