Exam 2 Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Painter on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 232 at Radford University taught by Dr. Powers in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Exam 2 Study Guide What do all animals have in common? o All have cells (unicellular and multicellular) o All exchange goods with the environment What is the definition of a tissue? o Organization of cells to preform a similar function What are tissues 4 common categories? o 1. Epithelial o 2. connective o 3. muscle o 4. nervous What do epithelial tissue cover in the body? o The tissue covers the outside of the body, organs and cavities are lined What are the three types of arrangements of layers of tissues? o Simple(single layer) o Stratified (multiple tiers) o Pseudostratified (single layer of cells) What does the cuboidal tissue look like, and what is it found in? Found in the ventricle system What does the columnar cells look like, what is it found in? Found in the digestive system What does the Squamous cell look like, what is it found in? Found in the respiratory system In an embryo, from which of the 3 tissue layers does epithelial tissue derive? o All 3 tissue layers 85% of all cancers arise in which tissue? o Epithelial tissues What is an example of a cancer in epithelial tissues? o Carcinomas What is connective tissues job, how tightly packed are these tissues cells, and what are all three connective tissue fibers made of? o The connective tissue binds and supports other tissues, it is loosly packed, and the three types of tissue fibers are all made out of proteins. What kinds of cancers can be found in connective tissues? o Sarcomas (bone or soft tissues) o Lymphomas (leukemia-in blood, lymphoma- in lymph) What is a muscle tissue? o Muscle tissues consist of long cells called muscle fibers, which are found all around the body What are the 6 major types of connective tissue? o 1. loose connective tissue o 2. Cartilage o 3. Fibrous connective tissue o 4.Adipose tissue o 5. blood 6. Bone What are the contaminants of a muscle tissue? o Contains proteins: Actin and myosin (in contraction) What are the three groups/divisions for muscle tissues o Skeletal muscle, Smooth muscle and Cardiac muscle What is skeletal muscle responsible for? o Responsible for voluntary movement What is smooth muscle responsible for? o Responsible for involuntary body activities What is cardiac muscle responsible for? o Responsible for the contraction of the heart What is the nervous tissue? o Tissue that senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal What does the nervous tissue contain? o Neurons and Glial cells or glia What are neurons o Nerve cells that transmit nerve impulses What are Glial cells? o Cells that help nourish, insulate and replenish neurons What happens when nervous tissues are tied in with muscular disorders? o The animal or human develops neuromuscular diseases such as ALS, MS, Parkinson's disease etc. What is the difference of a regulator and a conformer? Give some examples of both of these. o Conformers allow internal condition to vary with external changes ex. Largemouth bass. A regulator is an internal control mechanism to moderate internal change in the face of external environmental fluctuation ex. River otter As temp increases, metabolic rate _____________ o Increases (positive correlation) What is the difference between endotherms and ectotherms? o Endotherms create temp inside their body. Ectotherms rely on environment to change it temp. What is homeostasis? o Motivating changes in the internal environment. Fluctuations above or below a set point serves as a stimulus, these are detected by a sensor and trigger a response. How does a negative feedback loop control homeostatic systems? o Buildup of the end product shuts the system off How does a positive feedback loop control homeostatic systems? o Loops occur but do not usually contribute to homeostases The body temperature of a ___________ varies with its environmnet, while that of a _________ remains relatively constant. o Poikilotherm, homeotherm What are the 5 adaptations that help animals thermoregulate? o 1. insulation o 2. circulatory system o 3. cooling by evaporative heat loss o 4. behavioral responses o 5. adjusting metabolic heat production What is thermoregulation controlled by? o The hypothalamus What are some thermoregulatory responses to cool down? o Vasodilation of the arteries (dilate to increase heat loss o Sweating What are some thermoregulatory responses to warm up? o Vasconstriction (arteries get smaller) o Shivering Thermoregulation is a – _______ _______ ______ o Negative feedback loop What is the definition of a metabolic rate? o The amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time What is one way you could measure the metabolic rate? o To determine the amount of oxygen consumed or carbon dioxide produced What is a BMR? o Basal metabolic rate of an endotherm at rest at "normal" temp What is a SMR? o Standard metabolic rate of an ectotyherm at rest at a specific temperature Ectotherms have a much ________ metabolic rates than endotherms of a comparable size o Lower Larger animals = __________ BMR o Larger What might be affected by BMR? o Aspects of reproduction o Endothermy vs ectothermy o Aspects of