Study guide notes for cde 312 final
Study guide notes for cde 312 final CDE 312
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natalie Willins on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CDE 312 at Arizona State University taught by Swanson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 166 views. For similar materials see Adolescence in Child Development at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
CDE 312 final notes Adolescent cognition and the family Cognition Cognition can be studied in many ways and from different perspectives: o Cognitive development o Psychometric o Information processing o Social cognition What is cognition? o Activity of knowing What is cognitive development? o Growth in intellectual capacity to engage objectively in logical analyses and make symbolic representations Cognitive developmental perspective Study of thinking Dominates the study of intellectual growth in childhood and adolescence Cognitive growth takes place in sequential changes Jean Piaget: main theorist 5 outcomes associated with the development of formal operational thinking in adolescence (Keating 1980) these are similar to the changes in cognition outlined in Steinberg o Adolescents can think about abstract concepts o Adolescents are capable of thinking about hypotheses o Adolescents are capable of thinking ahead and planning o Adolescents are capable of reflective thinking- i.e. self reflection; analysis of own needs o The content of adolescent thought is broadened- i.e. solving the problems of the world Assimilation: incorporating new information into existing cognitive structures; altering information to conform to an existing cognitive structure Accommodation: change in existing cognitive structures in response to new information from the environment; underlying mechanisms for learning Equilibrium: pendulum swings between assimilation and accommodation; matching adaptive functioning to situational demands; equilibrium is the balance between self and world Formal operations and egocentrism: David Elkind o “Formal operational thought not only enables the adolescent to conceptualize his thought, it also permits him to conceptualize the thought of other people. It is this capacity to take account of other people’s thought, however which is the crux of adolescent egocentrism. This egocentrism emerges because, while the adolescent can now recognize the thoughts of others, he fails to differentiate between the objects toward which the thoughts of others are directed and those which are the focus of his own concern” (Elkind 1967). o During childhood, child attuned to only concrete objects or experiences and so is perceptually bound to immediate environment Childhood egocentrism: inability to differentiate between mental constructions and perceptual information With formal operations, adolescents can conceptualize their own thoughts from those of other people Imaginary audience: according to the adolescent, everyone is looking at them. Appearance is crucial. Personal fable: according to the adolescent, she/he is unique and special. Can be a source of strength and comfort Founding fable: according to the adolescent, she/he is so unique and special that she/he couldn’t possibly be related to parents. May cause difficulties in parent/child relationship Invincibility fable: a sense of indestructability, she/he is protected from bad circumstances How does adolescent egocentrism diminish? o Experience in social perspective taking and social interaction o Thinking about future and place in society; listening to other people o School experiences; family discussions; work experience Psychometric perspective Refers to assessments of psychological aptitudes (potentials); systematic effort to derive numerical values with respect to a reference group Conceptualized largely in psychometric or quantitative terms and having more or less of an attribute Offers strongest and weakest approach to understanding adolescent intellectual growth o Strength: scientific rigor of methods o Weakness: theoretical background (i.e. what is IQ, how is it really measured, what does it really mean) IQ: intelligence quotient is a way to measure intellectual growth McCall, Applebaum, and Hogarty (1973): researched 80 subjects to assess effect of parental behavior on IQ o Findings 5 patterns of IQ change which are distinguished by parental behavior Highest performance: parents attempted to accelerate children; moderate discipline Poorest performance: parents didn’t attempt to accelerate children; most punitive Regardless of pattern, for all adolescents, the developmental trend in IQ change is associated with host of factors other than inheritance “The environment associated with optimum IQ profiles seemed to be one in which the parent encouraged and attempted to accelerate intellectual behavior, but in a context of moderate structure and discipline.” Family factors that influence intelligence Family cultural interests Home reading facilities Parental educational level Parental encouragement Parental speech Family configuration Economic/intellectual model Larger family and close spacing place greater demands on economic resources, weakening intellectual environment Lower IQ development for later children is nullified by increased gaps in births of siblings; last born children