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by: Donna Park


Donna Park
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PSY 110
Alexander Khaddouma
Study Guide
Psychology 110
50 ?




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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Donna Park on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 110 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Khaddouma in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see PSY 110 in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.




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Date Created: 02/25/16
Psychology Notes Sensation and Perception -Sensation- detection of physical energy by sense organs (eyes, nose, ears, taste buds) -Perception- the brain’s interpretation of information from sense organs -Sense receptor cells -cells specialized for converting external stimuli into neutral activity for a specific sensory system -Transduction -process of converting an external energy or substance into electrical neural activity -sensation -> transduction -> perception -we as humans can’t see the fullness of the world because there’s more colors smells that our nose and eyes can’t see as well as other creatures Sensation -Laws of Sensation -organism must be adapted to be able to sense the stimuli for it be to perceived -usually by having specialized sense organs (ex: eyes, ears, etc.) -stimuli intensity must be high enough for organism to sense it -Absolute Threshold -lowest level of a stimulus needed for the nervous system to detect it half of the time -sun example -Just Noticeable Difference -smallest detectable change in the intensity of stimulus -1 vs. 2 page paper (significant difference between writing one paper or two) -20 vs. 40 page paper (bigger difference than before) -20 vs. 21 page paper (when it gets too large, a little change will not make too much of a difference Perception -Bottom up processing – process by which a whole is constructed from parts -Top down processing – conceptually driven processing influenced by beliefs and expectancies -In real world experiences, we use both, which is called parallel processing -Elephant example and the legs (if we take away the many legs, how can we tell it’s an elephant? Because of the trunk, and we already know an elephant should have four legs) Two faces or the vase example (it’s hard to see both at the same time because our brain Is used to seeing one thing at one time, not a vase and two phases at the same time) -Illusion- perception that does not match the physical reality of a physical object -usually because of errors in constancy, color filtration, or context contamination -Checkerboard and A and B example- looked the same until checkerboard popped up (because our brain already has an idea of how to see things) Attention -Selective Attention- process of selecting one sensory channel and minimizing or ignoring others -cocktails party phenomenon - paying attention but all of a sudden someone says your name. When they said your name, it averted your attention -21 changes video -selective attention can lead to inattentional blindness -failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is focused elsewhere The Eye -The retina -membrane in back of eye -consists of: -rods: -low levels of light, darkness -basic shapes and forms -cones: -adequate lighting -color -Feature detector cells -a type of sensory receptor cell -respond to simple, particular shapes (e.g. lines of different orientations) -Opponent Process Theory -primary colors: blue, green, red -after images result from inhibited color cells becoming excited when their opposing color is removed -i.e. red cells become excited after green is perceived at length -The Ear -sensitive to loud noises, over time your hearing gets worse and worse -The Nose -not very sensitive -olfactory bulb is responsible for scent -Limbic system is so close to Olfactory bulb so scent is closely related to memory. So when you smell something, it can trigger a memory from the past -The Tongue -a bunch of muscle tissue with a layer of taste buds on top -taste buds have a bunch of nerves attached to it (the nerves stimulation sends message to brain to tell it what the taste is) -Skin -Touch and Pain -We have nerves embedded into your skin -We can tell when our skin is being touched by sharp end of needle or blunt end Application -Sight, hearing, taste, etc. all sends message to brain. -we are all different from each other when it comes to a biological level Learning -Change in an organism’s behavior or thought as a result of experience -Example: us taking notes in class is a learned behavior. How we handle anxiety, what causes us distress vs what our neighbor stresses over -Classical Conditioning - form of learning in which organism come to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that has been paired with a stimulus that previously brought out an automatic response -unconditioned stimulus- something that elicits an automatic response (example: tongue creating spit when we see food when we are hungry) -unconditional response- -conditioned stimulus-something that comes to elicit automatic response after becoming associated with unconditioned stimulus -conditioned response- response to unconditioned stimulus that is now elicited by conditioned stimulus -Altoids example and the computer ding (The Office) – -acquisition - “learning” -pairing stimulus and response together -spontaneous recovery- when the conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus comes back after a delay in exposure -e.g. smells that trigger memories or feelings -renewal effect -when the conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus comes back when the organism is placed in original environment in which learning occurred -e.g. old feelings returning when back at home, better test performance in familiar environment -stimulus generalization -things that look like conditioned stimulus elicit conditioned response -without training -stimulus discrimination -ability to differentiate between conditioned stimulus and similar stimulus High Order Conditioning -pairing conditioned stimulus with other stimuli which come to elicit conditioned response -weaker conditioned response the higher – order you go -most organisms top out at fourth – order conditioning Operant Conditioning - Form of learning controlled by providing consequences for an organism’s behavior - Thorndike and