Intro to Theatre, Study Guide for Exam 1
Intro to Theatre, Study Guide for Exam 1 CO 1503
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Smith on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CO 1503 at Mississippi State University taught by William Stockstill in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 291 views. For similar materials see Intro to Theatre in Communication at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Intro to Theatre Test 1 Study Guide Types of theatrical spaces Arena o Audience is on all sides of the playing space o Entrances and exits for actors are located between the audience platforms in the manner of voms o Minimal scenery, low to ground o Actor has to keep on moving and project o Can pack in lots of people Proscenium o The audience is positioned in front of a stage o Most common and youngest stage since 18 century o Allows for a presentational style of action and spectacle design o Details have to be bigger because of theatrical distance Thrust o Combination of arena and proscenium o The audience is on 3 sides of the stage o Replacing a section of the audience is a staging are that allows for scenic elements, entrances, and exits o One of the oldest forms of theatrical presentation Black Box o Flexible space theatre o Audience platforms can be configured in any way to suit the creation of multiple spaces o Comes with movable seating and platform Found space o Find a space and do theatre in it o Benefits include different experience for audience and throws them off Elements of drama Spectacle o Heightened reality o Skewed but relatable Music o Vocal or instrumental o Creates moods and expectations Character o Protagonist- we want them to succeed o Antagonist- working against protagonist Plot o The story line Thought o Idea behind the story/event o The “why” o Provides cultural importance to society Diction o Vocal transmission of words to audience Protagonist We want them to succeed Antagonist Working against protagonist Origins of theatre--how it came about & theories Oral tradition o Telling stories verbally to teach morals and history o Different ways to tell a story Re-enactment (Egypt) Poetry Music Dance Hunter-gatherer ritual o Talking about spirits o Make up stories to explain nature Community historian o Comes from oral tradition o Write down everything that happens o Is responsible for passing down history o Re-enacts history o Makes re-telling interesting by embellishing o Enlists people to act out while they narrate Religious ritual o Re-enactment as a religious ritual o Thing people do as a group to worship gods or to appease spirits o Egypt Abydos Passion Play First recorded play Re-enactment of Osirus ( dying and rising god) Pharaoh plays the part of the god Travels to perform at actual location Performed every year for 2,000 years theatre vs. drama theatre o The building Drama o What we perform on stage Theatre vs. theatre Theatre o The art form o Envelops both theatre and drama o Imaginary connection between audience and performance theatre o The building Conflict Makes story more interesting for the audience Elements of Theatre Story o Loose plot or thought Performance/actors o Actual actors translate story Audience o Have to have one o Most important element Playwright Come up with story and characters Defines characters by stage directions, dialogue, and subtext Subtext is the meaning behind the lines Subtext is more prevalent in modern plays Subtext Meaning behind the lines Objective vs. super-objective Objective o What do characters want o How the characters act Super-objective o What is their primary goal out of life o Made up of smaller objective Tone Mood of play Influences how the audience feels emotionally Theme Main idea or lesson to be learned Ideas behind the story Plot The story line What happens in the story Comedy vs. tragedy—aspects of each Comedy o Protagonist succeeds o Happy ending Tragedy o Protagonist fails o Someone dies Dithyramb State sponsored religious festival Celebrates Dionysus o Fertility o Wine Phallika o Parade o State sponsored o Parade in honor of Dionysus o Giant phallus’s were carried by city officials o Giant party- everybody got drunk o Sacrifices of goats were made to the god o At the end of the parade were young boys Phallus o Symbol of fertility Sex o At climax you are closer to the gods Dithyramb o Song sung to the god Dionysus o Military trained boys would form a chorus that had around 50 people in it o They would compete for best performance o Sing and dance to honor god Thespis 534 BCE Thespis wins the dithyramb competition with a performance that he wrote and acted in Regarded as the first actor Stepped forward out of the chorus and narrated story to audience Structure of Athenian competitions Government sponsored Required attendance for all Athenian citizens Requirements for playwrights o 3 tragedies o 1 satyr play o Each writer would get their own day in a competition for his plays to be performed Choregos o Private citizen that provided all financial needs for chorus and playwright Greek tragedy Tragoidia- goat skin Considered the highest form of art Subject o Ancient story or myth o Dealt with a separated class Kings Heroes Characters o Hamaratia- tragic flaw o Hubris- pride, common flaw Satyr play Satirical in nature Chorus’s were dressed as satyrs with large erect phallus’s Greek actors Males only Masked actors with large bright costumes o Masks acted as microphones and had blank faces on them Only 1-3 actors per performance that played all the roles Greek chorus Same as dithyramb The voice of the city and represents the audience Role o Comment on the play’s action o Provide back story o Control the audience’s reaction Aristophanes/Lysistrata Aristophanes o Only