handicapped because they lack experience in teaching younger children Social psychological model Focuses on interpersonal relationship between parents and children Firstborns have greater demands placed on them, receive more attention from parents and internalize stronger achievement needs Data supports both the economic/intellectual and social psychological models; however the social psychological model explains more than total IQ score development Social cognition perspective Takes humans and human affairs as its subjects; means cognition about people and their doings Deals strictly with the social world, not the physical and logical- mathematical ones Robert Selman o Social perspective taking and its course on development o Includes understanding how people maintain related and coordinated views, not simply recognized that 2 people hold separate viewpoints o More than just learning to focus from self to others Selman’s stages of social perspective taking Stage 0 o Child egocentric and undifferentiated o Most commonly between 3-7 years old o Don’t differentiate between physical and psychological characteristics of other people o Confuse intentional with unintentional acts and feelings Stage 1 o Differentiated and subjective perspective taking o Common between 5-9 years old o Begin to differentiate between physical and psychological; intentional and unintentional o Develop awareness of unique, covert psychological life Stage 2 o Self reflective and reciprocal perspective taking o Between 6-12 years old o Learn to reflect on self; become conscious that others may reflect on them o Recognize that visible self may not be true reflection of psychological self o Can put self in another’s shoes Stage 3 o From 9-15 years old o Ability to take true 3 party perspective (i.e. can step outside self and assess/reflect on actions, intentions, psychological characteristics of self and others) Stage 4 o In-depth and societal/symbolic perspective taking o Actions, thoughts, motives, feelings recognized to be psychologically determined but not necessarily understood by self through reflection o View personality as total product of values, beliefs, traits, and attitudes with own complex developmental history Inside the teenage brain video Unused pathways in brain are “pruned” Prefrontal cortex involved in: changing your mind, flexibility Downside for starting later for middle school students, but upside for high schoolers o After school activities, bus schedules, childcare are affected Relationships and connections in the teenagers’ lives is what makes the difference Kids want their parents to be there but don’t know how to ask The power and purpose of the teenage brain http://thedianerehmshow.org/shows/2014-01-06/daniel-siegel-brainstorm- power-and-purpose-teenage-brain Brain goes through remodeling o Pruning: increases with stress Decrease in gray matter o Increase in white matter Baseline level of dopamine decreases but increased in amount released at one time Going to risk and experience novelty o Lead to hyperreactive thinking o Risk for addiction: can train brain to release dopamine when you try something o It’s the getting ready for the heroin or alcohol that releases the dopamine Anorexia is multidetermined onset 3 aspects of morality Moral reasoning (cognitive): how do children of different ages decide what is right/wrong? How do they learn to make increasingly sophisticated judgments as they age? Moral self-evaluation (affective, i.e. emotional): what causes children to experience guilt for transgression and pride for moral conscientiousness Resistance to deviation (behavioral): how do children develop the ability and willingness to withstand temptations to engage in attractive but prohibited activities Piaget’s theory of moral development Premoral period: children in this period show little concern for, or awareness of rules- if they aren’t aware of the rules, then they haven’t developed morals yet 2 periods: o Heteronomous morality (6-10) o Autonomous morality (10-11+) Lawrence Kohlberg Asked 10, 13, and 16 year old boys about morals Preconventional morality: concern about avoiding punishment, gaining rewards o Stage 1: punishment obedience orientation o Stage 2: instrumental hedonism (understandgin reciprocity: break a rule to get what you want) Conventional morality: when you start to think beyond your own gain o Stage 3: good boy good girl morality: seek approval o Stage 4: law and order morality: legal, law, religious, social, etc. Postconventional morality: cognitive growth, going beyond just laws, but thinking about the principles behind the laws o Stage 5: social contract: what is done in a democratic society o Stage 6: universal ethical principles: highest level, not easily attained by the lay person Stages are affected by education, especially specialties that emphasize moral thought (philosophy and religion) North americans tend to stabilize levels of moral reasoning in late adolescence/ early adulthood Gender differences in north America o Men: stage 4 o Women: stage 3 Theory validated only on males, but applied to both males and females; male and females often socialized differently (Carol Gilligan) Universal stages reflect liberal western values Stages overemphasize rational thought and underrate religious faith Verbally fluent people are able to score