Psychology Midterm 2 Study Guide
Psychology Midterm 2 Study Guide PSYC 001
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tina Tan on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 001 at University of California Riverside taught by Dr. Huffman-Neal in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 137 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at University of California Riverside.
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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Tina!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Psychology Midterm #2 Chapter 4 and 5 Chapter 4 The Biology and Function of the Nervous System Central Nervous System: brain and spinal cord, also the retina Peripheral Nervous System: cranial and spinal nerves, somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system o Autonomic Nervous System: responsible for homeostasis the regulation of important body functions such as temperature and thirst, and our fightorflight response to emergencies Sympathetic Nervous System: prepares the body for situations requiring the expenditure of energy, designed to deal with emergencies that could be resolved relatively quickly Parasympathetic Nervous System: directs the storage of energy, Basics of Neuroanatomy and Function What/where is/basic functions of: Spinal cord and meninges: cushioned by cerebrospinal fluid generated by the ventricles, meninges form several layers. Pia matter is first layer touching brain, arachnoid layer, dura mater later (tough mother) Hindbrain (pons, medulla, cerebellum): o Pons: above the medulla, manages sleep, arousal and facial expressions, connects the cerebellum to the rest of the brain o Medulla: merges with the spinal cord, contains large bundles of axons travelling to and from higher levels of the brain, manages heart rate and blood pressure (injury leads to quick death) o Cerebellum: essential for maintaining balance and motor coordination, first to be affected by alcohol, has a role in language, cognition and perception Ventricles and CSF: two lateral ventricles, cerebrospinal fluid Thalamus: “gateway to the cortex”, input from our sensory systems go first through the thalamus, involved with memory and states of consciousness Basal Ganglia: collection of large structures involved with voluntary movement, degeneration occurs in Parkinson’s, can also be seen in OCD and ADHD Limbic system (and its parts): initiates, controls and regulates emotions o Hypothalamus: collection of structures involved with motivation and homeostasis regulates body temperature, thirst, hunger, biological rhythms and sexual activities o Hippocampus: essential to formation of longterm memories, storage/retrieval of memories o Cingulate Cortex Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC): works with hypothalamus to control autonomic nervous system. Decision making, emotion, anticipation of reward, empathy Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC): memory and visual processing o Amygdala: role in identifying, remembering and responding to fear and aggression, emotionality Reward Circuit (and its parts): above the brainstem o Corpus callosum: large bundles of axons that connect the two large cerebral hemispheres o Cerebral cortex: thin layer of cells covering the outer surface of the cerebral hemispheres o Nucleus Accumbens (NA), Ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the prefrontal cortex are heavily activated during pleasurable drug use. Can lead to addiction Cerebral hemispheres 4 lobes of the neocortex o Frontal Lobe Home of primary motor cortex Prefrontal cortex plans behavior, attention and judgment Orbitofrontal cortex, part of PFC, has an important role in our emotional lives and smell o Temporal Lobe Home of primary auditory cortex Has areas specialized for particular functions, higher system tasks including the recognition of objects and the faces of familiar people o Occipital Lobe Home of primary visual cortex Connected to temporal and parietal lobes which gives us detail about visual stimuli o Parietal Lobe Home of primary somatosensory cortex Helps us localize touch, pain, skin temperature and body position Posterior areas does complex processing of vision Basics of Sensory Cortex and Function Understand locations and general functions of Somatosensory and motor cortex located in the parietal lobe, perception of feels. Motor frontal lobe, voluntary motor functions Homunculus: when parts of the body are drawn next to their corresponding brain areas, the fingers and mouth are very large and the arms and back are small Main function of the visual cortex in the occipital lobe and auditory cortex areas in the temporal lobe o Visual cortex processes basic visual info o Auditory processes sound Why do we need more than one sensory area per sense? Why do we need multiple visual areas? Methods for Studying Human Brain (pros and cons) EEG: Electroencephalogram, measures the brain’s electrical activity using electrodes places on the scalp (good for temporal) fMRI: Functional magnetic resonance imaging, identifies active parts of the brain using magnetism to track the flow of oxygen (good for spatial) o MRI: uses magnetism to form images of the brain PET: Position emission tomography, scan uses the accumulation of radioactively tagged glucose or oxygen to identify activity levels in parts of the brain (good for spatial) Neurons and Neurotransmission What are neurons? Specialized nerve cell that processes and transmits information What are glia? Nonneuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin and provide support and protection for the brain’s neurons What is the twostep process of neural communications? o