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Midterm Notes

by: Krista Notetaker

Midterm Notes SPED 7007

Krista Notetaker
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover the three questions asked by the professor on our midterm. The notes are organized in chronological order based on the questions, NOT in the order of the chapters.
Positive Behavior
Dr. Todd Haydon
Study Guide
Postive Behaviors Midterm Notes
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPED 7007 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Todd Haydon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see Positive Behavior in Special Education at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 02/25/16
Midterm  Notes   Positive  Behavior   Written  by:  Krista  Anstead   February  2016     Topics  of  Discussion:   •   Operationally  defining  target  behaviors   •   Dimensions  of  evaluating  performance   •   Importance  of  effective  data  collection     Readings/References:   Scott,  T.,  &  Anderson,  C.  (2012).  Managing  Classroom  Behavior  Using  Positive  Behavior     Supports.  Boston:  Pearson.     Chapter  3  Notes   Why  do  students  engage  in  behavior?   •   Function  of  behavior:  reason  why  a  behavior  is  occurring/what  is  reinforcing  the   behavior   o   Does  not  imply  the  individual  consciously  decided  to  engage  in  behavior  (they   often  operate  habitually)   o   One  occurrence  followed  by  a  particular  consequence  is  not  sufficient  to  identify   function   o   Function  is  identified  if  a  certain  behavior  usually  is  evoked  by  specific  stimuli   and  followed  by  certain  consequences   o   Identifying  function  of  behavior  is  critical  for  developing  an  intervention  plan   •   Social  behavior  serves  two  functions   o   Provides  a  student  with  attention,  tangible  items,  activities,  and/or  sensory   stimuli  (positive  reinforcement)   o   Provides  a  means  for  escaping  or  avoiding  attention,  tangible  items,  activities,  or   sensory  stimulation  (negative  reinforcement)   •   Discriminative  stimuli   o   Makes  it  more  likely  that  a  behavior  will  occur  because  it  signals  that  certain   consequences  are  differentially  available   Key  Steps  of  FBA   •   Step  1:  Defining  the  behavior   o   Behaviors  are  defined  by  their  dimensions  in  a  measurable  and  observable   manner   o   Entails  at  least  two  dimensions  that  include  topography  of  the  behavior  and   some  indication  of  the  amount  of  behavior     Operationalizing  Behavior  IRIS  Article  Notes   Behavior   •   Something  that  a  person  does  that  can  be  observed,  measured,  and  repeated   •   Need  to  strictly  identify  the  behavior  and  not  include  the  personal  motivation  or  feelings     Operationally  defining  a  behavior  helps  teachers  to…   •   Collect  data  on  the  behavior   •   Collect  accurate  information  about  when  the  behavior  occurs   •   Optimize  available  services  or  supports  for  data  collection   •   Focus  the  interaction  between  environment  and  student  instead  of  assuming  innate   issues   •   Describe  what  they  want  students  to  do   •   Design  an  appropriate  intervention   •   Determine  whether  behavior  changes     STAR  Sheet   •   Strategies  and  Resources   •   Provides  a  description  of  a  well-­‐researched  strategy  that  can  help  you  solve  case  studies   •   Operational  definition:  explicitly  and  clearly  defined  and  measurable  goal;  must  be   identified  by  2  or  more  observers,  and  can  be  identified  across  time  and  in  different   settings   •   Problem/target  behavior:  behaviors  the  teacher  wants  to  change   •   Replacement  behavior:  behavior  the  teacher  wants  the  student  to  engage  in   •   Implementation  tips   o   Start  by  describing  what  the  behavior  looks  like   o   Avoid  being  subjective  by  describing  only  the  behavior  you  see  or  hear   o   Consult  a  list  of  action  verbs  for  ideas  about  describing  behavior   o   Narrow  the  target  behavior  if  several  relevant  behaviors  are  observed   o   Include  at  least  one  of  the  operational  behaviors  to  ensure  it  is  measurable   §   Frequency  -­‐  #  times  occurs   §   Rate  -­‐  #  times  occur  in  time  interval   §   Duration  –  length  of  behavior   §   Latency  –  time  between  behaviors   §   Magnitude  -­‐  intensity  of  behavior   o    use  standards  for  academic  skills   o   avoid  using  not/no  and  vague  terms  that  are  open  to  interpretation   •   Observable  terms:  describing  behavior  that  one  can  see,  not  is  presumed  to  happen   •   Measurable  terms:  defining  a  behavior  that  can  be  counted  or  timed   •   