behavior (ex. Nocturnal vs diurnal) o Food preference (carnivores vs herbavores) What are the different respiratory surfaces? o Outter surface, skin, gills, tracheae and lungs What is torpor? o A state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases( saves energy while avoiding difficult/dangerous conditions) What is hibernation? o Long term torpor that is an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity What is estivation? o Summer torpor, enables animals to survive longer hot periods and scare water supplies How many gills do sharks have? o 5 Are sharks gills exposed or hidden? o Exposed The _____ __________ is an organism that has the ability to breathe through their anus o The sea cucumber How does the sea cucumber do this? o They "breathe" by drawing water in through the anus and then expelling it What is an example of a simpler animal with no true circulatory system? o Cnidarians What are diploblastic organisms? o Organisms that have a body wall that is only two cells thick and allows easy exchange that encloses a gastrovascular cavity ___________ have a GV cavity and a large SA:V ratio o Flatworms Which complex animals have an open circulatory system? o Arthropods and most mollusks What complex animals have a closed circulatory system? o All verts Both open and closed circulatory systems have the same three basic components... o 1. Circulatory fluid (blood or hemolymph (open)) o 2. Set of tubes (blood vessels) o 3. Muscular pump (heart) What are water vascular systems? o A system of canals and specialized to be feet function in locomotion and food gathering What animals have a single circulation system? o Bony fishes, rats and sharks, (2 chambered heart) What is a single circulation? o Blood leaving the heart passes through 2 capillary beds before returning What animals have double circulation? o Amphibians reptiles (birds too) and mammals What is double circulation? o Oxygen poor and oxygen rich blood are pumped separately from the right and left sides of the heart What is countercurrent gas exchange? o Blood that flows opposite direction to water passing over the gills; blosd is always less saturated with o2 than the water it meets What is the difference between amphs, reptiles and mammals circulatory systems? o Ampshs: 2 atria, 1 ventricle: ridge in the ventricle pushes blood in the right direction o Reptiles: 2 atria, 1 ventricle: semi- separated the system is more efficient than amphs o Mammals: 2 atria 2 ventricles: fully separated fully efficient How long is the distance from the capillaries to the alveoli? o 0.2 um What is transported through the capillaries? o Blood (hemolymph) is the same as interstitial fluid Blood is considered what kind of tissue? o A connective tissue One red blood cell has ______________ hemoglobin molecules o 250 million One hemoglobin molecule can carry ____ molecules of oxygen o 4 What do open circulatory system animals have as "blood"? o They have hemocyanin with copper as the oxygen binding components when combined with 02 Pigment With Oxygen Without Oxygen Species Group Hemogloben Bright red Dark Red All Vertebrates Homocyanin Blue Colorless Mollusks & Arthropods Haemerythrin Pink Colorless Marine inverts & Marine Annelid Chlorocruorin Green Red All Annelids What is Bohrs Shift? o CO2 is produced during cellular respiration and lowers blood PH & decreases the affinity of hemoglobin for 02 What are the 4 components of blood? o Red blood cells o White blood cells o Lissome o Plasma What hormone stimulates erythrocyte production when oxygen delivery is low? o Erythropoletin (EPO) Why are capilaries so thin and why is that important? o They are thin so that blood pressure can push red blood cells out of capilaries, also thin because of oxygen exchange What is the goal of the lymphatic system? o To return fluid that leaks out of the fluid (lymph) re enters the circulation directly at the venous ends What are lymph nodes? o Organs that filter lymph and play an important role in the body's defense What are the bends? o Low partial pressure of the Nitrogen in the blood results from pulmonary stunts that occur in mammals that dive 30 M deep What is Osmoregulation? o The regulation of salts. Can be diluted with water What is so important about intertidal lizards? o They feed on salty crustaceans and has a salt gland on the nose and this appears white. This animal uses a countercurrent change to exchange salt What is a osmoconformer? o Consisting o only marine animals, are isosmotic with their surroundings and do not regulate their osmolality What is a osmoregulator? o Expend energy to control water uptake and loss in a hypersmotic or hyposmotic environment Most marine invertebrates are __________ o Osmoconformers Sharks are _______ o Isoosmotic Marine verts are _______ o Osmoregulators Inverts in a vernal pond (temporary) dump all the body water and survive in a dormant state.. What is this dormant state called? o Anhydrobiosis What do most fish excrete? o Ammonia What do mammals amphs and some fish excrete? o Urea What do insects, land snails, many reptiles and all birds excrete? o Uric acid What filtration system does platyhelminthes use? o Protostonephridea What filtration system does annelia use? o Use metanephridia What do insecta use for their filtration system? o Malpighian