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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aashika Kushwaha on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology of communication at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Hanna Ulatowska in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Learning and Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Exam 2: Learning and Conditioning: Russian Style: Pavlov Learning- a process by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in an organism’s behavior or capabilities Classical Conditioning- associating involuntary response (reflex) with a stimulus Stimulus- response relationship Anticipatory reflex Operant Conditioning- associating voluntary response and a (good or bad) consequence Behavior-outcome relationship Punishment- reward Observational Learning- learning through observing and modeling behaviors. Mimicking role models Implicit Learning- learning without conscious awareness. Picking up patterns in the world Ivan Pavlov Russian scientist that studied digestion Accidently discovered classical conditioning Classical Conditioning- neutral stimulus paried with something else to create a natural stimulus from the initial object Food => drooling Neutral Stimulus (Before conditioning): Stimulus that hasn’t been paired up with US. Bell Unconditioned Stimulus (US): a stimulus that naturally triggers a response. (Food) Unconditioned Response (UR): Naturally occurring response to the US. (Drool) Conditioned Stimulus (after conditioning): Bell Conditioned Response (after conditioning) (CS): Learned response to a previously neutral stimulus that is now conditioned. (Drool) Problems with Conditioning -only explains reflexes, atutomatic responses -not caused behavior Extinction: gradual elimination of a learned response occurs when CS is no longer presented. -The more you pair US with UR, the longer the conditioning lasts before extinction. Ex. Giving a ringing the bell and dog salivating results in dog salivating when only hearing the bell. But if you don’t pair the food with ringing the bell, eventually, the dog will no longer salivate when he only hears the bell. Generalization- Process by which CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during acquisition. Ex. Albert Experiment -Example: In high school, there was an announcement bell and a dismissal bell. At the end of the day, if the announcement bell rang, students would get up and start gathering Discrimination- Capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli Ex. Telling apart two similar instruments, such as a violin and a cello -John Watson and Little Albert Learning & Conditioning: American Style (with Skinner) Operant: behavior outcome- associating voluntary response with a consequence (punishment/reward) Skinner-Skinner Box-rat -Rat was put in a box that had a button. Every time the rat moved away from pressing the button, he was shocked. (Positive Punishment) Thorndike-Puzzle Box: Cats put in a puzzle box- Once cats solved the puzzle that opened the box, they were given food. (Positive Reinforcement) Operant Learning Strengthened-reward (reinforcement)- increases probability of doing something Diminished- punishment-decreses probability of doing something Positive/ Positive- adding something to change behavior Negative Negative- removing something to change behavior does not mean good/bad Examples of each: Positive Reinforcement: giving a kid a piece of candy for doing good on a test. This would increase the behavior of studying. The kid will study more so that they will more candy. (GIVE SOMETHING TO INCREASE BEHAVIOR) Negative Reinforcement: Kid is doing good in school, so you take away some of the kid’s chores to increase kid’s good performance in school. (TAKE AWAY SOMETHING TO INCREASE BEHAVIOR) Positive Punishment: Kid being bad so you hit the child to decrease bad behavior. (GIVE SOMETHING TO DECREASE A BEHAVIOR) Negaitve Punishment: Take away cellphone to decrease bad behavior. (TAKE AWAY SOMETHING TO DECREASE A BEHAVIOR) Reinforcement Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous-always reinforcing the behavior Partial- sometimes reinforcing the behavior Consistent Consistent Spacing Spacing Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio -Reinforcing -# of correct behavior after a responses award is # of Ratioset number of not specified. Responses correct responses. Awarded at random numbers of correct responses Fixed Interval Variable Interval -Reinforce first -Reinforce first time response after a after varying time Clock Time Intervfixed amount of intervals time. Ex. Award after 5 (Ex. Reinforce seconds, then award after each set after 8 seconds, etc.) done in 5 Slowest to Learn: Variable interval Hardest to Extinguish: Variable Interval Shaping: Learning that results from reinforcement of successive steps to a final desired behavior. -Slowly scaffolding a behavior by removing reward gets closer to goal. Ex. Potty Training -Get a piece of candy for peeing in the toilet -Get ½ a cookie for peeing in the toilet. -No cookie for peeing in the toilet. -Like playing hot or cold, or training an animal -Can be positive or negative Observational Learning: learning by watching models Ex. Albert Bandura Bobo Doll -Children imitating behaviors results in aggressive/sensitive behaviors toward Bobo doll. Implicit Learning: Learning without awareness of the process of