Debates About the Past: Greek Midterm Note Pack
Debates About the Past: Greek Midterm Note Pack CLA 2110
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Debates About the Past: Greek Civilization, History and Culture Week 1 Notes Lecture 1: Introduction to course notes (Based on PowerPoints/Class Lectures/Assigned Readings) January 6 2016 th, Map of Ancient Greece: plato-dialogues.org Civilization: “An advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, science, industry, and government has been reached.” - (dictionary.reference. om) • Social development and organization o Domestication -not just animals, but also humans (Humans started living in homes and thus became a mostly domesticated species) o Social stratification- different classes of people (rulers, laborers, slaves, etc.) o Urban development- ex- cities or large groups o Art – can express the belief and values of a civilization o Science- some sort of science comes into play o Industry- Some sort of specialization. For example, the textile industry for the Mycenaean civilization. o Government- a ruling class or person to create laws and keep order Culture: “the beliefs, customs, arts, etc., of a particular society, group, place, or time.” –(merriam-webster.com) • What can show us culture? o Language o Reasoning o Tools o Art • When? o Stone tools? 3.3 million years ago o Art? 15,000 years ago o Neolithic revolution: 12,000 years ago • When you think “Greek Culture” you think: o The arts § Theatre- Playwrights: Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides § Sculpture- Sculptors: Myron, Phidias, Polyclitus, Praxiteles, Scopas, and Lysippus § Architecture- Influential pieces of architecture: The Parthenon, The Temple of Poseidon, Temple of Hera § Poetry and epic language- Famous stories: The Odyssey and the Iliad (Homer) o Alphabet o Language § Influenced: • Biology • Medicine • Law • Classification systems o Democracy § People’s rule § Law and trials o Philosophy (love of wisdom) § Education, college system- *Athens becomes a hot spot for education § Mathematics § Cosmology and astronomy § Medicine § History o And more! § Urban planning- (grid system) § War tactics- (front line defense) Lecture 2: Geography, chronology, and sources (Based on PowerPoints/Class Lectures/Assigned Readings) January 8 2016 th, Greece’s Name: • Greeks do not refer to themselves as “Greeks” o Greece is the Latin name (Graecia) • They refer to themselves as “Hellenes” o Hellas = area o Hellenes = people The Greek polis or city-state Polis (polies pl.) is the Ancient Greek term for “city state” • What does a polis include? o City o Villages –outside of city o Harbor- However, some don’t have Harbors. From PowerPoint o Plains- for farmland o Hills/Mountains –divided them from other polies o Acropolis- a citadel or fortified part of an ancient Greek city, typically built on a hill. (Not limited to just Athens, every polis had some sort of acropolis) • Example 1: o Polis (name of major city): Athens o Surrounding area: Attica o Inhabitants: Athenians • Example 2: o Polis: Corinth o Surrounding area: Corinthia o Inhabitants: Corinthians Greece’s Geography: • Greece is 50,547 sq. miles • Greece is very costal o “Few mainland Greeks can have lived more than about 70 kilometers from the sea.” (Amos and Lang pg. 8) o Most Greeks knew how to sail • Greece is very “rocky” o Very mountainous region • Greece was very divided due to the physical boundaries o This divide contributes to the tension between each polis. o “Citizens of one Greek State tended to be fiercely proud of it, and often scornful of others.” (Amos and Lang pg. 4) Greece’s Map: *Please refer to the map handed out to us (or just look up any map of Ancient Greece). • Seas and Gulfs: o Aegean Sea § Inhabited mainly by Greeks § Contains for than 2,000 islands o Mediterranean Sea o Gulf of Corinth § Important because Corinth is nearby o Saronic Gulf § Important because Corinth is nearby • Areas, islands and geographical features: o Crete o Peloponnese o Mainland o Asia Minor- present day Turkey o Cyclades - The name refers to the islands around the sacred island of Delos o Dodecanese- means “twelve islands” • Polies (and surrounding areas): o Athens (Attica) o Thebes (Boeotia) o Sparta (Lacedemonia) o