better than those who aren’t Stages presumed to be sequential but some people appear to progress and regress in moral development Moral reasoning doesn’t equal moral behavior Factors that influence moral development Cognitive development (intellectual capacity) Social experience o Modeling: seeing others make good choices o Leadership: promotes growth and moral reasoning o Education: understanding and analyzing moral situations o Self-concept: I am good and other people are good o Parental disciplinary practices: giving reasons when disciplining a child Developing social competence The ability to function adaptively in relationships with peers, parents, and others o Balance between autonomy and connectedness o Effective internal or cognitive resources o Emotional stability o Development of effective social skills Autonomy and connectedness Emotional autonomy: ability of adolescents to gain control of their emotions and transfer strong attachments from family members to significant others outside family boundaries Value autonomy: ability of adolescents to develop individual sets of principles in such areas as moral, religious, and vocational aspects of life Behavioral autonomy: extent to which adolescents acquire freedom of action from parents; includes ability to govern self in reference to dating, leisure time activities, selection of clothes, money management, use of time Too connected: emotionally fused Too separate: isolated and limited in nurturance; important to find balance Theories of autonomy Transactional theory of separation: Helm Stierlin o Adolescents don’t simply separate from parents, parents separate from adolescents Satellization theory: David Ausubel o Child’s status and self-esteem are reflections of the accomplishments of the parents o Launching/desatellization/resatellization Effective internal or cognitive resources High self-esteem o Identify the causes of low self-esteem and areas of competence o Emotional support and social approval o Achievement o Coping Firm self-concept o Internal locus of control o Interpersonal problem solving abilities o Sensitivity to other’s perspectives Fostering social competence Firm control: avoid physical punishment or verbal coercion o Teaches kids how to cooperate within system that has logical rules and consequences o Fosters sensitivity to other’s perspectives o Assists in developing autonomy o Helps cognitive development 2 way communication: fosters autonomy and connectedness; talk and listen Modeling: actions speak louder than words Support: tell adolescent what he/she is doing right Parental behavior vs. power Parental power: the adolescent’s perception that his/her parent has certain valued abilities, resources, competencies Refers to potential of ability of parents to influence adolescents o Behaviors: what a person actually uses o Power/authority: perceived potential to use Parenting behaviors Power assertive o Physical punishment o Deprivation of privileges o Rewards Command o Request not accompanied by any reward or punishment; a direct order Love withdrawal o Psychological punishment; scolding, isolating, refusing to speak to child Induction o Discipline to reason; reasons why child should behave in a certain way; good way to deal with adolescents Parental power Expert o Parent is perceived (may/may not be accurate) by child as being an expert or having superior insight into something o Affected by experience Informational o Parent is agent of change through providing information (induction) that results in a cognitive change and altered behavior o Child continues the changed behavior without referring to or even remembering the parent’s input o Differs from reward power: understanding the reason Legitimate o Parent is perceived by adolescent as having the right to influence them o Based on social norms Coercive o Parent perceived by adolescent as having ability to provide negative or adverse experiences for them (material, behavioral, affective) o Can be abdicated (lost) when coercive behaviors are used too often or without justification, parent uses idle threats or parent is undermined Reward o Parent perceived by adolescent as having ability to provide positive experiences (material, behavioral, affective) Referent o Parent perceived as having qualities that the adolescent admires or wishes to identify with o Adolescent knows they can turn to person for guidance and support o Based on security, trust, admiration 2 parents may use the same behaviors, but child will respond differently depending on the powers they perceive in that parent May be affected by culture Power works both ways- parents perceive power within their children Identity The “person” in personality Includes identification with important individuals in our lives; sense of direction, commitment, trust in a personal ideal Integrates sex role identification, individual ideology, accepted group norms, etc. Not formed exclusively in adolescence; just significantly transformed Function of identity Provides the structure for understanding who we are and the substance of the question, “who am I” Provides meaning and direction through the construction of reality Helps one make choices based on alternatives, providing a sense of personal control Enables a person to realize his or her potential; provides a sense of future goals Erik