information acquisition. Ex. Picking up on patterns. Ex. Information Processing Memory: process of encoding and retrieving info over time -Information processing = act and process of memory Encoding- getting information (perceptions, thoughts, feelings) into memory Elaborative Visual Storage- retaining information in memory over time Retrieval- recalling or using previously encoded and stored infor, getting info back out Forgetting Reconstructing Memory: Models -Some memories are processed automatically/unconsciously, others processed effortfully/consciously Implicit -Continuous cycle of encoding, storing, and retrieving information -Although, some information in LTM can be lost if not practiced. Enough encoding cues must be given in order to remember them. -Some information for external events can go straight into LTM through implicit learning. Encoding Elaborative Encoding:(semantic) Process of relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory. -Lower left frontal lobe Rhyme Encoding: attending to word’s sound -When we read, we sound out words, or memorize words based on how they sound. Visual Imagery: Storing new information by converting info to mental pictures in our head. -occipital lobe -Ex. A teacher draws a picture on the board and relates it to the concept that we are learning about. So when we are studying, we relate back to the model that our teacher showed us in class. Organizational Encoding- organize information in a way that makes sense. -Upper fronal lobe -Box plots -Organization family tree -Outline Memory Storage- retaining infor in memory over time -sensory -STM -LTM Short Term Memory (STM): storage that holds info more than few seconds, but less than a minute. -capacity is 7 +/- 2 -we memorize numbers better than words Long Term Memory (LTM): storage that holds info for hours, days, weeks -No known capacity -Sometimes information in LTM can be lost if it is not practiced -Sometimes we just forget Average recall: only remember about 4-5 things from a list if shown information in a brief amount of time. Experiment by Stirling: played different tones while showing a list of things. High Tone: remember high/top row Medium Tone: remember middle row Low Tone: remember bottom row -Sensory Encoding: massive but brief Types of Sensory Memory Iconic: fast-decaying storage Visual 1 second Echoic: fast decaying auditory Memory storage auditory cortex 5 seconds Haptic: fast-decaying tactile info Seconds 10 seconds (remembered the longest) Primary somatosensory cortex: parietal Peterson & Peterson 3 consonant strings Count to 3 Remember things that are under that specific category, even if they weren’t present in the list. Memory declines within 3 seconds. Primacy Effect- remember things at the beginning of a list Recency Effect- remember things at the end of a list Category Interference- asked to freely recall, making category errors -Recall words that weren’t there, but will be likely to say something that could have been in that category. Working Memory- active maintenance/manipulation of information in short-term memory Ex. Letter-Number Span A8X4B29NC7. Reciting these letters and numbers in alphabetical then numerical numbers. “Rules” of Working Memory Unlimited duration with rehearsal Involves active control, organization, goals Executive funcitons Involves: -Frontal Cortex -Basal Ganglia -Cingulate Cortex Memory 2 Long Term Memory (LTM) -divided into branches Explicit (Declaritive)- Consciously recall 1. Semantic (factual) 2. Episodic (events) External Events => Sensory Memory => STM => LTM Long Term Memory (LTM) Procedural -Motor/cognitive Priming Semantic Episodic Enhanced Factual Memories Knowing identificatio -Ex. Capital of the of things how to do certain n US we things. Implicit experience Ex. Learning Brushing your teeth Natural Decay- memory cades over time Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve- retention Repetition=less information drops over time with decay significant drop initially then slows. Interference- other items in storage get confused with what you are trying to recall Retroactive Interference: New stored information intereferes with remembering old information Proactive Interference: Old information stored interferes with remembering the new Ex. Writing the wrong year after New Year’s on your paper. How to (not) Forget Practice makes perfect! 1. Massed Rehearsal: Ex. Study all the night before 2. Distributed Rehearsal: Ex. Studying a little everyday -Better for LTM 3. Emotional Links: heightened memory Ex. Remembering an event based off of how exciting it was, such as a party. 4. Sleep: consolidation of memories Long-Term Memory: The Brain Patient H.M- This was a patient that was in the hospital for a long time. Everytime his doctor came to talk to him, the doctor would have to introduce himself, as if he is meeting the patient for the first time, because the patient would not remember. Hippocampus- helps with consolidation and strengthening of synapses/connections between neurons. Amnesia Anterograde Amnesia- Inability to transfer new information from short- term to long-term memory. Retrograde Amnesia- Inability to remember the old information. Can only remember new information. (Happens after an accident) Retrieval: recalling or using previously encoding and stored information Recall: bringing previously learned information into conscious awareness. Ex. Fill in the Blank questions Recognition: identifying previously learned information again. Ex. Multiple Choice questions Memory is imperfect Reconstructive Nature of Memory -We use various strategies to rebuild experiences Affected by: Current mood Prior experiences New information Expectations Elizabeth Loftus: Subjects shown videos of an accident between two cars, and were asked questions. Different answers were recorded: smashed vs. contacted Words used change answer response Memory Misattributions- assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source Source Memory: recall when, where, and how information was acquired False Recognition: Lead by familiarity about something that hasn’t been encountered before. Brain activation during Source Memory and Falso Recognition are the same. Development and Stuff Development- change over time Cognitive development Social development Motor development Cognition- all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Cognitive Development: Piaget Piaget: father of modern development -Children are “little scientists” Construct own knowledge by experience Equilibration- people balance knowledge to create a stable understanding. In disequilibration, people feel the need to adapt or have things change. Assimilation- incorporate infor into existing scema Use what you already know to explain something new Ex. Adjusting to how everyone else is by copying other’s living habits Ex. Having people sleep on the couch when they come over Accommodation- adapt current knowledge structures in response to new experience Ex. Trying to use what you know, to be like everyone else, but mostly doing what you know Ex. Arranging a whole room for someone when they come over. Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Formal Stage Stage Operational Operational 2-7 yrs Stage Ages 12 yrs Birth-2yrs 7-12 yrs and up -knowledge and -Understanding understanding is -Understands the -Understands the world through through world through world though senses and language, logical thinking hypothetical actions mental imagery, and categories thinking and and symbolic scientific Object thoughts Conservation reasoning. Permanence Notion that Slowly learned -Children can properties, by the age of 2 Symbolic Play such as mass, think deeply An object can volume, and about concrete -idea that objects be number remain events and can continue to exist represented the same reason abstractly even if they can’t by another despite and hypothetically. be seen. object. changes in the Ex. Pretending forms of Ex. that a banana is objects. -Playing peek a a phone Ex. boo. -a child that hasn’t Ex. If I have 1 -hiding a ball learned Symbolic cookie, and I A=B B=C Therefore, A=C under a cup Play will believe break it in half, I that if the banana still have 1 is a phone to cookie. Breaking Social Development 5+x=6 Vygotsky Attachmnent Lev Vygotsky Social cognitive development Cognitive development occurs in interpersonal contact, though interactions with other humans (guided participation) NOT self- exploration Piaget Joint Attention- infants and social partners focus on common referent. Ex. If a teacher puts up a powerpoint, and begins talking, we can assume that the teacher is talking about the information on the powerpoint. Zone of Proximal Development -range between what children can do unsupported and what they can do with optimal social support Ex. Purpose of teaching What I can do What I can do with help What I can Zone of do Proximal Development Attachment- emotional bond with a specific person that is enduring across time and space Harlow’s Monkeys -Infant rhesus monkeys were separated from mother at birth and were raised in semi-isolation. They were presented with either a wire mother with food or a cloth mother. Baby monky would only go to the wire mother for food, but mostly stayed with the cloth mother for comfort. Staying with the cloth mother made the monkey feel safe. -No mother and wire mother had the same effect on baby monkey. -Prefers cloth mother with no food -More “secure” base: cloth mother with no food -baby would feel comfortable exploring the room, as long as the cloth mother was there. -Cloth mother was favored over food https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OrNBEhzjg8I Attachment: Ainsworth Measured and classified the security of an infant’s attachment. Created the strange situation: paradigm measuring security of an infant’s attachment based on observable behavior Infant’s reaction when mom leaves them Secure-child gets upset, but calms down Insecure- ignores mom, or so upset that can’t be calmed down Infant’s reaction when mom returns Secure- glad to see mom, comforted Insecure- clingy, ignores mom, or love/hate Motor Development Reflex- “innate”, fixed patterns of actions that occur in response to a particular stimuli (e.g. grsasping, sucking, blinking) Babinski Reflex- a reflex action in which the big toe remains extended or extends itself when the sole of the foot is stimulated; abnormal reflex except in young infants. 