Corinth (Corinthia) o Argos (Argolid) o Olympia (Elis) o Messene (Messenia) o Delos (Cyclades) § Important because the Delian League met here • “The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states, members numbering between 150 to 173, under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece.” -wikepedi • Other important areas: o Macedonia § Home of Alexander the Great o Ionia Agriculture: • Two main crops: o Olives o Grapes • Uses for the olive o From the Olive Tree § Timber • Tools, vessels • Furniture, architecture • Burn fuel § Leaves • Fodder § Fruit *most valuable • Stone Kemel o Fuel o Fodder • Food • Olive Oil (very important) • Uses for Olive Oil o Food o Light o Hygiene § Used to wash themselves o Perfume § Olive oil mixed with herbs § Considered a prestige item o Crafts § Leather making § Sculpture • Bronze and Marvel Fauna: livestock and wildlife: • Suitable for Greece: o Sheep, goats – due to the mountainous region o Pigs o Chicken, fowl • Unsuitable, but still present: o Cattle § Important for plowing o Horses § If you owned a horse you were seen as elite • Other animals: o Fish § Because of the sea o Rabbits, deer o Bees § They even bee kept Other Resources: • Stone o Marble § Both raw and finished o Ore § Not very common • Silver and iron most commonly found o Clay § Where there are mountions, there is limestone. Where there is limestone, there is clay. Trading Via Sea Access: • Many trade routes run through Greece • Greeks were very focused on trade Ancient sources: • Primary vs. secondary sources o Primary source- a direct source (someone who was present during the time/ event) o Secondary source- a source who was not present • Greek Sources o Historians § Herodotus • Known for putting myths into his stories § Thucydides o Scholars § Aristotle o Inscriptions o Art: § Vases, § Wall paintings, § Mosaics o On the stage: § Dramas and comedies • Sophocles • Euripides o Written poems/epics § Homer § Hesiod Greek History: • Bronze Age: 3000 – 12 century BC • (Late Bronze Age: “Trojan War Period”) • “Dark Age”: 12 century – 8 century • Archaic: 8 – beg. 5 century • (Homeric poetry, earliest surviving literature) • Classical: 490 – 323 BC • (Persian Wars, Parthenon, Alexander the Great) • Hellenistic: 323 – 30 BC • (Roman conquest) th • Imperial (Late Greek): 30 BC – 5 century AD th • Byzantine: 5 century AD – 1453 AD Prehistoric period Stone Age • 70,000 BC: Paleolithic pd. o Greece inhabited • 6,000-3,000 BC: Neolithic pd. o Farming, pottery § Farming had just occured o Increasing archaeological evidence Bronze Age • 3,000- 1,100 BC: Late Bronze Age o Rise and fall of Minoan and Mycenaean cultures • 1,100 to 800 BC “Dark Ages” o Formation of Greek society and culture Archaic Period (8th Century- 490 BC) • Greece really starts “coming into its own” o Rise of the Greek city-state (the polis) o Colonization in Italy by Greek city states o Writings by Homer, Hesiod o 776 BC First Olympic Games o Writings by Aeschylus, Pindar o Rise of Persian power § 494 BC: Persians occupy Greek owned territory in Turkey, Greeks revolt Classical Period (490-323 BC) • A lot of material we have comes from this period • 490 Battle of Marathon • 480 Battle of Thermopylae • 443-429 Monuments on Acropolis in Athens built • 431-404 Peloponnesian War • 336-323 BC Alexander the Great • Writings by Sophocles, Herodotus, Aeschylus, Plato, Aristophanes, and Euripides Hellenistic Period (323-30 BC) • Punic wars (Rome vs. Carthage) o Really affects Greece • Macedonian Wars (Rome vs. Greece) • Rome slowly takes over Greece • Rise of Athens as center of philosophy, intelligence o Athens becomes a “college town” Debates About the Past: Greek Civilization, History and Culture Week 2 Notes Lecture 3 Prehistoric Greece (Based on PowerPoints/Class Lectures/Assigned Readings) Archaeology • Texts vs. material culture • Dating and division of time periods o Looking at texts and material culture are two ways to look at history Stone Age • 70,000 BC: Paleolithic pd. o Greece inhabited o Used stone tools • 6,000-3,000 BC: Neolithic pd. o Farming, pottery o increasing archaeological evidence Bronze Age: 3,000-1100 BC • 3,000-2,000 BC: Early Bronze Age o Minoan (Crete) o Cycladic (Cyclades islands) o Helladic (The