How do humans filtrate? o The kidneys! What is the simplest excretion system, how does it work? o Protostonephridium, a network of dead-end tubules connected to external openings What is the next step up for an excretion system? How does it work? o Metanephridium, when excreting, cilia beat and draw in intestinal fluid, some solutes get re-absorbed, leftovers sent out the pores What is the most complex excretion? How does it work? o The kidneys, the nephron, the functional unit of the vertebrate kidney consists of a single long tubule and a ball of capillaries called the glomerulus What is Bowmans capsule? o A capsule that surrounds and receives filtrate from the glomerulus How does filtration occur in the kidneys? o Filtration occurs in the bowmans capsule that is nonselective and forces fluid from the blood in the glomerulus into the lumen of bowmans capsule Filtrate consists of what chemicals? o Salts, glucose, vitamins, amino acids, nitrogenous wastes and other small molecules What are hormones? o Chemical signals secreted into circulatory system In insects, molting and development are controlled by a combo of ________ o Hormones What is the difference between the endocrine and nervous system? o The endocrine system secretes hormones with a slower acting response o The nervous system uses neurons that are a fast acting response What are some secreted chemical signals? o Hormones/endocrine signals o Neurotransmitters o Neurohormones o Pheromones Endocrine hormones are secreted into _______ fluids and travel in the ______ _____ o Extracellular, blood stream What is an example of a hormone from the exocrine system? o Pheromones What is the neurotransmitters pathway? o Neurons (nerve cells) contact target cells at synapses signals that are picked up by receptors, neurons often secrete chemical signals that are picked up by receptors with a fast moving path What are pheromones? o Chemical signals that are released from the body and used to communicate with other individuals in the species What can pheromones mark to others? o Trails to food sources, to warn off predators, and to attract potential mates What are the 3 major classes of molecules that functions as hormones in verts? o Polypeptides (proteins and peptides) o Amines derived from amino acids o Steroid hormones Steroid hormones are __________ soluble o Lipid Polypeptides and amines are _________ soluble o Water The solubility of a hormone correlates with....... o The location of receptors inside or on the surface of the target cell What are target cells? Does it matter? o The same hormone may have different effects on target cells. They have a different receptor for the hormone and different transduction pathways Hormones are released from an ___________ o Endocrine cell What is the simple hormone pathway? o The hormone is released from an endocrine cell, travel through the bloodstream and interact with the receptor or a target cell that causes a physiological response What are neurohormones? o A class of hormones that originate from neurons in the brain and diffuse through the bloodstream What are some examples of neurohormones? o Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) o Epinephrine (adrenaline)-fight or flight o Athletic drugs What controls the level of response of hormones? o Negative feedback loops providing homeostasis What is an example of negative feedback loop o Insulin and glucagon- antagonistic hormones maintain glucose homeostasis In the pancreas.. Alpha cells produce _________ o Glucagon In the pancreas, beta cells produce _______ o Insulin What is the difference between water soluble hormones and lipid soluble hormones? o Water soluble hormones- secreted by exocytosis, travel freely in the bloodstream and bind to cell surface receptors o Lipid soluble hormones- diffuse across cell membranes, travel in the bloodstream bound to transport proteins and diffuse through the membrane of the target cells What is the function of the hypothalamus? o Receives information from the nervous system and initiates responses through the endocrine system What is the function of the posterior and anterior pituitary glands? o Posterior stores and secretes hormones that are made in the hypothalamus o Anterior pituitary makes and releases hormones under regulation of the hypothalamus What are the functions of thyroid hormones? o To stimulate metabolism, influence development and maturation What happens when the thyroid excessively secretes? o Causes high body temp, weight loss, irritability and high blood pressure What is hypothyroidism? o Low secretion of thyroid hormones. Causes weight gain, lethargy and intolerance to cold What is the affect of release of epinephrine and norepinephrine? o They trigger the release of glucose and fatty acids into the blood, increase oxygen delivery to blood cells and direct blood toward heart, brain and skeletal muscles and away from skin digestive system and kidneys The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine occurs in the response to what? o In response to nerve signals from the hypothalamus What are the sex hormones and what sex produces what? o Androgens, estrogens and progestin... all sex hormones are found in males and females, but in different amounts.
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