Step One: takes place in the signaling neuron’s axon. The neuron generates an electrical signal (action potential) which travels the length of the axon from its junction with the cell body to its terminal o Step Two: takes place between two neurons. When the action potential arrives at the axon terminal, it releases neurotransmitters. They float across the extracellular fluid where a second neuron will respond with its own AP Understand how membrane changes happen and how the AP occurs in the cell o A brief electrochemical event that is carried by an axon from the soma of the neuron to its terminal boutons, AP is an all or none event o Neuron at rest has a negative membrane potential (charge) inside of the cell is more negative compared to the outside (resting potential at 70 millivolts) o Stimulus causes channels to open changing the membrane potential and starting the AP at 55, NA+ goes in o 3 NA+ ions out of the cell, two K+ ions in = making inside more negative until it hits the resting potential Understand NTs and the basics of synaptic transmission o Synaptic transmission neurons communicate with other cells through synapses using chemical NTs o NTs are store in synaptic vesicles, more than 50 NTs o Lock in with receptors from receiving neurons and then either drift away, broken down by enzymes or return to axon terminal o Either stimulate or inhibit cell firing Glutamate: primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system GABA: primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system Chemical Communications Know common NTs and how drugs might affect them Acetylcholine: important to behavior, muscles, related to learning and memory Norepinephrine: arousal and vigilance Dopamine: systems that govern movement, planning and reward Serotonin: regulates sleep, appetite and mood Endorphins: endogenous morphine, modify our natural response to pain Drugs can stimulate/inhibit NT release, mimic the effects of certain NTs, block effects or interfere with reuptake of NT after release The Endocrine System Know the major glands and basic functions as well as female and male differences Comprised of a number of glands that release chemical messengers or hormones into the bloodstream, responds with the hypothalamus Involved with arousal, metabolism, growth and sex Pineal gland: regulates body rhythms and sleep cycles Pituitary gland: “master gland”, regulates the functioning of other glands, influences growth and lactation, regulated by the hypothalamus Thyroid gland: regulates the rate of metabolism Adrenal gland: secretes hormones that arouse the body, help with adjustment to stress, regulate salt balance, affect sexual functioning Males= testes, females = ovaries Chapter 5 Sensation and Perception Sensation: receive signals from the environment Perception: Organizing and interpreting these signals Transduction: the process by which the sensory organs convert energy from environmental event into neural activity o Stimuli in the environment activate sensory receptors, which then leads to brain activation and thus sensation and perception of that stimulus Sensory Coding: How our brain interprets that sensation, contains “what” and “when” information Understand the basic idea how a stimulus in the environment that gives off physical energy is “recreated” in our brains so we can perceive it o Objects generate energy that are detected by sensory receptors, which convert the energy into neural signals. They are then relayed to the brain which processes them into perceptual experiences Psychophysics What is psychophysics? Study of the relationship between physical stimuli and perceptual experience Understand the concept of threshold? A stimulus must present itself over a given threshold to be detected What is JND and Weber’s Law? JND or just noticeable difference is the smallest difference in a stimulus that a person can detect. Weber’s Law is the amount of difference that can be detected depends on the size of stimuli being compared. As stimuli gets larger, differences must also become larger to be detected by an observer What is signal detection method and why would you use it? The best way to determine a person’s sensitivity to the occurrence of a particular stimulus. Because some people are better than others at detecting sensory experiences Vision What is light as a stimulus? What are its properties? Waves: perceived as color and amplitude: perceived as brightness Basics of visual pathways in the brain and the parts of the eye o Visual information from the retina travels to the thalamus, then the primary visual cortex in the occipital lobe o Optic nerve is formed by the axons from the final layers of cells in the back of the eye, transmit incoming visuals signals to the brain o Optic chiasm is the point where the optic nerves cross the midline o Optic tracts are beyond the optic chiasm, visual pathways o Cornea outermost layer of the eye. A thin, clear membrane that bends light waves inwards o Pupil opening through which light waves enter the eye, size changes depending on the brightness of the environment o Iris pigmented portion of the eye, a muscle that adjusts the size of the pupil o Lens focuses on incoming light so that it falls onto the retina, changes its shape depending on what it’s trying to focus on= accommodation o Retina multilayered collection of neurons that covers the rear of the eye, contains the visual receptors, which convert light wave energy into neural signals o Fovea exact center of the retina, contains receptors that are specialized for fine detail and color vision How do cells in the retina work? What types of cells are in the retina and what do they code for? o Rods and