BIO 1004, Study Guide for Exam 2 (Chapters 5-9)
BIO 1004, Study Guide for Exam 2 (Chapters 5-9) BIO 1004
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Falyn Ruby on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1004 at Mississippi State University taught by Jeffery Echols in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 133 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Anatomy Study Guide Chapters 5-9 Terms to Know: o Epidermis – portion of the skin that is exposed to the environment and contains stratified squamous epithelial cells – no direct blood supply. o Stratum Basale – the lowest layer of the epidermis, produces new cells. o Langerhans cells – cells produced in bone marrow that kills bacteria – located in Stratum Basale o Melanocytes – skin cells that give our skin color (melanin) o Albinism – genetic defect that prevents production of melanin o Freckles – genetic defect where clusters of melanocytes over produce melanin o Stratum Corneum – the upper level of the epidermis that contains keratin and the cells are dead o Keratin – a protein that causes cells to harden and become waterproof, found in hair, skin, and nails o Normal flora – stratum corneum is covered in bacteria o Dermis – middle layer of the skin that is made of connective tissue and has a direct blood supply o Subcutaneous layer – the lowest layer of the skin, made up of adipose tissue that insulates and cushions o Accessory structures of the skin: hair, nails, glands, eyebrows, eye lashes o Hair – accessory structure of the skin that is produced by dead skin cells o Hair follicle – hollow structure that produces the hair o Root – portion of the hair that is below the skin line o Shaft – exposed portion of the hair o Nails – produced by the cells of the epidermis and are made up of keratin o Sweat glands – sudoriferous glands (secrete sweat) o Apocrine glands – glands that open into the hair follicles (armpits, groin) emits during stress o Eccrine glands – open onto the skins surface, excrete water, salt, and urea, controls body temperature and makes earwax o Sweat – evaporates from the skins surface carrying away heat o Sebaceous glands – create an oily substance called sebum and found only in hair follicles o Sebum – oily substance secreted by sebaceous glands that keeps hair pliable and encourages the growth of bacteria o Mammary glands – modified sweat glands that produce milk after a child is born o Eyebrows – absorb sunlight and reduce glare o Hyperthermia – above normal body temp o Hypothermia – below normal body temp o Heat exhaustion – headache, tired, vomiting, low blood pressure, sweating, easy to treat o Heat stroke – (105-110) dizziness, confusion, delusions, deadly o Pyrogens – substances released by bacteria that travels through the blood stream to the brain and causes an increase in body tstperature, associated with a fever o 1 degree burn – redness/pain (epidermis – only) o 2 nd degree burn – redness/pain/blisters (epidermis and dermis) o 3 degree burn – full thickness burns/no pain/nerve endings are destroyed. Contains 1 and 2 nddegree burns o Scars – made up of connective tissue and fade over time o Athlete’s foot – caused by fungus and consists of itching, scaling, and redness – treated by antifungal meds o Impetigo – caused by strains of staph and strap bacteria, consists of small blisters, and a dark or honey colored crust – treated with antibiotics o Eczema – caused by a reaction (chronic skin disease,) consists of redness, swelling, bumps, crust, scales, itching, and burning – treated with creams and lotions o Psoriasis – caused by certain environmental triggers, consists of red, scaly patches and itching – controlled with medication o Dandruff – caused by overworking of the sebaceous glands and fungus, consists of white flakes and itching – treatment is medicated shampoos o Skin cancer – one of the most common cancers, easily treated – associated with sun exposure o Periosteum – outer covering of a bone that is made up of connective tissue, does not contain calcium. o Epiphysis – ends of the long bone that contains red marrow o Diaphysis – central portion of the long bone o Medullary cavity – found in the diaphysis – contains blood vessels and yellow marrow o Yellow marrow – stores a supply of fat o Red marrow – found in the epiphysis and produces red and white blood cells o Compact bone – surrounds the outside of the bone and makes up the majority of the diaphysis o Haversian canals – make up compact bone and are made of concentric circles of bony material o Osteocytes – bone cells (nature osteoblasts) o Lacunae – chambers containing bone cells, found within the matrix o Spongy bone – found in the epiphysis and contains red marrow – made of bars and plates (strongest) o Pre-natal cartilage – bone structure of babies in the womb is made up of cartilage o Endochondral ossification – development of 2 growth plates during development o Osteoclasts – cells that break down bone and release calcium o Osteoblasts – repair damage done by osteocytes and remove calcium from the blood o Cervical vertebrae – provide rotational movement