Positive  terms:  defining  behaviors  in  terms  of  what  the  student  is  doing  or  will  do   •   Ultimate  goal  of  intervention  is  to  increase  occurrence  of  replacement  or  desired   behaviors     Chapter  7  Notes   The  learning  Curve   •   LC:  visual  representation  of  achievement  across  time   •   Acquisition:  earliest  stage  of  learning   o   S  is  becoming  aware  of  a  new  skill  and  is  practicing  to  acquire  an  initial  ability  to   perform   o   Progress  appears  slow  because  performance  does  not  accelerate  quickly   o   Focus  is  on  S  demonstrating  basic  skills   •   Fluency:  working  with  S  to  demonstrate  skills  more  efficiently,  with  speed  and  accuracy   paired  as  equally  important  outcomes   o   Performance  is  increasing  at  the  highest  rate   o   Focus  is  on  memorization  and  speed   o   Ex:  flashcards  to  memorize  multiplication  facts   •   Maintenance:  fading  instructional  supports  and  expecting  the  S  to  remember  more  on   his  or  her  own   o   Involves  removing  prompts  and  presenting  material  with  less  structure   o   Associated  with  the  flattening  of  LC   •   Generalization:  shift  of  focus  on  instruction  to  successful  demonstration  of  skills  under   an  array  of  real-­‐world  conditions   o   Broad  range  of  scenarios   o   Most  difficult  and  most  important  stage   o   Thoughtful  instruction  at  each  preceding  stage  sets  the  occasion  for  effective   generalization   o   Does  not  involve  further  achievement   o   LC  is  flat  and  occasionally  decreases  slightly  as  skills  are  practiced  under  novel   conditions   •   Adaptation:  last  stage  of  learning  in  which  T  have  a  direct  influence   o   S  who  can  fluently  generalize  across  a  range  of  conditions  are  more  able  to   actually  change  the  skill  in  a  subtle  way  and  broaden  the  effect  of  its   performance   o   Can  occur  only  with  skills  that  are  within  the  repertoire  of  the  learner   •   One  must  have  acquisition  before  fluency,  fluency  before  maintenance,  maintenance,   before  generalization,  and  so  on   •   T  need  to  encourage  creativity  to  facilitate  higher  rates  of  success  at  every  other  stage   of  learning     Chapter  4  Notes   Critical  differences  between  event-­‐based  and  time-­‐based  measures     •   event-­‐based  measures   o   most  simple  methods  of  counting  behavior   o   key  feature:  observance  of  a  behavior  drives  recording   o   advantage:  accuracy  of  direct  transfer  of  observations  to  data     o   disadvantage:  require  constant  attention  and  can  be  quite  cumbersome  while   performing  other  daily  tasks   •   time-­‐based  measures     o   key  feature:  passage  of  time  drives  recording   o   when  a  time  interval  passes,  T  indicates  if  behavior  has  occurred   o   advantage:  much  easier  to  use  in  classroom  setting   o   disadvantage:  not  as  accurate  as  event-­‐based  methods     Selection  of  appropriate  measurement  systems  based  on  behavior     •   frequency  recording  (EBR)   o   requires  T  to  record  each  instance  of  behavior   o   consistency  of  observations  is  important,  but  can  use  time  to  make  rates  of   incidents  when  consistency  is  not  feasible   o   requires  topographical  definition  with  beginning  and  ending  and  for  behaviors  to   be  of  equal  duration   •   permanent  product  (EBR)   o   used  when  a  behavior  results  in  a  product  that  can  be  saved  and  assessed  at  a   later  time   o   measures  effects/outcomes  of  a  behavior   o   does  not  require  much  supervision   o   needs  to  be  used  with  permanent,  durable  outcomes   •   controlled  presentation   o   appropriate  when  target  behavior  depends  on  antecedent  event   o   answered  in  terms  of  percent  of  opportunities   o   advantage:  allows  observer  to  account  for  varying  opportunities   •   trials  to  criterion  (EBR)   o   used  when  you  want  to  record  the  number  of  attempts  needed  to  complete  a   behavior  to  some  predestined  criterion   o   most  appropriate  for  use  with  instructional  intervention  as  a  measure  of   acquisition  or  fluency   o   must  have  a  working  definition  of  acceptable  criterion   •   duration  recording  (EBR)   o   useful  when  behavior  happens  in  unequal  durations  and  without  recognizable   antecedent   o   used  when  T  wishes  to  record  amount  of  time  S  is  engaged  in  behavior   o   always  reported  in  intervals  of  time,  either  as  a  total  or  average   o   disadvantage:  requires  constant  attention  by  the  observer   o   should  only  be  considered  when  T  has  sufficient  time  to  