Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PSYCH 254
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianna Nelson on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 254 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by James Moyer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Physiological Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Lecture 2 Wilder Penfield observed following: -Recall of memories when back of cortex was stimulated -Sensation in various body parts in response to topographical stimulation of somatosensory cortex Used 3-volt battery attached to probe -Epilepsy surgery PET scans reveal specific brain regions activated by a given task -Sight -Sound -Touch -Speech Two schools of thought Dualism-mind/body (on brain) are separate Ex: Plato “father of western Dualism” Rene Descartes Monism- the mind is the result of brain functioning and follows physical laws Ex: Leonardo de Vinci (1452-1519) “mind is a product of the brain” Idea of Consciousness Can be altered by changes in brain chemistry; ability to communicate Right parietal lobe Cutting corpus collosum helps epilepsy “Split brain patient” The Central Nervous System II-Lecture 3 The Brain 1. Forebrain 2. Midbrain 3. Hindbrain 1) Forebrain (prosencephalon) - thinking, creating and speaking a) Telencephalon (cerebrum, limbic system, basal ganglia) b) Diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus) 2) Midbrain (mesencephalon) a) Dorsal portion or “tectum” b) Tegmentum c) Ventral portion 3) Hindbrain (rhombencephalon) a) Cerebellum, pons b) Medulla Four Lobes in Cerebrum “Flower P.O.T.” Frontal- executive functions, short term memory, decision making Parietal- Occipital- visual cortex Temporal-auditory cortex; hippocampus/ amygdala Learning/memory Gray Matter: 5-7 layers of neurons -cerebral cortex White Matter: axons/communication fibers (All under limbic system in forebrain) Limbic system- circuit of structures involved in emotion/memory Hippocampus- seahorse shaped,*long term memory* Amygdala-emotion; produces fear Septum Mammillary Bodies*-important for emotion and memory Divisions of the PNS-Lecture 4 Somatic NS Controls skeletal muscles Under voluntary control Automatic NS Not under voluntary control Divisions of Automatic NS Sympathetic NS Parasympathetic NS FIGHT OR FLIGHT Constricts pupils Dilates pupils Slows HR Increases blood flow to Increases blood flow to muscles organs Accelerates heart rate 1 Eyes 2 Lungs 3 Stomach/ intestines 4 Heart 12 pairs of cranial nerves * Enter/exit brain through holes in skull 31 pairs of spinal nerves * Enter/ exit spinal cord between vertebrae CRANIAL NERVES * I olfactory nerve II optic nerve V motor (trigeminal) VII facial nerve X vagus nerve *Bell’s Palsy- CN VII- facial paralysis caused by infection SPINAL NERVES 1 Motor is ventral(signals exit the cord) 2 Sensory is dorsal(signals enter) Spinal Nerves 1 8 pairs – Cervical region (C1- C8) 2 12 pairs – Thoracic region (T1-T12) 3 5 pairs – Lumbar region (L1-L5) 4 5 pairs – Sacral region (S1-S5) 5 1 pair – Coccygeal region Neurons and Glial Cells-Lecture 5 3 Parts of Neuron 1 Soma: ( Cell body) -contains nucleus -protein synthesis 2 Dendrite: transmits signals towards soma → input -some cells have few dendrites - Some cells have many dendrites (Bring info in) 2 types 3 Axon: transmits signals from soma → output -all cells have one axon* -axons can branch many times Axon terminal Dendrite spine Information flow between neurons Divergence vs convergence (sensory vs motor) *Anatomical classifications* 1 Unipolar call- axon/ dendrites same pole 2 Bipolar cell 3 Multipolar cells Cell Nucleus & Protein Synthesis Chromosomes – 23 pairs -final pair is sex chromosomes Genome Nucleic Acids DNA-4 nitrogen bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine RNA- blueprint for proteins Genetic Alterations Down Syndrome-“trisomy” of chromosome 21; faulty brain development -cognitive impairments -skeletal/soft tissue abnormalities Mental retardation- results from untreated PKU; linked to altered chromosome 12 Glial Cells 1 Glue that supports neurons in PNS/CNS; -provide nourishment -remove waste / dead neurons 2 Blood brain barrier- don’t want certain drugs to enter brain/ separate blood stream from brain Diffuse in blood brain barrier CO2 O2 Fat soluble Fat soluble→ lipophilic vs hydrophilic→water soluble, charged (Hydrophobic vs lipophobic) Myelination of Axons Schwann cell Oligodendrocytes Value of Myelination Speeds axonal transmission Assist in axon regeneration (Schwann cells only) Synapses and Membrane Properties-Lecture 6 How do neurons communicate? 1 Chemical Transmission 2 Electrical Transmission Chemical Transmission Synapses: junction between two neurons composed of three parts: presynaptic, synaptic cleft, postsynaptic Types of Synapses in NS: axodendritic, axosomatic, axoaxonic, neuromuscular junction Electrical Transmission Gap Junctions- communication with glial cells and neurons; electrical coupling Depolarization/hyperpolarization Action potential Resting Membrane Potential (RMP) 1 Neurons bathed in salt 2 Ions-positive (cations) 3 –negative (anions) 4 Cell membrane restricts ion movement 5 RMP allows neurons to be electrically excitable 6 -70mV, inside more negative than outside 7 Important ions: Na+, Cl-, Ca2+: more outside; K+: more inside 8 Action potential occurs in axon(threshold/all or none) Action Potential Small inputs If input large enough, threshold is reached At threshold, an action potential is initiated Signal Integration Temporal/ spatial summation EPSP: excitatory postsynaptic potential: creates depolarization IPSP: inhibitory postsynaptic potential: creates hyperpolarization Receptors and Ion Channels-Lecture 7 Types of Ion Channels Non-gated- always open Ligand-gated-binding of neurotransmitters opens channel Types of ligand-gated receptors: Iontropic-direct link to ion channel Metabotropic-indirect link to ion channel Voltage-Gated-depolarization of the membrane opens channel Ion-gated- increased concentration of ion opens channel Membrane recycling 1 Synaptic fusion 2 Pinocytosis of membrane 3 cisterna EPSP vs. IPSP Influx of Na+/Ca2+ EPSP Influx of Cl- or efflux of K+ IPSP Direct and indirect agonists/antagonists Direct – competitive Indirect –noncompetitive Drug Actions on Neurotransmission Agonists – activate the receptor Antagonists – blocks the receptor Ways in which drugs can affect synaptic transmission Packaging of the transmitter (loading vesicles) Synthesis of the transmitter Receiving the transmitter (postsynaptic receptors) Shipping the transmitter (vesicular release) Recycling/destroying the transmitter (reuptake)
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