Erikson on adolescent identity Adolescence is a major junction in life for self-definition and self- esteem Who am I is addressed over and over again in adolescence Adolescent facing multitude of decisions (vocational, educational, social, values); feels increasingly uneasy, anxious, and compelled to resolve tension Most adolescents cope and alter personality Several factors encourage identity formation including: o Personal characteristics (cognitive, temperamental) o Parent/child relationship o Social and cultural opportunities and experiences Answering the question, “who am I” can lead to identity achievement Some adolescents enter state of role confusion o Final decision making to be threatening and conflicting o Creates ever growing sense of isolation o Feelings of shame, lack of pride, personal alienation, and perceptions of being manipulated by others Erikson- negative identity Committed to criminal, delinquent, antisocial, antihero identity Believed parents of such youth are deeply concerned with social status and prefer facades over true involvement and meaningful relationships Felt that parents expect children to give meaning to their lives; treat as possessions James Marcia on adolescent identity Neo-Eriksonian- extended Erikson’s work from “a rather diffuse psychoanalytic concept into a fruitful basis for empirical research” (Moshman 1998) Used extensive interview technique to study adolescents Identified 2 major variables leading to a state of identity o Crisis: period of engagement in choosing among meaningful alternatives o Commitment: degree of personal investment the person exhibits Marcia: identity diffusion Young person reports not experiencing need to search for personal answers nor making any strong commitment to a given perspective in life Use a variety of psychological defenses to control anxiety from having an undefined identity Intense, immediate experiences; move from one peer group to another, fad behavior Feelings of inferiority, alienation, ambivalence Poor physical, moral, ethical, personal, and social self-concepts Tension, anxiety, guilt, insecurity, suspicion, and jealousy in interpersonal contexts Less mature than expected in cognitive complexity, emotional development and general development Less cooperative; more manipulative More readily influenced by peer pressure More likely to engage in socially deviant behavior Prefers others who are similar Least likely of the 4 groups to have immediate or long term intimate relationships with others Tend to come from homes with more rejecting and detached families Father absent through separation or divorce Marcia: foreclosure Has a sense of commitment but hasn’t experienced struggle or state of crisis Assume a commitment handed to them by others (usually parents) Capable of expressing a commitment but can’t describe how they got it (what’s good enough for my parents is good enough for me) Tend to pursue quiet, orderly, industrious lifestyle Endorses authoritarian values (obedience, strong leadership, respect for authority) Strong goal orientation Strong need for social approval Maintains very dependent relationship with others Tend to remain cautious and dependent on others Hard working; constructive Unlikely to offer creative leadership or direction Overcompliant; generally adaptive Frozen in developmental progression Loving and affectionate home life Strongly child-centered families Parents may be intrusive and possessive, yet highly encouraging and supportive Family members show little encouragement of individual differences Strong pressures to conform to family values and beliefs Marcia: moratorium Young person searches for answers to many personal questions Appear to be struggling with unresolved questions Most anxious of the 4 identity status groups Still… maintain a stable sense of self-esteem High levels of both moral reasoning and ego development Highly self-directed; open to exploring host of alternative values Lack well-defined goals and values Very self-conscious; able to describe feelings clearly and deeply Active and social; capable of expressing affection towards others; socially adept and effective Less likely to be influenced by undesirable peer pressure Come from generally active homes Autonomy and self-expression encouraged Individual differences encouraged Marcia: identity achievement Report period of struggle and exploration (occupational, political, religious) but struggle ends with decisions on each Commitments are strong and well-defined Pathways are vividly marked; great deal of effort and thought needed before willing to change commitments Most complex, highly adaptive personality of the 4 statuses More future orientated; reflective cognitive style; higher levels of self- esteem and moral reasoning Higher grades in school; report higher satisfaction with schooling Resist peer pressure Orderly, active, self-directed lives Deep commitment to friends; strong relationships Most coping skills View parents in positive, but occasionally ambivalent terms Come from homes with high praise, minimal parental control and secure attachments Marcia: adolescent development With increasing age/grade, number of identity achievement and moratorium youths increase Changes can be consistent (i.e. from diffused to foreclosed to moratorium) or inconsistent Possible for person to