complete  all  steps   •   Latency  Recording  (EBR)   o   Used  when  we  wish  to  know  the  length  of  time  between  an  antecedent  and  a   behavior   o   Very  similar  to  duration  recording,  except  watch  is  started  when  antecedent   occurs  and  stops  when  behavior  occurs   o   Not  concerned  with  length  of  behavior  but  rather  how  long  it  takes  the  behavior   to  begin   o   Suited  for:  stimulus-­‐response  situations   o   Not  suited  for:  frequent  antecedents  or  long  latencies   •   Partial  Interval  Recording  (TBR)   o   Can  be  used  when  people  don’t  have  time  for  a  duration  instrument   o   Used  when  behaviors  occur  occasionally  or  at  a  low  rate  and  EBR  methods  are   inappropriate  or  not  feasible   o   Record  +  if  behavior  occurred  during  interval   o   Disadvantage:  overestimation  can  occur   o   Rule  of  thumb:  make  intervals  shorter  than  highest  number  of  behaviors   observed  during  and  observation  period  divided  into  the  total  amount  of  time   observed   •   Whole  interval  recording  (TBR)   o   Appropriate  when  behaviors  are  of  high  rate  and  duration  but  event-­‐based   methods  are  inappropriate  or  not  feasible   o   +  recorded  only  if  the  behavior  occurred  for  the  ENTIRE  interval   o   disadvantage:  tends  to  underestimate  behavior   o   rule  of  thumb:  whole  interval  sizes  should  be  set  near  the  length  of  the  shortest   observed  occurrence  of  behavior   •   momentary  interval  recording  (TBR)   o   requires  T  to  observe  S  at  end  of  interval  to  see  if  behavior  is  happening  at  that   moment   o   appropriate  when  behaviors  occur  sporadically  at  high  rates,  when  EBR  methods   are  inappropriate/not  feasible,  and  when  T  has  little  time  to  observe   o   used  when  partial  would  cause  great  overestimation  and  interval  would  cause   great  underestimation     o   disadvantage:  tends  to  underestimate  behavior   o   rule  of  thumb:  interval  size  should  be  smaller-­‐  T  should  consider  baseline  rate  of   behavior  and  develop  interval  size  that  will  capture  occurrence  and   nonoccurrence       Chapter  5  Notes   Task  analysis  procedures  that  lead  to  instructional  planning   •   Task  analysis:  process  of  considering  the  requisite  component  skills  for  a  complex   behavior   o   Provides  a  map  of  the  skill  being  taught,  making  sure  that  each  component  and   prerequisite  skill  is  taught   o   Outlines  the  individual  steps  for  instruction  and  provides  an  objective  measure   for  where  instruction  should  begin  and  end   o   Provides  a  roadmap  for  delivery  and  measurement  of  instruction   •   Determining  the  goals  for  instruction  provides  the  teacher  with  a  clear  picture  of  the   required  S  behavior   •   T  must  consider  full  array  of  required  behaviors  and  then  break  instruction  into   teachable  components     Critical  differences  between  temporal,  response  difficulty,  and  criterion  task  analyses   •   Most  efficient  task  analysis  for  any  particular  skill  will  depend  on  the  nature  of  the  skill   •   Temporal  task  analysis   o   Breaking  a  behavior  into  a  set  of  discrete  steps  sequenced  through  time   o   Useful  in  teaching  students  to  perform  a  series  of  steps   o   Often  paired  with  self-­‐management  tools  and/or  chaining  procedures   •   Response  Difficulty  task  analysis   o   Sequencing  steps  in  the  order  of  their  difficulty  in  terms  of  learning  and  mastery   o   Mastery  of  a  relatively  simple  step  will  provide  the  necessary  success  to  motivate   the  S  to  perform  the  following,  more  difficult  step   o   Most  common  in  academic  learning  examples  where  temporal  steps  do  not   always  provide  a  logical  manner  of  teaching   o   Helps  T  maximize  success  throughout  the  process  of  teaching  complex  tasks   •   Criterion  task  analysis   o   Breaks  instruction  of  behavior  down  by  using  increasingly  more  stringent  criteria   for  success   o   Useful  for  breaking  down  fluency  building  goals   o   Appropriate  for  procedures  such  as  constant  time  delay     Key  components  of  graphs  for  visual  representation  performance   •   Simple  line  graph  provides  the  best  visual  representation  of  progress   •   Lines  of  progress  are  plotted  as  a  visual  standard  for  evaluating  future  performance  and   as  a  summary  of  current  performance  to  predict  future  performance   •   Aim  lines   o   Line  on  a  graph  that  connects  the  current  level  of  performance  to  a  criterion   level  of  performance  at  a  designated  point  in  the  