Biochemistry Final Study Guide Part 2 (ETC/TCA)
Biochemistry Final Study Guide Part 2 (ETC/TCA) 85034 - BCHM 3050 - 001
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by joseph Garand on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 85034 - BCHM 3050 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Srikripa Chandrasekaran in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Biochemistry in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Citric Acid Cycle Reactants Products Inhibitors Activators Notes 1. Pyruvate Pyruvate Acytyle CoA ATP AMP Loss of Co2 Dehydrogenas CoA Co2 Acytyle Coa CoAsh Makes e NAD+ NADH + H NADH NAD+ NADH /E1 / Modulate Makes ACoA 3C – 2C Phosphorylat PDA pro ed kinase 2. Citrate Acetyl Coa Citrate Citrate Acetyle Coa H20 synthase Oxaloacetat COAsh Succinyl CoA Oxaloacetat reaction (2C,4C)- 6C e e Removes Coash 3. Aconitase Citrate isocitrate none none 4. Isocitrate Isocitrate Ketogluterat ATP and ADP Loss of Co2 dehydrogenas NAD+ e NADH NAD+ Makes e NADH NADH 6C – 5C 5. Ketogluterat Succinyl CoA Products Reactants Loss of Co2 Ketogluterate e NADH Makes Dehydrogenas NAD+ NADH e 5C -4C 6. Succinyl- Succynyl Succinate Products Reactants Makes ATP CoA Coa GTP/ATP (SLP) synthetase GDP/ADP CoASH P 7. Succinate Succinate Fumerate Oxalosuccina Succinate Makes Dehydrogenas FAD FADH2 te ATP FADH2 e Activator -In Cristae not matrix -Trans DBL bond 8. Fumerase Fumerate L-Malate none none H20 reaction 9. Malate Malate Oxaloacetat none none Delta G= + Dehydrogenas NAD+ e Pulled by e NADH lack of OAA Anaplerotic Anaplerotic Reactions 1. Pyruvate carboxylase: activated when high acetyl coa indicates low OAA. Phosphorylation of E1 2. Malate dehydrase: step 9 Reactant/ Product numbers Brain/Muscle Cell Per molecule Glucose ( 2 Pyruvate molecules NADH/ H+ FADH2/ Total ATP H+ H+ Glycolysis 2/12 0 12 2 (Sub level phosphorylation) Pyruvate Dehydrogenase 2/20 0 20 0 Pyruvate dehydrogenase + 8/80 2/12 92 2 Krebs ETC (oxidative 104 26 Phosphorylation Total 10 2 116 29 or 30 Per molecule of pyruvate NADH/ H+ FADH2? Total ATP H+ H+ Glycolysis NA NA NA 2 (Sub level phosphorylation) Pyruvate Dehydrogenase 2/20 0 20 0 Pyruvate dehydrogenase + 4/40 1/6 46 1 Krebs ETC (oxidative 46 11.5 Phosphorylation Total 4 1 46 11.5 Liver cell Per molecule of Glucose ( 2 pyruvate Molecules) NADH/H+ FADH2/ H+ ATP H+ Glycolysis 2/20 0 20 2 (Sub level phosphorylation) Pyruvate Dehydrogenase 2/ 20 0 20 0 Pyruvate dehydrogenase + 8/ 80 2/12 92 2 Krebs ETC (oxidative 112 28 Phosphorylation Total 128 32 Per molecule of pyruvate NADH FADH2 H+ ATP Glycolysis (Sub level phosphorylation) Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Krebs Cycle Pyruvate dehydrogenase + Krebs ETC (oxidative Phosphorylation ETC Cell membrane is made up of a phospholipid bilayer Delta E: (High E ) – (Low E) -yields a positive value -The higher the positive value, the more energy released. Electron Transporters 1. Glycolysis: - 2NADH 2. Pyruvate processing -2NADH 3. Citric Acid Cycle -6 NADH -2 FADH Total: 10 NADH 2FADH2 ATP Synthesis/ Chemiosmotic Theory Electric Potential : Charge difference - High Positive Charge in the inner membrane space compared to the matrix Chemical Potential -High positive charge in the inner membrane space means low pH, Acidic ATP synthase: Enzyme that makes ATP in the matrix by moving protons against their electrochemical gradient. Chemiosmotic theory: ATP is generated when ATP synthase pumps protons across their electrochemical gradient using the enzyme ATP synthase. This is called the proton motor force. Evidence for the chemiosmotic theory is that respiring mitochondria secrete protons Certain molecules lower ATP synthesis by collapsing the proton gradient 1. Uncouplers : lower ATP synthesis -Hydrophobic compounds with a dissociable proton carry protons across the membrane. Dinitrophenol 2. Ionophores: lower ATP synthesis -Hydrophobic molecules that insert into membranes to form channels that allow free passage of cations back across the membrane. -Gramicidin: antibiotic produced by Bacillus breva; used to treat local (topological) infections of gram+ bacteria. 3. Thermogenin Shunts protons, just slows down ATP synthesis, increases heat. (newborns/hibernation) All have “brown fat” (i.e. adipose tissue enriched in mitochondria). Electron transport is uncoupled by “uncoupling protein” (thermogenin). Thermogenin is activated by fatty acids of adipose cells. Liver Vs. Muscle/ Brain Brain (Glycerol 3 Phosphate shuttle) • The Glycerol-3P/DHAP shuttle results in NADH entry at comlex II (in muscles) Brain/Muscle: Produces 30 ATP Sends NADH from glycolysis to Complex 1 via the Glycerol 3 Phosphate shuttle -Uses enzymes DHAP reductase and G3P dehydrogenase NADH = 8 * 2.5 = 20 FADH = 2 * 1.5 = 3 NADH (sent to complex I) 2 * 1.5 = 3 + 4 atp from glycolysis = 30 ATP total The liver ( Malate-Aspartate Shuttle) The Malate/Aspartate shuttle allows entry of NADH at complex I (& thus is more efficient-ATP wise-than the G3P/DHAP shuttle. (in liver) Liver: 32 total ATP Sends NADH from glycolysis to complex 2 via the aspartate- Malate shuttle NADH = 10* 2.5 = 25 FADH = 2 * 1.5 = 3 + 4ATP from glycolysis/krebs =32 total ATP (more efficient) Inhibition of the ETC Complex I: • Rotenone: broad spectrum insecticide produced by some leguminous plants (Lonchocarpus – derris root), also toxic to fish; kills by inhibiting respiratory e transport. • Amytal (amobarbitol) a barbiturate drug that blocks electron transport from NADH to coenzyme Q at the same point as the insecticide rotenone. Sometimes used as a sedative or sleep- inducing agent (especially for animals). Complex III • Antimycin: Often used as an antibiotic for fungi; stops respiratory e transport between cyt b & c. Also approved as a “fishicide” to kill fish for manangement purposes. Complex IV • Sodium Azide: Na-N=N=N. Azides very reactive, especially in light. • Cyanide toxicity = 50 – 200mg per individual (this is LD50). • Jonestown Massacre (1978) – cult members were forced to drink punch laced with KCN. Alternate Oxidation -weird plants; Skip complex III, IV -make less atp, give off more heat
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