of the skull, found at base of neck o Thoracic vertebrae – found between shoulder blades o Lumbar vertebrae – found in lower back o Sacral vertebrae – fused vertebrae o Coccyx – tailbone o True ribs – directly connected to the sternum o False ribs – indirectly connected to the sternum o Xiphoid process – tip of the sternum o Axial skeleton – skull, ribs, and vertebrae o Appendicular skeleton – all other bones outside of the axial skeleton o Simple fracture – clean break and does not puncture skin o Compound fracture – ragged edges and punctures skin o Partial fracture – bone is broken lengthwise (compound or simple) o Greenstick fracture – splinters and most commonly seen in kids (compound or simple) o Impacted fracture – break where the two ends are crushed together (compound or simple) o Comminuted fracture – broken in several places (compound or simple) o Spiral fracture – twisted break – usually results in sharp edges near the break (compound or simple) o Hematoma – blood clot where a fracture occurs o Fibrocartilage callous – mass of cartilage that forms at the edges of the break o Bony callous – calcium enters and the bone begins to reform o Remodeling – rebuild medullary cavity o Fixed/immovable joint – area where at least two bones meet that is not flexible o Slightly movable joint – area where at least two bones meet that is slightly flexible o Freely movable joint – area where at least two bones come together with a high degree of flexibility o Ball and socket joint – (synovial joint) shoulders and hips, rotational movement in all directions o Pivot joint – (synovial joint) elbows and knees, provides movement in one direction o Saddle joints – (synovial joint) wrists and ankles, provides some rotational movement o Synovial capsule – made up of a water-tight membrane surrounded by ligaments o Synovial fluid – viscus fluid that lubricates the ends of bones and prevents the synovial cavity from being compressed o Smooth muscle – type of muscle found in hollow internal organs, one nucleus, contracts slowly and fatigues slowly, lacks striations, involuntary o Cardiac muscle – only found in the heart, cells have a branched structure, deeply striated, involuntary, non-fatiguing, one nucleus o Skeletal muscle – cylindrical in shape, allow for movement of bones and provides insulation and protection, multinucleated, striations o Muscle – covered by connective tissue o Tendons – connect muscle to bone o Ligaments – connect bone to bone o Muscle bundles – bundles of fibers enclosed in connective tissue o Muscle fiber – groups of myofibrils surrounded by connective tissue o Myofibrils – functional unit of a muscle that contains actin and myosin o Myoglobin – stores oxygen in muscle tissue o Glycogen – a carbohydrate that provides glucose in order to make ATP o Creatine phosphate – aids in regeneration of ATP by replacing a phosphate o Fermentation – buildup of lactic acid in the joints after production of ATP without oxygen o Atrophy – shrinkage of muscle tissues due to lack of use o Hypertrophy – enlargement of muscles due to increased use and increased number of myofibrils o Steroids – enhancement drugs meant to build up muscles and restore muscles after injury o Slow twitch myofibrils – provide endurance and are slow to fatigue – greater blood supply, aerobic o Fast twitch – provide explosive strength, are quick to fatigue and anaerobic o Origin – muscle ties into a non-moving bone o Insertion – muscle ties into a moving bone o Prime mover – large muscle group that provides most of the power o Synergists – small muscles that provide additional power during a movement and provide stability o Antagonists – muscles occur in pairs and have opposite movements o Central nervous system – brain and spinal cord o Peripheral nervous system – everything else that is a neuron/neuroglial cells (more extensive) o Neuron – capable of generating and conducting an electrical impulse o Cell body of the neuron – contains nucleus and most of the organelles o Cytoplasmic extensions – form a connection with neighboring neurons (dendrites) o Axons – cytoplasmic extension from the cell body – conducts electrical impulses to the dendrites of neighboring neurons o Flow of electricity through a neuron – starts at the dendrites and flows through the cell body and into the axons o Neuroglial cells – protection, physical support, nutritional support o Schwann cells – smaller than neurons and attach to the axons, produce a protein called myelin o Myelin – speeds up electrical impulses o Sensory neuron – associated with special senses, generates an electrical impulse o Motor neurons – conduct electrical impulses from the brain to the muscle, does not generate impulses o Interneurons – receive impulses from sensory neurons then send the impulses to the muscles o Neurotransmitters – absorbed into vesicles and transported to the axons of the receiving neuron o Spinal cord – a hollow tube open at both ends, made up of mostly motor neurons, surrounded by meninges, has numerous connections with the peripheral nervous system o Cerebrospinal fluid – produced in the brain, protects