rest/Mainland) § A lot of social stratification • Trading • economy • 2,000-1,600 BC: Middle Bronze Age o Growth of Minoan culture o Dominant in Greece • 1,600-1,100 BC: Late Bronze Age o Rise and fall of Minoan and Mycenaean cultures Minoan culture (1900-1400 BC) • Minos (King od Knossos) ? Myth vs. History o History § Thucydides writes of him o Myth § King of Knossos § Sacrificial Bull and Pasiphae • Pasiphae falls in love with Bull § The Minotaur- Half man half bull § The labyrinth § Labyr-inthos § Double Axe § Theseus and Ariadne Knossos • Open courtyard = gathering place • A lot of storage • Dining halls • Rooms to stay Minoan culture • Linear A o Not deciphered writing • Religious Art • Goddesses Mycenaean culture • Crete absorbed into “Mycenaean control”? • The Shaft Graves o Giant Tombs • Linear B o Syllabic script o “Proto Greek” o Found on mainland (Pylos) and Crete o Used for accounting, landownership, agriculture, elite titles o Wanax (ruler) o Bureaucrats o Service o Goat herders, farmers, hunters, woodcutters, etc. • Religion o Linear B evidence of religion o Texts about Athena, Poseidon, Demeter, etc. o Frescoes and figurines (Art) Heinrich Schliemann • Achievements: o Made a million dollars before the age of 30 o Excavated Mycenae, Troy after his “retirement” from business o Used Pausanias and other ancient texts to discover site • Mistakes: o Referred to today as “treasure hunter” because he would just dig up stuff and nothing else. o Dug in the early days of archaeology o Falsely attributed artifacts to literary characters (“Mask of Agamemnon”) The Late Bronze Age: 1,600-1,100 BC • 1200 BC: Beginning of the end? • Reduced trade, houses moving inside citadels, cisterns built inside walls • Elites stopped getting access to resources • 1150 BC: • Fires at all major Greek palaces, abandonment of large cities • External causes: • Domino effect • Hittites vs. Egyptians @ Battle of Kadesh? Dark Age 1,100 to 800 BC • Formation of Greek society and culture… • Greece had to rethink its ways • Rebuilding period Lecture 4 Greek myth (Based on PowerPoints/Class Lectures/Assigned Readings) Myth vs. Religion • Myth = stories of deities o Culturally accepted stories with religious, political, economic and other types of significance o Inconsistent, variable o No “bible” and no word for “religion” § Because it was passed along orally • Religion = worship of deities o Greek religion to the Greeks o No division between “church” and “state” o Religion was a part of everything The Gods and Myth • Polytheistic o Numerous gods • Bi-natural (multiple forms) • Anthropomorphic gods (able to change form) o Hesiod’s Theogony (birth of the gods) • Major and minor deities • Other “supernatural”/mythic figures o Muses- concepts of intellect o Nymphs- woodly creatures (sometimes aspects of other nature) The 12 Olympians (gods on Mt. Olympus) 1. Zeus (Jupiter) 2. Hera (Juno) 3. Poseidon (Neptune) 4. Hades (Pluto) a. Ommitted since he rules the underworld and does not live on Mt. Olympus 5. Hestia (Vesta) a. Gives up her spot on Mt. Olympus for Dionysus 6. Hephaestus (Vulcan) 7. Ares (Mars) 8. Apollo 9. Artemis (Diana) 10.Demeter (Ceres) 11.Aphrodite (Venus) 12.Athena (Minerva) 13.Hermes (Mercury) 14.Dionysus (Bacchus) Zeus’ Affairs • Why so many? o City Pride? “Yay! Zeus has been here!” § Elites strive to connect their linage to gods o Greek Culture § In Greek Culture, men are encouraged to spread their seed. If men slept around with women of lower status it was fine. § Zeus is kind of an example The Function of Myth • Learning from the heroes • Knowing your place in the cosmos o “Know Thyself” o Know that you are human, you’re going to die, and that the gods are better than you • The tragic “cycle” • Propitiate o Sacrifices • Conduct o Xenia o Law and religious pollution § Religious Pollution- If someone does something really bad it offends the gods and they will cause bad things to happen so you get excilled § Pollutants: • birth, death, some sexual activity, • homicide (except in war), • sacrilege, incest, parricide, • cannibalism, offending the • gods, incurring a curse § Solution: purification • cleansing • sacrifices • expulsion of offender Zeus vs. Prometheus (made humans out of clay) • Meeting at Mecone • Prometheus