Skinner - Thorndike -Law of effect -If a stimulus followed by a behavior results in a reward, the behavior is more likely to be repeated to get the reward in the future -Example of cat opening trap door through red balloon and go get food (this is how operant conditioning works). It happens naturally, being rewarded when good things happen -Insight verses stimulus-reward associations - “aha” moments -terminology - positive -something is presented to the organism -e.g. sticker, spanking, gold star, verbal praise - negative -something that is taken away -e.g. stopping torture, taking away a toy, being grounded -reinforcement -increases target behavior -punishment -decrease target behavior -discriminative stimulus -stimulus associated with the presence of the reinforcement (but isn’t actual reward or punishment) -e.g. counting to 3 before delivering punishment to child, snapping at dog to come get patted -Shaping -reinforcing behaviors gradually as they come closer and closer to becoming target behavior -class activity- taking off shoe -schedules of reinforcement -pattern of reinforcing a behavior -continuous reinforcement -reinforcing every time behavior occurs. Faster learning, but also faster extinction -partial reinforcement -providing only occasional reinforcement -slower extinction -dimension of reinforcement -number of behaviors (ratio) -amount of time (interval) -fixed = predictable, stable -variable = unpredictable, varies in time or amount -reinforcement schedules -fixed ratio -reinforcement given after certain number of responses -fixed interval -reinforcement given after certain amount of time has passed (behavior just needs to occur at least once) -variable ratio -reinforcement given after unspecified number of responses -strongest reinforcement schedule (e.g. gambling) -variable interval -reinforcement given after unspecified amount of time has passed (behavior just needs to occur at least once) -cognitive models of learning -stimulus-response (S-R) learning -doesn’t account for thinking -stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) learning -accounts for thinking -response depends on meaning of stimulus to organism Alternative ways to learn -Latent learning -learning that isn’t directly observable -competence vs. performance -observational learning -learning by watching others -Bandura’s bobo doll experiment -mirror neurons -activated both when doing a behavior and when observing a behavior MEMORY -the retention of information over time -not passively reproduced -memory illusion -false but subjectively compelling memory -3 memory systems model -sensory memory -short term memory -long-term memory -sensory memory -perceptual information before it is passed on to short-term memory -only briefly stored -consists of: -iconic -things you see -echoic -things you hear -last longer than iconic memory short-term memory -retains information for limited durations -reasons that memories don’t stick -decay -fading of information over time -interference -loss of information because of competition from additional incoming information -mostly responsible for loss of information, more so than decay retroactive -new information interferes with old information -e.g. learning a new language interferes proactive interference -old information interferes with new information short term memory -humans have an average short term memory capacity of 7 (plus or minus two) -applies broadly to different kinds of information (e.g. #’s, names, letters) -reason that phone numbers are 7 digits long maintaining short term memory -chunking – (865)-777-7777 -rehearsal -maintenance -simply repeating items in their original form -elaborative -linking items together in a meaningful way (e.g. coming up with silly stories using words to be remembered) -levels of processing -i.e. assigning meaning to information -Primacy and recency effects -items at beginning and ends of lists are most remembered LONG TERM MEMORY -relatively enduring retention of stored information regarding our facts, experiences, and skills permastore -type of long-term memory that appears to be permanent types of long term memory -explicit -recalled with intention and effort -two kinds: semantic (knowledge of facts e.g. capital of TN), episodic (knowledge of events in our lives e.g. your first kiss) -implicit -recalled without intention or effort, we don’t mean to remember it -two kinds: procedural (how to do things e.g. tie shoes, ride bike) priming (ability to detect a stimulus more easily and quickly after encountering a similar stimulus) 3 processes of memory -methods for turning short term memories to long term memories -types: encoding, storage, retrieval -encoding -process of getting information into our memory banks -requires focused attention on stimulus -mnemonics help with encoding -e.g. algebra mnemonic PLEASE EXCUSE MY AUNT SALLY -storage -process of keeping info in memory -schemas- organized knowledge structure or mental model that we have stored in our memory -retrieval -process of reactivating or reconstructing experiences from our memory stores -3 kinds: -recall: generating prev. remembered info -recognition: selecting prev. remembered info from an array of options -relearning: reaquired knowledge that has been prev. learned but forgotten. Quicker than learning for first time -retrieval cue help with retrieval -hints that make it easier to recall information -context dependent learning -better retrieval when in same environmental conditions as when info was learned -state dependent learning -better retrieval when in same psychological or physiological state as when learned BIOLOGY OF MEMORY -Hippocampus -when recalling memory, this can retrieve it. -amygdala touches hippocampus (fight or flight). They tend to interact more -Long-term potentiation -gradual strengthening of the connection among neurons from repetitive stimulation -e.g. studying like reading something over and over again -Errors in Memory -keep changing adjectives -creating false memories -photoshop pic of girl into hot air balloon and asking if they remember now and 65% said yes -culture affects how you remember things -forgetting -amnesia -loss of memory 2 kinds: -retrograde amnesia- loss of memory of past events -anterograde amnesia- inability to encode new memories from current experiences -infantile amnesia -inability of adults to remember personal experiences that took place before an early age


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