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Midterm Review

by: Veronica Morgan

Midterm Review CHEM 30133

Veronica Morgan
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

These notes cover whats going to be on the next exam
Organic Chemistry 2
Dr. Minter
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Organic Chemistry 2

Popular in Organic Chemistry

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Veronica Morgan on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 30133 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Minter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry 2 in Organic Chemistry at Texas Christian University.


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Date Created: 02/25/16
Midterm Review OChem Spring  Order to find compound 1. Melting point – if greater than 2 degrees than recrystallize Boiling point – ok if doesn’t exceed 5 degrees 2. Solubility – for liquids if one or two layers not soluble 3. IR / NMR 4. Classification test 5. Derivatives  Physical Properties ­ Molecular weight, mass spectrometry, refractive index, neutralization  equivalent, etc Classes ­I = aryl halides, deactivated aromatic compounds, saturated hydrocarbons,  haloalkanes, diaryl ethers ­S2 = salt of organic acid, amine hydrochlorides, amino acids ­SA= monofunctional carboxylic acid with greater than 5 carbons or arylsulfonic  acid ­SB= monofunctional amines with more than 6 carbons ­S1= monofunctional alcohols. Aldehydes, ketones, esters, nitriles, amides with  more than 5 carbons ­A1 = phenols with EWG, strong organic compounds, carboxylic acids with more  than 6 carbons, beta ketones ­A2 = sulfonamides, beta ketones, nitro compounds, weak organic acids,  phenols, enols, oximes, imides, thiophenols ­B = aliphatic amines with more than 8 carbons, amines, some ethers ­MN= misc neutral compounds with nitro and sulfur groups with more than 5  carbons ­N = alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, ethers, epoxides, alkenes, alkynes,  aromatic compounds Solubility Tests ­ Solution in water = polar molecules ­ Solution in 5% HCl = bases ­ Solution in 5% NaOH or NaHCO3 = acids ­ Solution in H2SO4 = only CHO, neutral Chemical Tests Alcohol  ­Exp 7 ceric ammonium nitrate (for alcohols): positive test is red color ­Exp 8 jones oxidation (for aldehydes or ketones): positive test is blue green or  olive green color ­Exp 9 lucas test (classification for alcohols): positive test is formation of two  separate layers, different categories will react at different paces ­Exp 11 iodoform test (for secondary methyl carbinols or methyl ketones):  positive test is formation of yellow solid  Aldehydes ­Exp 12 2,4­DNP (for ketones and aldehydes): positive test is orange red ppt ­Exp 15 Tollens Test (carbohydrate unkowns): positive test is silver ppt  Amides ­Exp 18 Sodium Hydroxide Hydrolysis of Amides / Nitriles: positive test is when  litmus turns blue Amines ­Exp 19 Hinsberg Test (for primary and secondary amines): positive test is ppt ­Exp 20 Nitrous Acid (for amines and anilines): positive for amines is foaming of  salt, positive for nitriles is stable salt ­Exp 21 Nickel Chloride Test (for seconday aliphatic amines): positive test is ppt ­Exp 22 Nickel Chloride Test for primary amines: positive test is ppt Amino Acids ­Exp 24 Ninhydrin (for amino acids): positive test is blue color Carbohydrates ­Exp 26 Borax Test (for vicinal diols): positive test is pink color  ­Exp 27 Periodic Acid Oxidation (for vicinal diols): positive test is white ppt ­Exp 28 Benedic Solution (for carbohydrates): positive test is red, yellow, green  ppt Esters and Ethers ­ether recognize by IR ­ester has sweet fruity smell Halides ­Exp 35 Silver Nitrate Solution ( for halides): positive test is yellow or white ppt ­Exp 36 Sodium Iodide in Acetone Test (for halides): positive test is red brown  ppt Alkanes – inert  IR 4 regions  1. 4000­1500 C­H, N­H, O­H 2. 2500­2000 triple bond 3. 2000­1500 C­C double bond C­O double bond 4. Below 1500 single bonds Double bond region  ­CO weak bond ­CC weak bond ­NO two strong bonds ­depends on dipoe moment Absorptions Position Reduced mass of atoms Light atoms have high  frequency Bond strength Strong bond high  frequency Strength Change in dipole Large dipole – very  strong Width H bond Strong H bond = broad 


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