tricked Zeus into allowing humans the first pile by making it look disgusting and making the second pile look great. Zeus got to choose what will get sacrificed and he chose the second one. • Pile 1: Meat, innards, hide, etc. • Pile 2: Bones and fat • Result: Humans must offer bones and fat of sacrificial animals to the gods Other Interpretations of Myth • Max Müller: • weather and seasons • Sigmund Freud: • dreams and symbols, the collective unconscious, and Oedipus • Carl Jung: • archetypal images (the Self, the Shadow, the Animus, the Anima) • Bronislav Malinowski: • social institutions and charter myths • Claude Levi-Strauss: • structuralism; binaries (opposites) and mythemes • Walter Burkert: • “historical dimension:” myths vary over time and gain “collective importance” Lecture 5 Greek religion (Based on PowerPoints/Class Lectures/Assigned Readings) Myth vs. Religion • Religion = worship of deities • No “bible” and no word for “religion” • No division between “church” and “state” • Religion penetrates all realms of life in Greece • Every god has a different set of rules for worship Greek Religious Offerings • Propitiatory religion • You need to ask and give something to the gods in order for something to happen • Formulaic prayer asked • Animal Sacrifice (Odyssey 3.430-463) • Most well known form of offering • Animals differ per god • Libations (Iliad 16.220-254) • Votive Offerings • The “poor person” option • Small sacrifices to gods that represent bigger things Public Sacrifices • Festivals (Almost half of the days of the year has festivals) • Public holidays • Highly formalized • Priests to bring out sacred objects • music • garlands to decorate • Processions • For the entire polis or select members • Based on certain gods • Panathenaia • Once every four years • For Athena, but also Poseidon • Celebrates the changing of clothes on the Athena statue • Peplos- garments being changed • Sacrifices: hekatombe • Means 100 cows Places of worship in Greek religion • Sanctuary (demarcated religious space, temenos) o Usually marked off as sacred o Doesn’t need any huge object o Often sectioned off by boundary stones • Altar o All sanctuaries need an alter • Temple Greek Temples • Monumental houses of the gods • Largest ones in Asia Minor • Cult statue • All temples have a formulaic design • Big ones are usually part of a large sanctuary Important figures in Greek Religion • Priests and Priestesses o Hold a lot of political power o Job is to protect the sacred obkects • Seers (Augurs) o People that interpret the will of the gods § They did this through oracles, omens and divination • “The will of the gods” • Divination o Augurs § Entrails of animals § Bird watching § Thunder and other natural phenomena o Oracles Apollo’s Oracle at Delphi • Divination at Delphi o Oracle § Sibyl: prophetess § Pythia: specific to prophetess of Apollo at Delphi • female o Renown by 8th C BC o Consulted for political, state, and personal questions Mystery Cults in Greece o Qualities of mystery cults o We don’t know a lot o The Eleusinian Mysteries o Tells you secrets of the after life o Demeter and Persephone (they would reenact the story of these gods) § Procession of Hiera (sacred objects) • Don’t know whats in it § Procession from Athens’ agora o They would travel to Eleusis o Joke-telling, specific drink and attire The Iliad overview Based on PowerPoint The Homeric World- The world he created Late Bronze Age: 1600-1100 BC Homer • 850-750 BC o Not sure • Possibly Blind • “First teacher of tragedians”- people learned to read and recite his works • He was an oral poet Oral poetry and bards • Spoke in meter • Traveled around • Would sometimes go on for hours • Used epithets- an oral method of describing something in the same way • Result- every bard tells a slightly different version of the same story • We know homer’s version because it was written down o It gets passed down and across their nation Sources for the Trojan War • The Epic Cycle • Kypria- Start of the Trojan War • Iliad- Wrath of Achilles • Aithiopis- Segway about what happens between Hector dying and the rise and fall of troy • Little Iliad- Fall of Troy • Iliou Persis- Fall of Toy • Nostoi- Return of heros • Odyssey- Odysseus’s journey home • Telegony- The end of