Midterm Notes SPED 7007
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Midterm Notes Positive Behavior Written by: Krista Anstead February 2016 Topics of Discussion: • Operationally defining target behaviors • Dimensions of evaluating performance • Importance of effective data collection Readings/References: Scott, T., & Anderson, C. (2012). Managing Classroom Behavior Using Positive Behavior Supports. Boston: Pearson. Chapter 3 Notes Why do students engage in behavior? • Function of behavior: reason why a behavior is occurring/what is reinforcing the behavior o Does not imply the individual consciously decided to engage in behavior (they often operate habitually) o One occurrence followed by a particular consequence is not sufficient to identify function o Function is identified if a certain behavior usually is evoked by specific stimuli and followed by certain consequences o Identifying function of behavior is critical for developing an intervention plan • Social behavior serves two functions o Provides a student with attention, tangible items, activities, and/or sensory stimuli (positive reinforcement) o Provides a means for escaping or avoiding attention, tangible items, activities, or sensory stimulation (negative reinforcement) • Discriminative stimuli o Makes it more likely that a behavior will occur because it signals that certain consequences are differentially available Key Steps of FBA • Step 1: Defining the behavior o Behaviors are defined by their dimensions in a measurable and observable manner o Entails at least two dimensions that include topography of the behavior and some indication of the amount of behavior Operationalizing Behavior IRIS Article Notes Behavior • Something that a person does that can be observed, measured, and repeated • Need to strictly identify the behavior and not include the personal motivation or feelings Operationally defining a behavior helps teachers to… • Collect data on the behavior • Collect accurate information about when the behavior occurs • Optimize available services or supports for data collection • Focus the interaction between environment and student instead of assuming innate issues • Describe what they want students to do • Design an appropriate intervention • Determine whether behavior changes STAR Sheet • Strategies and Resources • Provides a description of a well-‐researched strategy that can help you solve case studies • Operational definition: explicitly and clearly defined and measurable goal; must be identified by 2 or more observers, and can be identified across time and in different settings • Problem/target behavior: behaviors the teacher wants to change • Replacement behavior: behavior the teacher wants the student to engage in • Implementation tips o Start by describing what the behavior looks like o Avoid being subjective by describing only the behavior you see or hear o Consult a list of action verbs for ideas about describing behavior o Narrow the target behavior if several relevant behaviors are observed o Include at least one of the operational behaviors to ensure it is measurable § Frequency -‐ # times occurs § Rate -‐ # times occur in time interval § Duration – length of behavior § Latency – time between behaviors § Magnitude -‐ intensity of behavior o use standards for academic skills o avoid using not/no and vague terms that are open to interpretation • Observable terms: describing behavior that one can see, not is presumed to happen • Measurable terms: defining a behavior that can be counted or timed • Positive terms: defining behaviors in terms of what the student is doing or will do • Ultimate goal of intervention is to increase occurrence of replacement or desired behaviors Chapter 7 Notes The learning Curve • LC: visual representation of achievement across time • Acquisition: earliest stage of learning o S is becoming aware of a new skill and is practicing to acquire an initial ability to perform o Progress appears slow because performance does not accelerate quickly o Focus is on S demonstrating basic skills • Fluency: working with S to demonstrate skills more efficiently, with speed and accuracy paired as equally important outcomes o Performance is increasing at the highest rate o Focus is on memorization and speed o Ex: flashcards to memorize multiplication facts • Maintenance: fading instructional supports and expecting the S to remember more on his or her own o Involves removing prompts and presenting material with less structure o Associated with the flattening of LC • Generalization: shift of focus on instruction to successful demonstration of skills under an array of real-‐world conditions o Broad range of scenarios o Most difficult and most important stage o Thoughtful instruction at each preceding stage sets the occasion for effective generalization o Does not involve further achievement o LC is flat and occasionally decreases slightly as skills are practiced under novel conditions • Adaptation: last stage of learning in which T have a direct influence o S who can fluently generalize across a range of conditions are more able to actually change the skill in a subtle way and broaden the effect of its performance o Can occur only with skills that are within the repertoire of the learner • One must have acquisition before fluency, fluency before maintenance, maintenance, before generalization, and so on • T need to encourage creativity to facilitate higher rates of success at every other stage of learning Chapter 4 Notes Critical differences between event-‐based and time-‐based measures • event-‐based measures o most simple methods of counting behavior o key feature: observance of a behavior drives recording o advantage: accuracy of direct transfer of observations to data o disadvantage: require constant attention and can be quite cumbersome while performing other daily tasks • time-‐based measures o key feature: passage of time drives recording o when a time interval passes, T indicates if behavior has occurred o advantage: much easier to use in classroom setting o disadvantage: not as accurate as event-‐based methods Selection of appropriate measurement systems based on behavior • frequency recording (EBR) o requires T to record each instance of behavior o consistency of observations is important, but can use time to make rates of incidents when consistency is not feasible o requires topographical definition with beginning and ending and for behaviors to be of equal duration • permanent product (EBR) o used when a behavior results in a product that can be saved and assessed at a later time o measures