the spinal cord from the meninges, must be sterile o Meninges – surround the brain and spinal cord and protect o Brain stem – primitive portion of the brain made up of the medulla, the pons, and the midbrain o Medulla – regulates heartbeat, breathing rate, blood pressure, vomiting, coughing, sneezing, hiccups, and swallowing o Pons – enlarged area of the brain stem – connecting point between the cerebellum and the spinal cord, also involved in breathing rate, control head movements in response to visual and auditory stimulation o Midbrain – shares some of the same functions as the pons o Diencephalon – central core of the brain o Thalamus – a central relay station for the rest of the brain o Hypothalamus – maintains homeostasis o Homeostasis – water balance in the blood, hunger, thirst, body temp., influences blood pressure, produces hormones – link between nervous and endocrine system o Cerebellum – divided into hemispheres and responsible for muscle coordination, contraction and relaxation of antagonistic pairs, posture, and muscle tone o Cerebrum – divided into hemispheres, conscious thought, memory, trained o Gyri – raised areas of cerebrum o Sulci – shallow areas of the cerebrum o Fissures – deep cracks in the brain o Limbic system – poorly understood – memory based on emotions o Ventricles – filled with fluid, which is cerebrospinal fluid – produce cerebrospinal fluid, interconnected, connect to the central canal of the spinal cord o Somatic nervous system – contains cranial nerves, connect the sense organs directly to the brain, do not connect to spinal cord o Cranial nerves – connect to brain (pairs) o Spinal nerves – generally connect to skeletal muscle and connects to spinal cords o Autonomic nervous system – controls body according to stress level o Sympathetic division – controls body during times of stress, causes muscles to contract more forcible, release of hormones – vision and hearing becomes more acute, stops the action of smooth muscle o Parasympathetic – controls body functions during times of low stress o General receptors – sensitive to temperature, pain, pressure – found in skin and visceral organs and muscles and joints o Chemoreceptors – sensitive to chemicals in the environment o Sense of taste – (gustation) taste buds are situated on the tongue, roof of mouth, and back of the throat o Sense of smell – (olfaction) most primitive of all senses, located in upper portion of nasal cavity – brain has independent location for receiving information from olfactory cells o Olfactory bulb – location of receiving information from olfactory cells o Photoreceptors – stimulated by light o Extrinsic muscles – skeletal muscle allows you to move your eye o Eyelids and eyelashes – protection o Lacrimal apparatus – contains lacrimal gland and duct o Lacrimal gland – produces tears o Lacrimal duct – starts in the corner of the eye, empties into the nose o Sclera – white part of the eye – made up of connective tissue o Choroid layer – middle layer of the tissue in the eye – absorbs stray light rays o Retina – inner layer – contains photoreceptors o Rods – stimulated by low light – allows you to see black and white o Cones – stimulated by intense light – allows you to see colors o Fovea – contains the cones o Iris – colored portion of the eye – controls size of pupil o Pupil – hole in the center of the eye – lets light in o Lens – focuses light on the retina o Cornea – clear portion of the sclera – covers the front of the eye o Anterior chamber – in between the cornea and the lens, filled with aqueous humor fluid o Posterior chamber – gel-like fluid (vitreous humor,) maintains shape of the eyeball o Mechanoreceptors – generates an electrical impulse in response to pressure o Pinna – cone shaped portion of the outer ear that concentrates soundwaves o Ear canal – a tunnel that leads to the middle ear o Tympanum – (ear drum) vibrates in response to sound waves o Eustachian tube – hollow tube that connects the middle ear to the throat, equalizes pressure between the outer and inner ear and drains fluid o Cochlea – snail shaped portion of the inner ear that are fluid filled and lined with mechanoreceptors that are stimulated and produce and electrical impulse, which travels to the brain o Organs of balance – semicircular canals (3) that are partially fluid-filled with small particles of bone that float on the top of the fluid, canals are lined with mechanoreceptors Look over all notes Know functions of skin, skeletal system, muscles, nervous system, sensory system Know the senses Bones to know: metacarpals, carpals, radius, ulna, humerus, ribs, sternum, vertebra, ilium, femur, patella, fibula, tibia, tarsels, metatarsels, clavicle, skull Know anatomy of a long bone Know the vertebrae Know the joints and fractures Main muscle groups: frontalis, trapezius, deltoid, pectoralis major, triceps brachii, latissimus dorsi, abdominal muscles, gluteus maximus, Sartorius, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius Types of muscle tissue Parts of nervous system Sensory organs and receptors
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