the epic cycle The Trojan War: Background • What are the origins of the war? o The Judgment of Paris o Helen and Paris § For story of Helen and Paris • https://www.awesomestories.com/asset/view/HELEN -AND-PARIS-Troy The Iliad: The conflict, Book 1 (Takes place during the 9 year of war) http://www.shmoop.com/iliad/book-1-summary.html • Agamemnon: leader of the Achaean army, king of Mycenae • Achilles: greatest warrior in the Achaean army • Chryseis: daughter of priest of Apollo o Given to Agamemnon • Briseis: captive of Achilles • Arête and kleos o Arete means Excellence o Kleos means Glory Importance of Arete and Kleos in Greek society • Homer’s arete and kleos o Arete ability on the battle field § Gets you respect • Glory in afterlife • Arete and kleos after the 5 C o There was a change in Arete because Greeks became more Philosophical § Being able to sit and think gave you glory • Male arete vs. female arête • MALE: o Battlefield greatness o Thinking • FEMALE o Staying loyal o Having great kids o Obedience Envoy to Achilles Iliad, Book 9: http://www.shmoop.com/iliad/book-9-summary.html • Envoy begs Achilles to fight • Achilles says no • Agamemnon doesn’t care • Odysseus is the mediator between the two Death of Patroclus Iliad, Book 16: http://www.shmoop.com/iliad/book-16-summary.html • Hector is leading the fight of trojans • Patroclus is Achilles’s BFF • Achilles lets Patroclus fight but he asks zeus to help him • Apollo Helps Hector kill Patroclus • Zeus doesn’t help Achilles and Pat dies The Death of Hector • Iliad, Book 22: • http://www.shmoop.com/iliad/book-22-summary.html • Hector wants a proper funeral • Achilles kills hector and refuses to give him a proper funeral • Athena helps achilles • Funeral games for Patroclus • --Cremation burial The Ransom of Hector’s Body Iliad, Book 24: http://www.shmoop.com/iliad/book-24-summary.html • Priam king of Troy (Hector’s dad) begs for Achilles to give Hector’s body back • Achilles gives the body back • Funeral for Hector- end of Iliad DEBATES ABOUT THE PAST: GREEK WEEK 4 (Based on PowerPoints/Class Lectures/Assigned Readings) The Rise of the Polis (and Tyranny!) By 750 BC… • Literacy is common o Inscriptions on stones were very common o Homer was very important • Hoplite armor becoming more common and popular • Greek poleis organized spatially and socially (very gradual) • Greek colonies founded all around the Mediterranean Hoplite warfare • 7 century BC • Armed infantry: • Helmet, spear • Shield (large, made of wood covered in leather) • Phalanx formation • 8 soldiers deep. • A very organized formation • Group cooperation is vital • Organized battles • No longer one-on-one • Disadvantages • Slow, • If someone falls- they all might -clumsy, • Weak bc sides are exposed • Need for calvary to counter how slow it is • The common men would be in the phalanx and the more elite in the Calvary. • Benefits • Because it the leather armor was inexpensive, they had more money for soldiers so the forces increased Results of Hoplite Warfare • Constant defense of land • Emergence of group ethics • Leads to popularity of athletic games o Agonistic society • Increased demand for political representation o “I fight, so I should have a say in the government.” Emergence of the polis (city state) • Aristotle - “Polis is natural because village is natural because family is natural; therefore, man is by nature a political creature.” Definition of “polis” Polis = “poli-tics” To be “political” = to live in a polis • Over 1,035 known by the death of Alexander the Great (323 BC) • Problem: Athens is best source of information o Athens is an atypical polis. • Oikos system o Sort of like a “family system” o Led by male o Dependents include children, wife, etc o Has to be able to sustain themselves o Typically big families are in an Okios system • Self-governing or autonomous (autarkeia) and self-sufficient • Each is unique • Typical population of Polis = 2,000 to 10,000. o None over 100,000. • Typical size = 35 miles squared o small and condensed o Mainly due to geographical reasons • Individual laws, constitution (politeia), governing bodies, army, taxation policies o This is why there was a lot of in fighting • Most important: citizens (polites) The Greek polis or city-state