future   o   Aim  star:  end  goal;  represented  by  “A”  on  the  graph   o   Aim  line  is  drawn  from  average  starting  baseline  to  the  aim  star   o   Represents  the  minimal  line  of  progress  for  S   o   Aim  line  should  be  reconsidered  if  S  is  below  performance  for  three  consecutive   days   •   Trend  lines   o   Lines  of  progress  that  are  plotted  through  a  string  of  existing  data  points   o   Represent  trend  and  prediction  for  the  future   o   May  be  plotted  through  baseline  data  to  determine  whether  intervention  is   required   o   May  be  plotted  through  intervention  data  to  predict  where  S  performance  might   be  headed   o   Beginning  point:  middle  of  first  three  dots   o   Ending  point:  middle  of  last  three  dots   o   May  be  plotted  with  as  few  as  5  points  but  meaningful  trends  typically  have  a   minimum  of  6  dots     Using  data  to  make  instructional  decisions   •   Merit  of  intervention  can  only  be  judged  by  measurable  changes  in  S  behavior   •   Performance  and  decision-­‐making  criteria  for  success  and  failure  should  be  continually   monitored   o   Criteria  for  success  is  S  meets  behavior  goal  for  intervention   o   Success  should  represent  minimal  level  of  performance  necessary  to  maintain   sufficient  progress  towards  ultimate  behavior  goal   •   Possible  successful  performance  decisions   o   S  has  fully  met  criteria  for  success   §   Team  may  decide  to  stop  intervention  or  focus  on  a  different  skill  area,   working  from  a  prioritized  list  of  identified  S  problems   o   S  uses  skill  fluently  and  consistently  in  limited  contexts   §   Conditions  suggest  need  to  create  intervention  plans  to  facilitate   generalization   §   Team  may  develop  criteria  for  success   o   S  consistently  uses  skill  with  prompts  and  reinforcement   §   Team  should  gradually  fade  components  of  intervention  while  still   monitoring  performance  and  expecting  behavior  to  occur  at  original  goal   level   o   S  has  met  acquisition  objective  for  skill   §   Intent  is  to  facilitate  more  fluency  with  skill  so  it  occurs  more  readily  and   automatically   o   S  is  making  satisfactory  progress  toward  criterion   §   Team  should  ensure  intervention  plan  continues  without  alteration   •   Possible  failed  performance  decisions   o   S  has  failed  to  ever  engage  in  behavior   §   Basic  requisite  skills  or  understanding  are  not  present   §   Team  may  consider  alternative  appropriate  replacement  behaviors  for  S   o   S  was  progressing  well  but  has  stopped   §   Instruction  should  continue  with  re-­‐teaching  of  critical  skills  required  at   that  level  or  with  instruction  to  help  S  overcome  any  issues  that  have   arisen  in  environment   o   S  engages  in  behavior  but  is  inconsistent   §   S  may  be  bored  or  not  sufficiently  reinforced  for  behavior   §   Team  may  wish  to  manipulate  reinforcement  amount  or  to  change   reinforcers   §   Team  must  determine  whether  any  environmental  actions  or  events  tend   to  predict  this  behavior   o   S  can  demonstrate  behavior  but  natural  events  compete   §   Team  may  consider  changing  environment  to  remove  or  overpower   identified  obstacles   §   May  be  necessary  to  instruct  how  to  ignore  irrelevant  stimuli  and   consequences  to  differentiate  appropriate  and  inappropriate  behavior   o   S  is  just  short  of  satisfactory  performance  but  is  making  progress   §   Meets  criterion  for  failure,  falling  just  below  line  of  minimal  progress  for   three  consecutive  days   §   Team  may  institute  some  instructional  prompts  or  to  slightly  decrease   criteria  in  objective  so  as  to  change  perception  of  success     Disruptive  Behavior  Screencast  Notes   •   how  to  record  disruptive  behavior   o   acronyms  on  form   §   SPR  PR:  specific  praise   §   OTR:  opportunities  to  respond   §   CR:  correct  response   §   DIS:  disruptive  behavior   o   determine  whether  you  will  include  purposeful  or  accidental  behaviors   o   using  intervals  and  mark  as  tallies   o   On-­‐task  behaviors  are  looked  at  when  the  interval  is  over  to  determine  if  person   is  paying  attention  right  at  that  time  or  not     Trend  Line  Screencast  Notes   Trend  lines  in  single-­‐subject  design   •   Collect  data  until  you  get  stability  in  the  trend  line   •   Stability  in  the  trend  line   o   Very  little  variability  –  7  data  points  is  good  enough   o   Large  variability  in  data  (variable  flat  line)  –  8  data  points   o   Linear  trend  –  keeps  climbing  and  stop  at  particular  point  –  keep  going  until  you   meet  your  goal   o   Curvilinear  trend  –  same  thing  as  linear  trend   o   Cyclical  –  still  predictable  prefer  8-­‐9  trends   o   No  pattern  –  keep  taking  data  until  there  is  a  pattern     Chapter  3  Notes   Introduction   •   Behavior  is  functional  in  that  it  helps  individuals  meet  their  needs   •   Too  often,  we  focus  on  behavior  management  problems  and  looking  for  a  cause  inside   the  student     Why  do  students  engage  in  behavior?   •   Function  of  behavior:  reason  why  a  behavior  is  occurring/what  is  reinforcing  the   behavior   o   Does  not  imply  the  individual  consciously  decided  to  engage  in  behavior  (they   often  operate  habitually)   o   One  occurrence  followed  by  a  particular  consequence  is  not  sufficient  to  identify   function   o   Function  is  identified  if  a  certain  behavior  usually  is  evoked  by  specific  stimuli   and  followed  by  certain  consequences   o   Identifying  function  of  behavior  is  critical  for  developing  an  intervention  plan   •   Social  behavior  serves  two  functions   o   Provides  a  student  with  attention,  tangible  items,  activities,  and/or  sensory   stimuli  (positive  reinforcement)   o   Provides  a  means  for  escaping  or  avoiding  attention,  tangible  items,  activities,  or   sensory  stimulation  (negative  reinforcement)   •   Discriminative  stimuli   o   Makes  it  more  likely  that  a  behavior  will  occur  because  it  signals  that  certain   consequences  are  differentially  available     Functional  behavior  assessment   •   Definition:  “process  of  assessment  to  determine  how  the  environment  predicts  and   maintains  a  response,  that  is  why  the  behavior  is  occurring”   •   Purpose:  to  better  understand  the  behavior  in  order  to  develop  effective  intervention   •   Process  of  gathering  information  about  the  relation  between  the  environment  and  a   behavior  so  as  to  understand  what  events  make  the  behavior  more  likely  to  occur  and   also  what  event  serves  to  reinforce  the  behavior     Key  Steps  of  FBA   •   Defining  the  behavior   o   Behaviors  are  defined  by  their  dimensions  in  a  measurable  and  observable   manner   o   Entails  at  least  two  dimensions  that  include  topography  of  the  behavior  and   some  indication  of  the  amount  of  behavior   •   Assessing  predictable  patterns  (aka  routines  analysis)   o   Gather  information  to  develop  a  hypothesis  about  the  relation  between   antecedents,  the  problem  behavior,  and  the  consequences  that  maintain  it   o   Done  by  collecting  data  via  direct  observations,  interview,  questionnaires,  etc.   o   What  are  the  problematic  routines?  Make  a  schedule  of  the  student’s  routine   and  mark  when  the  problem  behavior  occurs   §   Helps  focus  attention  only  on  those  routines  that  are  problematic   §   We  can  ask  questions  or  conduct  observations  to  determine  why  problem   occurs  during  one  routine  and  not  others   §   The  same  behavior  can  be  evoked  by  different  antecedents  and   maintained  by  different  consequences  in  different  texts   •   Developing  a  hypothesis  about  the  behavior’s  function   o   Best  guess  about  what  events  seem  to  predict  the  problem  (antecedents)  and   what  events  maintain  the  problem  (reinforcing  function)   o   Allows  for  an  easy  display  of  the  relation  between  problem  behavior  and  events   in  the  environment   o   Help  determine  how  the  consequences  function  to  reinforce  the  problem   behavior   •   Verifying  the  hypothesis  in  some  manner  (discussed  in  chapter  8)     Conducting  an  FBA   •   FBA  can  be  used  in  a  simplified  and  realistic  manner  to  develop  effective  classroom   management  plans   •   What  appropriate  and  inappropriate  behaviors  are  observed?  (define  behavior)   •   What  types  of  actions  or  events  tend  to  precede  instances  of  appropriate  and   inappropriate  behavior?  (identify  antecedents)   •   What  types  of  actions  or  events  tend  to  follow  instances  of  appropriate  and   inappropriate  behavior?  (identify  consequences)   •   What  is  a  measurable  statement  of  the  relationship  between  behavior  and  the   environment?  (hypothesize  function)     Week  7  Notes   Curriculum-­‐Based  Assessment   •   T  assesses  S  progress  daily,  based  on  goals  for  each  lesson   •   T  moves  on  to  further  objectives  once  S  are  successful  with  previous  objective   •   Allows  T  to  identify  failures  immediately  


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