1-3 months: Pre-reaching (swatting, swiping) 8 months: Reaching stable, self-locomotion (moving: crawling simming, butt-scooting, rolling), visual acuity 13 months- Walking becomes somewhat stable Individual Differences Reaching- way babies reach for things- some of the concentrate and grab the item while others swat the items they want to get Diapers- way babies walk/move with diaper on (waddle) vs. no diaper. Back sleeping- Primary way to put a child to sleep. Child should be put on their stomach in order to work their neck muscles for only a few hours. (Tummy time) The case of the disappearing reflex Esther Thelen and colleagues Dilemma -At birth- stepping reflex may be held up -2 months- stepping reflex goes away and feet drag -Birth-6 month - increasing rate of spontaneous kicking while lying down -near end of 1 year- upright stepping reappears Why does stepping appear, disappear, then reappear again? -They believe it has something to do with Gravity, body posture, springiness of legs, or fat to muscle ratio -This can be tested on a baby recliner, putting them in water (babies know how to swim when they are born), or by an unethical approach such as putting the child in outer space Visual Cliff- plexi glass What changes: Falling vs. NOT Children learn based on how intact their depth perception is -Novice walkers (perception change) and novice crawlers will go over the cliff -Advanced crawlers and advanced walkers will stop https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DrzmvI6iMrE Language and Communication Language- system of communicating with others using signals that are combined according to rules of grammar and convey meaning Communication- generic term for conveying information between individuals through nonverbal or verbal means (Humans and animals) Nonverbal Verbal Gestures Words Expression Speech (facial) pitch Writing (nonverbal because it involves interpretation. This was tested Humans- more complex, symbolic/representation, used for thinking and conceptualizing (Biased) Other animals- have clear communication tools, but not necessarily complex language. Ex. Bee movement studies Kanzi and Chantek study- primates living with humans Kanzi- had buttons that each wrote out a word. He would press these buttons to eventually form sentences. He learned to spell out how to ask for food, etc. Chantek- lived in college, became good at bargaining. Most languages are pretty similar Nativism- learn languages quickly at young age -Words in all languages are pretty similar to each other. They are based on Latin origins. In Psychology, this has been studied as being evolutionary. -Languages learned from physical structures and exposture— Empireicism (More specific than socio-cultural) Properties of Language Communicative Arbitrary Structured Novel-producing/generative (26 letters in the English language but billions of words) Dynamic-changes over time (Ex. Old English vs. New English) Parts of Language Phonemes- smallest unit of sound that is recognizable as speech rather than random noise Ex. Table: Ta-ble Ex. Cow Morphemes- smallest meaningful units of language -Kind of like syllables Ex. Ta-ble Ex. Spaghetti: 3 morphemes 2 phonemes (ti and ghet: sounding like tea and get) Pragmatics- rules of knowledge for conversation Ex. We take turns in a conversation, so people can be understood (no interrupting) Ex. Make eye contact when talking to each other Semantics- meaning of language Discourse- conversation Linguistic Determinism- language and thoughts interact Which came first the chicken or the egg? This question is answered in different ways because Language alters though and Thought Determines Language Language alters thought (Whorfian Hypothesis) - Words>sounds to activate thoughts - Ex. - Word: Dog When you hear the word dog, you may think of a golden retriever, or dogs of random sizes When you hear “bark bark”, you think of a big dog, such as a pit bull -Reaction time: faster to just generic term -tiny bark”: have to link the sound to how tiny the dog could be Thought Determines Language Ex. Perception of color (dependent on culture) -relavant light/dark -not specific to color names (ex. Periwinkle) Some languages only have light and dark. Perception of Time -Cultural differences affect languages and words. Production vs. Comprehension Broca’s Area- left frontal cortex; language production (speaking) Wernicke’s Area- Left temporal cortex; language comprehension (understanding) Broca’s Aphasia- can’t really form words. -end up babbling again Wernicke’s Aphasia- talking with words but don’t make any sense. Ex. The car smile me driving hands you wave hi Language Acquisition 1-2 months: sounds other than crying, cooing; producing sounds that could potentially be words is any language. -Usually vowels 6 months: babbling -language-specific sounds ***vowels and consonents*** 10-12 months: single words “Holophrases”- words that come together and form meaning but have no correct grammar usually nouns Fast-mapping- child will begin saying words that they have been exposed to, but know little about 18-24 months: “graphic speech” Making 2-3 word sentences 36 months full sentences (small sentences) 6 years know grammar rules of languages but vocabulary continues to grow. Birth 1-2 6 mo. mo. 18-24 mo. 10-12 mo. 36 Adul t Sensitive/ Critical Period -time period in which an organism is especially susceptible to change by learning -degreases by age Speech sound acquisition -varies by languages Ex. Feral children- a child that has lived away from human contact. Ex. Children raised by other animals Werker Study- Research using non-invasive optical neural imaging. Infants were studied growing up in different language environments. Nature of critical periods and epigenetic processes that underlie developmental changes were studied.
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