Polis, polies (pl.) • TERRITORY (khora) • CITY (astu) • VILLAGES • HARBOR o almost all have one • PLAINS o for farming • HILLS/MOUNTAINS o Good for vines/grapes • ACROPOLIS o “high city” • WALLS o Not necessary only 43% had them Constitutions • Politeia • Set of laws • Explanation of entire cultural, social, political and economic way of life • Very broad • Mostly about the ethics of the polis • Types: • Democracy – Rule of people • Oligarcy- Rule of a few • Monarcy or tyranny Citizens • Polites (male, pl.) and politis (female, pl.) • Membership qualifications: • Definition differs from polis to polis, constitution to constitution • In general: indigenous and free • Able to defend the polis • Publically permitted to share in administration of justice, public offices, magistracies (i.e. jury member, member of assembly) • Rights of citizens: • Equal legal rights, ability to vote, access to courts to resolve disputes, protection against enslavement, participation in religious life • Make decisions communally • Some rights were more limited: holding offices • Legal equality not generally based on wealth • Power as public domain • Citizens with power • Female citizens • Rarely given the same rights as men • Still citizens but with a different set of rights • Can’t vote or sit on jury (Athens) • Identity, social status, local rights, religious access • Kyrios as “protector” • Man in house protects you • Citizenship rights equal to minors • Not citizens: slaves, “metics” • Metics are people who have moved into the polis but have no ties in it. Basically a foreigner coming in The rise of the polis: causes • “Synoecism” • Gathering of people • Merging of villages, abandonment of others • Population rise? • In the Iron age population decresed, now that its over there is a steep rise in population • Attributed to hoplite warfare? • Aristocrats losing control? Colonization • 750-500 BC • Mother city (metropolis) • Example of dispute: Epidamnus, colony of Corcyra • Epi has probs and asks its mother city Corcyra for help. Corcyra says so. Other cities can help though. • So the mother city does not need to help its colony • The colony should be as independent as possible • Consultation of Delphic oracle • Before starting a colony leaders would typically ask a oracle for guidance (typically at Delphi) • Organized expedition – group decision • Sometimes forced Reasons for colonization: • NOT for imperial purposes o Reasons seem to be more economic • Population explosion at beginning of Archaic period o created more land strife • Expulsion of troublemakers • Scarcity of land; “land hunger” o “We want more land! Send some people there!” • Problem with inheritance o Youngest kids usually get jipped, so the youngest son would be sent out t help colonize • Resources needed: metals, food o desire for wealth Consequences of colonization • Revival of international trade • Over 80 sites with Greek pottery by 8 century • From Spain to the black sea • Increasing encounters with “barbaroi” • Orientalizing movement in art • Especially in pottery (pottery and sculpture) • What greeks do with interactions from non greeks • Cultural reinforcement to counter • Olympic games (776 BC) and agnostic society • Agnostic means struggle which is attributed to the competitive energy Aristocracy and Tyranny in the Archaic Period Inequality in the polis • Tension in the state? o Due to Oikos system § some families become stronger – get ritcher- adding to tension which deprive the others- which add tension and create social stratification o people start going into debt • Equality vs. inequality o Inequality of wealth, yet there is some equality in politics • “Man is a communal (koinonikon) animal” (Aristotle) • What kind of inequalities seem “normal” in any state? o Economic: Classes? o Upper vs. lower? o Aristocracy vs. demos (people)? By the end of the “Dark Age”: The Rise of the Aristocracy • Arist- “best”; cracy – “rule” = rule of the best • Based on prestige, glory of lineage and wealth • Not nobility • Wealth, conduct, and birth • Public works programs and displays of wealth o (conspicuous consumption) Greek aristocratic virtues: HOW GREEK ARE YOU? • aristoi: “the best”: games, physical health, beauty • olbioi: “the blessed”: sacrifices to the gods