cones are visual receptors in the retina o Each contain pigments that are broken down by light energy, when they are broken down, they start chemical reactions that changes the activity levels of visual system neurons o Rods sensitive to light, excel at seeing in dim light o Cones function under bright light and provide the ability to see both sharp images and color How does color vision happen? o Trichromatic theory of color vision based on the existence of three types of cones in the retina. Each type of cone responds most to light at particular wavelengths Short wavelengths blue Medium green Long red Audition What is sound as a stimulus? What are its properties? Frequency the pitch of the sound (high or low) and amplitude the loudness of the sound Basics of the ear and how the cells in the cochlea work to let us hear sounds o Ear is divided into the outer, middle and inner ear o Outer ear visible outside the body Pinna outer visible structure of the ear, collects and focuses sounds like a funnel o Boundary between outer and middle ear tympanic membrane o Middle and inner ear oval window o Ossicles series of three tiny bones, occupies the gap between the tympanic membrane and the oval window (hammer, anvil, stirrup) Amplify sound energy as its transferred from the air of the outer and middle ear to the fluid found in the inner ear o Inner ear two sets of fluidfilled cavities embedded in the bone of the skull One set is part of the vestibular system o Cochlea contains specialized receptor cells that respond to vibrations transmitted to the inner ear. Vibrations in the ossicles > waves in the vestibular canal fluid > movement of hair cells What is sound localization and how do we know from which direction a sound is coming from? The timing and intensity in which the physical aspects of sound hit the two cochlea allowing the person or animal to detect the location of the sound in the environment Know the basics of the auditory pathways in the brain o Auditory nerve > medulla > midbrain > thalamus > temporal lobe o Bending of hair cells releases NTs onto the auditory nerve, contacts medulla and then is sent to the midbrain (reflexive responses to sound), passes info to thalamus then to primary auditory cortex which is in the temporal lobe Somatosensory System Bodily sensations coming from skin, muscles, and joints are processed here Know the main idea of how receptors in the skin work to alert us to touch o Skin has 3 layers o Outermost layer is a thin film of dead cells, no receptors o Merkel’s disks sense pressure on the skin o Meissner’s corpuscles sense pressure o Hair follicle receptors sense hair movement o Pacinian Corpuscles sense pressure and vibration o Ruffini’s endings sense skin stretching o Free nerve endings transmit info about temperature and pain What is twopoint discrimination? Know the basics of the somatosensory pathways in the brain Vestibular System Part of the inner ear What parts of the ear help us understand where our body is in space? Otolith organs or vestibular sacs Or maintain balance? Are these things fluid filled? yes Olfactory System What is the olfactory bulb? How many different odorants can humans detect? 1 trillion What part of the brain do the olfactory receptors provide input to? Gustatory System What is gustation and what are the qualities of taste? Sense of taste (bitterness, sourness, sweetness, saltines, umami, fat) What are taste buds? Papillae located on the tongue, interact with dissolved taste stimuli and turns that info into neural signals Perception What is the difference between top down and bottom up processing? o Top down context and preexisting knowledge are used to rapidly organize features into a meaningful whole o Bottom up constructing at the bottom with raw material, small sensory units and build upward to a complete perception What does Gestalt refer to in terms of perception? We are born with a number of built in tendencies to organize incoming sensory information in certain ways, simplifies the problem of recognizing objects Know examples of Gestalt principles (figureground, similarity, proximity, etc) o Figure ground visually pull the stimulus forward and pushing backward the background o Similarity states similar stimuli are grouped together o Proximity states that objects that are close together tend to be grouped together o Continuity we assume that points that form smooth lines when connected probably belong together o Closure “fill in the blanks” to see a single object Depth Perception and Constancies Monocular cue: a cue for the perception of depth that requires that use of only one eye Binocular cue: use of both eyes (convergence) Monocular cues linear perspective (occurs when parallel lines seem to converge in the distance) and relative size (two objects to be the same size and they are not) o Interposition objects overlap o Light and Shadow brightly lit objects appear closer, shadows are farther o Texture gradient areas with sharp, detailed texture are interpreted as being closer What is convergence? Under binocular cues, the degree to which the eyes turn in to focus on a close object What are perceptual constancies? o The tendency to perceive objects as the same even when their physical characteristics change o Size constancy refers to our tendency to perceive objects as remaining the same size when their images on the retina continually grow or shrink o Shape tendency to perceive an object as retaining its same shape even when you view it from a different angle o Brightness brightness as remaining the same in changing illumination o Color colors as remaining stable despite differences in lighting
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