effects/outcomes of a behavior o does not require much supervision o needs to be used with permanent, durable outcomes • controlled presentation o appropriate when target behavior depends on antecedent event o answered in terms of percent of opportunities o advantage: allows observer to account for varying opportunities • trials to criterion (EBR) o used when you want to record the number of attempts needed to complete a behavior to some predestined criterion o most appropriate for use with instructional intervention as a measure of acquisition or fluency o must have a working definition of acceptable criterion • duration recording (EBR) o useful when behavior happens in unequal durations and without recognizable antecedent o used when T wishes to record amount of time S is engaged in behavior o always reported in intervals of time, either as a total or average o disadvantage: requires constant attention by the observer o should only be considered when T has sufficient time to complete all steps • Latency Recording (EBR) o Used when we wish to know the length of time between an antecedent and a behavior o Very similar to duration recording, except watch is started when antecedent occurs and stops when behavior occurs o Not concerned with length of behavior but rather how long it takes the behavior to begin o Suited for: stimulus-‐response situations o Not suited for: frequent antecedents or long latencies • Partial Interval Recording (TBR) o Can be used when people don’t have time for a duration instrument o Used when behaviors occur occasionally or at a low rate and EBR methods are inappropriate or not feasible o Record + if behavior occurred during interval o Disadvantage: overestimation can occur o Rule of thumb: make intervals shorter than highest number of behaviors observed during and observation period divided into the total amount of time observed • Whole interval recording (TBR) o Appropriate when behaviors are of high rate and duration but event-‐based methods are inappropriate or not feasible o + recorded only if the behavior occurred for the ENTIRE interval o disadvantage: tends to underestimate behavior o rule of thumb: whole interval sizes should be set near the length of the shortest observed occurrence of behavior • momentary interval recording (TBR) o requires T to observe S at end of interval to see if behavior is happening at that moment o appropriate when behaviors occur sporadically at high rates, when EBR methods are inappropriate/not feasible, and when T has little time to observe o used when partial would cause great overestimation and interval would cause great underestimation o disadvantage: tends to underestimate behavior o rule of thumb: interval size should be smaller-‐ T should consider baseline rate of behavior and develop interval size that will capture occurrence and nonoccurrence Chapter 5 Notes Task analysis procedures that lead to instructional planning • Task analysis: process of considering the requisite component skills for a complex behavior o Provides a map of the skill being taught, making sure that each component and prerequisite skill is taught o Outlines the individual steps for instruction and provides an objective measure for where instruction should begin and end o Provides a roadmap for delivery and measurement of instruction • Determining the goals for instruction provides the teacher with a clear picture of the required S behavior • T must consider full array of required behaviors and then break instruction into teachable components Critical differences between temporal, response difficulty, and criterion task analyses • Most efficient task analysis for any particular skill will depend on the nature of the skill • Temporal task analysis o Breaking a behavior into a set of discrete steps sequenced through time o Useful in teaching students to perform a series of steps o Often paired with self-‐management tools and/or chaining procedures • Response Difficulty task analysis o Sequencing steps in the order of their difficulty in terms of learning and mastery o Mastery of a relatively simple step will provide the necessary success to motivate the S to perform the following, more difficult step o Most common in academic learning examples where temporal steps do not always provide a logical manner of teaching o Helps T maximize success throughout the process of teaching complex tasks • Criterion task analysis o Breaks instruction of behavior down by using increasingly more stringent criteria for success o Useful for breaking down fluency building goals o Appropriate for procedures such as constant time delay Key components of graphs for visual representation performance • Simple line graph provides the best visual representation of progress • Lines of progress are plotted as a visual standard for evaluating future performance and as a summary of current performance to predict future performance • Aim lines o Line on a graph that connects the current level of performance to a criterion level of performance at a designated point in the future o Aim star: end goal; represented by “A” on the graph o Aim line is drawn from average starting baseline to the aim star o Represents the minimal line of progress for S o Aim line should be reconsidered if S is below performance for three consecutive days • Trend lines o Lines of progress that are plotted through a string of existing data points o Represent trend and prediction for the future o May be plotted through baseline data to determine whether intervention is required o May be plotted through intervention data to predict where S performance might be headed o Beginning point: middle of first three dots o Ending point: middle of last three dots o May be plotted with as few as 5 points but meaningful trends typically have a minimum of 6 dots Using data to make instructional decisions • Merit of intervention can only be judged by measurable changes in S behavior • Performance and decision-‐making criteria for success and failure should be continually monitored o Criteria for success is S meets behavior goal for intervention o Success should represent minimal level of performance necessary to maintain sufficient progress towards ultimate behavior goal • Possible successful performance decisions o S has fully met criteria for success § Team may decide to stop intervention or focus on a different skill area, working from a prioritized list of identified S problems o S uses skill fluently and consistently in limited contexts § Conditions suggest need to create intervention plans to facilitate generalization § Team may