o Adherence to religious expectations § Donate votive offerings § Donate animals to be sacrificed § etc • ploutoi: “the wealthiest”: displays of wealth, public works o like building libraries or monuments with your name on it o Gotta show that you’re generous • Homeric kings and heroes vs. Archaic ruling class o Kings are not really a thing in this time period Other “communities” in the polis • demos: “the people” • In literature: “good” vs. “bad” o Good: Arisocracies o Bad: the demos § Didn’t mean bad, just lower • Need to appease the demos o There was this pressure to make sure the demos were satisfied The Symposium • Aristocratic parties • Watered-down wine • It was seen as barbaric to drink wine straight • Philosophical discussions • Plato’s Symposium • Can escalate to wild party atmosphere • Closed, safe environment Guests • Elite, upper-class men • Young boys (as proteges) • To educate them • Servants (boys or women) • “Companions” or hetairai (expensive female prostitutes) • they were talented and usually would play instuments… then do what prostitutes do. • NO WIVES ALLOWED. Crisis of the aristocracy • Non-elites acquiring substantial property, marrying elite, etc. • Pressure to extend citizenship to more people • Elite groups less cohesive due to competition • Elites would fight with each other for support of the demos • This is why they are less cohesive • The result: Tyranny! • There are both good and bad tyrants • Tyrants means unconstitutional ruler How to become a tyrant • A response to strife, desire to establish order. • “Some [tyrants] arose from those chosen to fill the chief magistracies… and others from oligarchies that selected one of their own to the greatest offices… the greatest number of tyrants have risen, so to speak, from leaders of the people, winning trust by slandering the nobles.” Aristotle • Other ways: • Offering citizenship to disenfranchised for support- to get more support • Military coup- fight for your tyranny Qualities of tyrants • Rarely lasts more than 2 generations • Tyrannies are rare in general o Only 27 out of hundreds had them • Because it’s a more stable time w/tyrants there are more poets and artworks made in these times Good results of Tyrannies • Law codes (esp. Athens) • Emergence of greater freedom of thought o Art flourished in times of tyranny • Tyrants as patrons of the arts (Pittacus and Sappho) • Increased writing • Games o During times of stability there is more wealth so there is more money to spend on games! • Building programs o Pheidon of Argos o Theagenes of Megara Debates About the Past: Greek Civilization, History and Culture (Based on PowerPoints/Class Lectures/Assigned th, Readings) January 6 2016) Athens and Solon Athens • Largest city in Greece • 40% of all Greeks live in Athens at this time Sources • These sources contained stories about how Athens was at this time • Most primary source accounts • Aristotle’s Athenian Constitution • Xenophon’s Athenian Constitution • Plutarch’s Life of Solon and Life of Theseus • Herodotus’ Histories • Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War What you need to know about the Athenians Characteristics of Athenian society • Pro-democracy (rule of the people) • Anti-Persian • Atypical polis • Different than most polises • Didn’t colonize • Late emergence of tyranny • Emphasis on government, prevention of civil war • When tensions rise they are quick to diffuse it • Form of defense during Classical period: Navy • Oposite of Sparta which ruled the land with its army • Government as isonomia vs. Sparta’s eunomia • Isonomia means equal laws • Eunomia means good rule • (good = elite members) Mythology of Athens • “Autochthonous”- indigenous rather than descended from migrants or colonists. o Athens believed they have always been there and didn’t migrate there. o Spartans are the opposite. They believe they were the descendants of the Dorians. Mythological kings of Athens • Cecrops • Son of the earth • Had snake like features • This was to show he was “of earth” • Cecrops chose the name of Athens. He said that whoever offered the best gift, he would name the city after them. • Poseidon gave the city a salt water spring • Athena gave them an olive tree. (She won) • The previous explanation brings