regress Gradual process to achievement of highly complex and committed role structure Family influences on identity Parents are important figures in identity development Democratic parents who encourage teens to participate in family decision making foster identity achievement Autocratic parents who control the adolescent’s behavior without giving the adolescent an opportunity to express an opinion encourage identity foreclosure Permissive parents who provide little guidance to adolescents and allow them to make their own decisions promote identity diffusion Individuation and connectedness also related to identity development Identity formation is enhanced in families that encourage adolescents to develop their own point of view (individuation) and are also connected, allowing a secure base for exploring the world Parents who use enabling behaviors (explaining, accepting, empathy) facilitate identity development more than parents who use constraining behaviors (judging, devaluing) What is the role of culture in identity development? Ethnic minority groups throughout the world have struggled to maintain cultural identities while blending into the dominant culture Most ethnic minority individuals first consciously confront their ethnicity in adolescence Ethnic identity exploration may be higher among ethnic minority than white American college students Ethnic minority students who had thought about and resolved issues involving ethnicity had higher self-esteem than those who didn’t Jean S. Phinney (1989) studied identity development among Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White American high school students and found that adolescents from the three minority groups perceived different issues important in resolution of ethnic identity Phinney (1989) on ethnic identity development Asian American students: pressures to achieve academically; concerns about quotas making it difficult to get into good colleges Hispanic American students: dealing with prejudice; conflicting values between cultures Black, female American students: dealing with image issues- white American standards of beauty (esp. hair/skin color) Black, male American students: dealing with image issues- need to distinguish themselves from negative societal image; possible job discrimination https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i20d11fGz-0&feature=related Janet Helms and William Cross: 4 stages of ethnic identity development 1. Pre-encounter: prefer dominant cultural values over their own culture 2. Encounter: gradual process; begin to break through denial; realize that nota all cultural values of dominant group are beneficial to them; conflicting attitudes about identity 3. Immersion/emersion: a. Immersion: completely endorse minority views and reject dominant society b. Emersion: no longer find it necessary to reject everything from dominant culture and accept everything from own culture; develop greater autonomy 4. Internalization/commitment: develop sense of fulfillment regarding integration of personal and cultural identities; have resolved conflicts of immersion/emersion stage; have greater self-control and flexibility; can more objectively examine cultural values of other ethnic minority groups and dominant group; desires to eliminate all forms of oppression Helms’ model of white ethnic identity: 5 stages 1. Contact: oblivious to ethnic/racial/cultural issues; don’t think of self in racial or ethnic terms 2. Disintegration: become aware of social implications of race/ethnicity on personal level; caught between privilege and humane desire to treat others fairly 3. Reintegration: idealizes anything associated with white culture; denigrate anything associated with ethnic minority culture; anger 4. Pseudo-independence: develop understanding of privileges of being white and recognize personal responsibility to fight racism 5. Autonomy: develop bicultural or racially transcendent world view; adopt positive, nonracist white identity, feeling of kinship with others regardless of race/ethnicity; seek to abolish oppression of minority groups Analysis of stages in ethnic and white identity Boundaries between stages not always abrupt or clearly defined Many times, one stage blends into next Not all individuals experience the entire range of these stages Some individuals may be born and raised into a family that is functioning at a higher level Self-esteem and identity in digital age video Identity: sense of who you are and what you stand for (values) o Includes how you see yourself o Physical, social, emotional factors o Group reinforces identity o Strong positive identity enhances well-being 5 key influences of identity o Family o School you go to o Friends you have o Personality o Internet: most important Self esteem: how important you are o Comes from recognition you get from others o Good supportive family higher self esteem o Not bullied higher self esteem o Approval of friends is critical for teenagers o Global: how you are as a person o Specific: how you are riding a bike, school, etc. o Thrive on approval and recognition o Who we are/what we believe comes from parents Important components in terms of deciding who we are o Feeling safe o Feeling valued o Feeling listened to 4 key developmental tasks as adolescents o To find connection with school o Figure out identity