comic playwright we have plays from o Intelligently written scripts o Dealt with serious issues o Wrote first feminist plays that portrayed women that weren’t obsessed with drinking and sex in comedies Storyline o Inciting incident- beginning, meeting with women representatives o Conflict- women want end to war o Solution- give up sex, take over treasury o 2 choruses- old men and old women banter back and forth o Crisis- women start missing husbands during middle of play o Lysistrata gets more serious at end o Compares government to making a wool suit, there are lots of steps to bring together citizens o Plan has spread everywhere and is working o Rod scene: woman teases man, plays with audience o Climax- not big, sudden ending Greek comedy Subject matter o Social issues such as political and cultural issues o Similar to satyr plays Chorus was usually non-human Made fun of political figures o Who were usually in the audience Raunchy and dirty Different from Roman comedy in that it deals with actual current issues whereas Roman is just about escaping reality with sitcom ludi Romani Ludi- state sponsored religious festivals Ludi Romani given in honor to Jupiter each September Established in 6 century o 364 BCE- performances began o 240 BCE- comedy and tragedy incorporated to worship gods Fabulua Story of tale, modern fable Roman comedy What we know of comedy from the plays of Platus Farce o A zany comedy with lots of running and miscommunication Humor o Dramatic irony Romans wanted to escape reality and live in the moment Eliminated chorus Featured musical accompaniment under the dialogue All the action takes place on the streets Set is house fronts Eavesdropping is common and causes many complications Action is continuous and happening in real time Situational comedy is comedy of character Stock characters o Character stereotypes o Roman examples Young lovers The pimp Annoying warrior/prick Courtesan Old man Free loafer Cunning and tricky slave Roman tragedy vs. Greek tragedy Roman tragedy was adapted from Greek originals Greek tragedy o Violence/action not on stage o Told effects of action Roman tragedy o Violence/action happens on stage o Showed effects of actions Use of theatre in the Middle Ages The church brought back theatre to teach Christianity to illiterate common folk and convert uneducated pagans Mummers Masked performers Jongleurs Wandering poets Liturgical Drama Short dramatic episodes acted out during mass Inside the church Often happened on/around festival/religious holidays o Like a passion play or nativity The subject was Biblical stories Playing space o Each scene the actors/monks would move to a different location o Alter o Choral stalls o Mansions Performed by monks, priests, altar boys Mansions Small booths containing a stage arranged around the nave of the church Pageant wagons Booths with wheels on them that held scenic elements for the production Lined up by each other or a circle to make a stage Each wagon would often be sponsored by a guild and they would be responsible for the special effects General atmosphere would be like aa festival or carnival Church began to separate themselves further Hell Mouth- demons came out of mouth of beast Morality play Very popular form of medieval drama Subject was salvation through stories o Not Biblical but inspired by Christian morals Allegorical drama o Characters= moral qualities Stories o We see the entirety of a character’s life from birth to death o Hero’s qualities or morals are attacked by sin o Good vs evil o Reward and punishment The Renaissance Rebirth of civilization Explosion of art, culture, travel centered in Italy after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 Reintroduction and gained interest in the classical World of Greece and Rome Education suddenly became important to higher classes Art is getting realistic and mathematical Happened in Italy because monks smuggled art and plays from Constantinople to Italy University Wits Collection of university professors Acting troupes hired university trained writers Came up with revenge tragedy Have to connect aristocrats with working class Revenge tragedy/characteristics Most popular form of pre-Shakespeare theatre Took Seneca’s characteristics Characteristics o Motive: revenge, either real or imagined Playwrights are ingenious with how revenge takes place o Types Sacred Happens to hero, real motive Animosity of ambition Villain makes up story for revenge o Plot plays with gray area Personal and political lines get blurred o Revenge degenerates the revenger Either in madness (real or false), fury, or obsession o Action Violent and sensational Keeps lower class interested Characters- common motives o Noble/courageous lover is murdered o Kinsmen avenge murder victim, is psychologically frustrated o Villain uses others to carry out villainy o Beautiful lady wronged and destroyed by circumstances Shakespearean tragic hero Possess high rank in society Has extraordinary talents Tragic flaw Faced with honor and dignity High Comedy vs. Low Comedy/Taming of Shrew High comedy o Witty comedy Low comedy o Slapstick Doesn’t last long Lots of bodily humor Dumbshow o Play within a play; show before the show o Has nothing to do with the main plot One of Shakespeare’s better comedies 2.5 plot lines in one play Not produced anymore because of the ending o Wife should be submissive to husband Allegorical characters o Katharina Says what she thinks o Bianca Witty, one type of woman High comedy with low comedy thrown in Performed fast Medieval tragedy vs. Renaissance tragedy Medieval tragedy o Characters fall because of bad fortune, gods, or fate Renaissance tragedy o Characters fall because of human error, their own flaws
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