develop criteria for success o S consistently uses skill with prompts and reinforcement § Team should gradually fade components of intervention while still monitoring performance and expecting behavior to occur at original goal level o S has met acquisition objective for skill § Intent is to facilitate more fluency with skill so it occurs more readily and automatically o S is making satisfactory progress toward criterion § Team should ensure intervention plan continues without alteration • Possible failed performance decisions o S has failed to ever engage in behavior § Basic requisite skills or understanding are not present § Team may consider alternative appropriate replacement behaviors for S o S was progressing well but has stopped § Instruction should continue with re-‐teaching of critical skills required at that level or with instruction to help S overcome any issues that have arisen in environment o S engages in behavior but is inconsistent § S may be bored or not sufficiently reinforced for behavior § Team may wish to manipulate reinforcement amount or to change reinforcers § Team must determine whether any environmental actions or events tend to predict this behavior o S can demonstrate behavior but natural events compete § Team may consider changing environment to remove or overpower identified obstacles § May be necessary to instruct how to ignore irrelevant stimuli and consequences to differentiate appropriate and inappropriate behavior o S is just short of satisfactory performance but is making progress § Meets criterion for failure, falling just below line of minimal progress for three consecutive days § Team may institute some instructional prompts or to slightly decrease criteria in objective so as to change perception of success Disruptive Behavior Screencast Notes • how to record disruptive behavior o acronyms on form § SPR PR: specific praise § OTR: opportunities to respond § CR: correct response § DIS: disruptive behavior o determine whether you will include purposeful or accidental behaviors o using intervals and mark as tallies o On-‐task behaviors are looked at when the interval is over to determine if person is paying attention right at that time or not Trend Line Screencast Notes Trend lines in single-‐subject design • Collect data until you get stability in the trend line • Stability in the trend line o Very little variability – 7 data points is good enough o Large variability in data (variable flat line) – 8 data points o Linear trend – keeps climbing and stop at particular point – keep going until you meet your goal o Curvilinear trend – same thing as linear trend o Cyclical – still predictable prefer 8-‐9 trends o No pattern – keep taking data until there is a pattern Chapter 3 Notes Introduction • Behavior is functional in that it helps individuals meet their needs • Too often, we focus on behavior management problems and looking for a cause inside the student Why do students engage in behavior? • Function of behavior: reason why a behavior is occurring/what is reinforcing the behavior o Does not imply the individual consciously decided to engage in behavior (they often operate habitually) o One occurrence followed by a particular consequence is not sufficient to identify function o Function is identified if a certain behavior usually is evoked by specific stimuli and followed by certain consequences o Identifying function of behavior is critical for developing an intervention plan • Social behavior serves two functions o Provides a student with attention, tangible items, activities, and/or sensory stimuli (positive reinforcement) o Provides a means for escaping or avoiding attention, tangible items, activities, or sensory stimulation (negative reinforcement) • Discriminative stimuli o Makes it more likely that a behavior will occur because it signals that certain consequences are differentially available Functional behavior assessment • Definition: “process of assessment to determine how the environment predicts and maintains a response, that is why the behavior is occurring” • Purpose: to better understand the behavior in order to develop effective intervention • Process of gathering information about the relation between the environment and a behavior so as to understand what events make the behavior more likely to occur and also what event serves to reinforce the behavior Key Steps of FBA • Defining the behavior o Behaviors are defined by their dimensions in a measurable and observable manner o Entails at least two dimensions that include topography of the behavior and some indication of the amount of behavior • Assessing predictable patterns (aka routines analysis) o Gather information to develop a hypothesis about the relation between antecedents, the problem behavior, and the consequences that maintain it o Done by collecting data via direct observations, interview, questionnaires, etc. o What are the problematic routines? Make a schedule of the student’s routine and mark when the problem behavior occurs § Helps focus attention only on those routines that are problematic § We can ask questions or conduct observations to determine why problem occurs during one routine and not others § The same behavior can be evoked by different antecedents and maintained by different consequences in different texts • Developing a hypothesis about the behavior’s function o Best guess about what events seem to predict the problem (antecedents) and what events maintain the problem (reinforcing function) o Allows for an easy display of the relation between problem behavior and events in the environment o Help determine how the consequences function to reinforce the problem behavior • Verifying the hypothesis in some manner (discussed in chapter 8) Conducting an FBA • FBA can be used in a simplified and realistic manner to develop effective classroom management plans • What appropriate and inappropriate behaviors are observed? (define behavior) • What types of actions or events tend to precede instances of appropriate and inappropriate behavior? (identify antecedents) • What types of actions or events tend to follow instances of appropriate and inappropriate behavior? (identify consequences) • What is a measurable statement of the relationship between behavior and the environment? (hypothesize function) Week 7 Notes Curriculum-‐Based Assessment • T assesses S progress daily, based on goals for each lesson • T moves on to further objectives once S are successful with previous objective • Allows T to identify failures immediately
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