o Find good friends o Be independent Girls fight with moms when finding independence Boys withdraw Children learn to take risks within boundaries of adult guidance o Safe ways to express independence Self esteem is about accepting yourself while recognizing your strengths and weaknesses o Not about bragging o Comes from making meaningful contributions Media can cause negative self images in girls and boys Family stress theory Classic works by Hill (1949) and Buss (1973) 4 variables that have a direct bearing on adolescent development and adaptation: o Stressors o Resources o Family definition and meaning o Coping Stressors o Events that occur at a relatively distinct point in time and call for change o Normative: stressors that occur for most individuals o Non-normative: stressors that don’t occur for most individuals; peculiar to the individual Strains: unresolved hardships due to prior stressors o Example: getting driver’s license: stressor. Normative stressor because most adolescents experience it Resources o Traits, characteristics, or abilities of family members, family system, and community that can be used to meet the demand of adolescent issues Most important family system resource for managing stress: cohesion and adaptation Community resources: crisis centers, school programs, medical services, social support Important social resources: friends, relatives, neighbors o 4 basic components of personal resources adolescents need to help adaptation Financial Educational Physical Psychological o Most important psychological resources for managing stressors and strains: self-esteem and internal locus of control Parents of adolescents emphasize different demands contributing to stress o Most frequently related to finances o Parents less likely to report parent-adolescent conflict than adolescents o Work stress mentioned by parents as a major source of strain for family (start a new job, etc.) o Family system is in a state of flux during adolescence o Extreme stress can adversely affect adolescent’s physical and emotional health Family definition and meaning: how does family define a crisis situation? o Cognitive and behavioral responses to demands experienced o Resources: what you have; coping- what you do o Olson, et al. identified 10 major stressors/strains within “normal” families; adolescents identified major sources of stressors/strains experienced by them or by a family member Adolescents less likely to react physically to stress if they: o Engage in tasks focused on others o Strive to achieve goals that develop mastery and self-esteem o Realistically and appropriately appraise physical sensations Coping strategies used by adolescents: o Ventilating feelings Venting frustrations/anger/happiness/sadness to friends or family members o Seeking diversions Participating in other activities to take mind off stressors o Developing social support Staying connected to others- mostly friends o Solving family problems Ex. Big sister giving advice to little sister regarding a conflict o Developing self-reliance/optimism Make one’s own decisions on how to solve problem o Avoiding problems Passive dealing with problem, sometimes turning to use of alcohol or drugs- not positive diversion activities o Seeking spiritual support Participating in religious activities o Investing in close friendships Seeking help from new boyfriend/girlfriend o Seeking professional support Trained professionals- teacher, school counselor, psychiatrist o Engaging in demanding activity Taking on sport or participating in school activity that entails large amounts of time and focus o Being humorous Not taking situation too seriously o Relaxing Engaging in calming activities o Boys and girls use different coping strategies Adolescent coping strategies used by girls o Developing social support o Solving family problems o Developing self-reliance and optimism o Investing in close friendships o Ventilating feelings o Seeking professional support Adolescent coping strategies used by boys o Adolescent coping strategies used by boys o Avoiding problems o Seeking diversions o Being humorous 10 major stressors/strains identified by adolescents: Intra family strains o Increased arguments about getting jobs done at home o Pressures to get good grades or do well in sports/school o Child or teenage member resists doing things with family o Increased arguments over use of car or hours to stay out o Increased arguments over choice of friends or activities Illness and losses o Family member was hospitalized o Grandparent(s) become seriously ill o Close family relative died Finance and business strains o Increased expenses: medical, food, clothing, energy, etc. Family transitions o Member started junior high or high school Of the 10 major stressors, ½ related to hassles or conflicts with parents Adolescents struggle with transitions to junior high or high school 4 of 10 stressors not directly experienced by adolescent, although adolescent affected Where do adolescents learn to cope? Previous experience in handling similar situations Vicarious experience Social persuasion What can parents do to help adolescents learn coping skills? Be sensitive to complex and competing demands parents place on adolescents Promote development of problem solving skills and coping strategies Divorce statistics According to data from 2005-2010 by U.S. Census Bureau, percent of divorced individuals has fluctuated between 9.7 and 9.8 meaning the divorce rate has been relatively stable over the last 5 years 2/3’s of divorced parents have children under the age of 18 Proportion of divorces increases markedly when adolescent is in the family How is divorce studied? Subjects o Many parents refuse to participate in studies o Parents may agree to participate, but adolescents may refuse o Process of gathering subjects is often difficult Techniques o Clinical assessments: done from a psychological perspective o Comparisons: regional, race, class status, gender, etc. o In-depth interviews: personal assessments o Cross sectional designs- data collected at one point in time o Longitudinal designs: data collected across time Methodology: sometimes problematic o Studies are often simplistic o Omission of crucial variables o Failure to control factors o Adolescents of divorced families are often compared with adolescents from intact, well-functioning families Studies o Nye (1957) Children from intact, well-functioning families had fewest behavioral problems Children from single parent or step parent families had intermediate number of problems Children from intact, conflicted families had most deviant behavior o Luepnitz (1979) Pre-divorce marital conflict produced more stress than divorce or post-divorce phase Reactions to divorce Initial reaction: feeling of upheaval Initial stress followed by longer-term instability Change in economics, school and residence, and friends may contribute to upheaval and feelings of instability Increased responsibility in household Younger adolescents may retreat from family; become isolated Older adolescents may withdraw initially but then seek out peers Positive friendships can help with adolescent who is struggling with stress of divorce Some adolescents experience relief after a divorce Custodial parent overload Custodial mother becomes more authoritarian Noncustodial fathers become more permissive Younger adolescents may have feelings of insecurity and heightened vulnerability Younger adolescents may have strong neediness Younger adolescents may view divorce as personal rejection, leading to self-rejection; guilt Older adolescents have attained formal operations; can disassociate from perceived parental rejections Older adolescents often believe they could have done something to keep parents together Most typical reaction to divorce during guilty stage is anger Preadolescents/early adolescent males particularly vulnerable to anger reaction Parents who use adolescents to get back at one another can exacerbate anger Anger may lead to aggression Early adolescents more likely to act aggressively Depression (especially early/middle adolescent females) Adolescents most at risk are younger teenagers who had problems before divorce and whose parents were emotionally unstable Cooney, Smyer, Hagestad, and Klock (1986( studied adolescents in their late teens and early 20s with divorced parents o Found these adolescents to have feelings of anger, vulnerability, and stress at the time of parents’ decision to get divorced o Adolescents reported lac of peer group support o Adolescents noted changes in relationships with parents o Conflicted loyalty to parents, especially during holidays o Worry over parents’ future and own role in parents’ lives Although the reactions to divorce by adolescents are many, most adolescents are able to move on, establishing positive identity and self-worth Positive effects of divorce Adolescents may form strong bonds with parents Adolescents may become more responsible Adolescents may develop coping strategies Adolescents may feel relieved as they are now free from living in a home with tension and conflict Adjusting to parental divorce Wallerstein (1983)- adolescents must resolve 6 tasks for healthy lives 1. Acknowledge the marital rupture 2. Disengage from parental conflict 3. Resolution of loss 4. Resolution of anger and self-blame 5. Accept permanence of divorce 6. Achieve realistic hope regarding relationships From the inside: personal challenges for teens reentering society video Juvenile jails want to help kids be literate Helps kids be ready for the world outside (education) Teaches kids to be barbers and gives them something to be confident about (makes them marketable) Helps kids connect with outside organizations to help the kids to have a transitional job that they like to do Kids need support from someone else helping them make the right decisions On the outside: social challenges for teens reentering society Adolescents have a 70% chance of returning to jail within 6 months of getting out In house education program educates kids o Has a GED program that gives kids a GED if completed and can set them up for college Has family program where they can talk about their feelings and what is going on with each other Peer to peer education is very effective Trains them on how to be successful in interview o Application, resume, clothes, interview skills Substance abuse program works with child and home to help with substance abuse therapy o Intensive o Phone check-ins o Drug tests once or twice/month o Most difficult part is that drugs are used as an escape to cope with family life, etc.
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