up the debate: What came first? Athena or Athens? • Theseus • Slayed the minotaur • He traveled to Athens and had battles with many people along his journey. • Once he arrived, they made him king. • Codros o Had a dream an enemy will attack Athens. o It was revealed that he could save Athens, but die o Or live and Athens will be destroyed o He died for Athens and everyone was so grateful they declared him as the last king of Athens. Dark Age Athens (1100-750 BC) • Stasis in Athens • Not much happening • Nice graves indicate that wealth was present • There was also nice pottery th • Ruled by kings until 7 C Early Archaic Period Athens (750-700 BC) • A slow start… • No colonies th • No tyrants until 6 C. • Poor trade, pottery market • Low population • Not a lot of graves or structures • There was not a decrease or an increase Middle Archaic Period Athens (700-600 BC) • Growth and unification of Attica • Opposite strategy as Sparta 2 • Attica grows 1000 m • One of the largest at its time • New political system (no kings) • 9 archons elected each year • Based on birth and wealth • Aristocratic • Aeropagus (served on the Hill of Ares) • Former archons • Elders • Ekklesia • Council of Athenian men • Makes legislation • Did not include the lower class of people As a result • Aristocracy vs. Demos • Aristocratic genos (a powerful Oikos) and everyone dependent on them (phratries) • Like workers, farmers, serfs, etc • As the genos gets stronger, the phraties gets stronger as well… this creates: • Political and economic tension • (Almost everyone was in a genos or phratries) • Debt bondage was also a result • If you were a farmer working for a genos, but your farm didn’t produce enough crops: you would ask your genos for a loan. • It would keep piling up and thus you are in debt • To get out of debt: • Work for them • Sell land • Sell kids into slavery • Sell self into slavery • Dracon and his reforms (between 632 and 594) • Laws on homicide (VERY STRICT) • Creation of Boule (400 citizens) • 400 citizens elected by the people • approved legislation • oversaw judicial systems • took some power away • Result: progress but still division and tension! 594 BC: Solon • Athenian • From an aristocratic family • Politician and poet • Rewrites Athenian constitution • Ancient sources: Herodotus and Plutarch • By 594 BC: • Elected chief archon • Made dramatic series of constitutional, economic, and and moral reforms • Something needed to happen to fix the extreme division between Athens Social reforms Division of Athenian citizens into 4 classes • Created census • Based on annual income and property • Clear statuses and upward mobility • You can bump yourself up • You can fall in status 1. Pentakosiomedimnoi (“500 medimnoi”) • Produced more than 500 medimnoi (bushels) per year • Could serve as generals • Major aristocrats • Can hold offices 2. Hippeis (“Knights” or “horsemen”) • 300 + medimnoi per year • Cavalry men (owned a horse, etc.) • Minor aristocrats • Can hold offices 3. Zeugitai (“The yoked ones”) • 200 + medimnoi per year • Hoplites • Can afford oxen • Can hold offices 4. Thetes (“Serfs”) • Less than 200 medimnoi per year • Too poor to have land • Auxiliary army • Can only sit on assembly • More about the Social Reforms: o Crops were most important (not lineage or wealth) o Men over 18 who lived in Attica were considered citizens o Everyone can sit on an assembly, however it is hard for all…. So more aristocratic men are on assemblies o Checks and Balances like system o Only Pentakosiomedimnoi can be archons o Everyone on assembly could be selected to serve on the jury Economic reforms • Abolished debt (everyone’s debt wiped clean) • (People were selling themselves into slavery- It had to stop) • Seisactheia =“shaking off” • No sale of citizens into slavery to cover a debt • Gave lower class more freedom • Emphasized export of olive oil • More money! • No export of grain • Designed to help the poor • Lowered the price so more people could buy it • Foreign tradesmen (metics and outsiders) granted citizenship • Now to be a citizen you needed to have some sort of value • This brought skilled men to Athens which led to an increase in exports and an increase in economic influence • Education of sons • Punishment of unemployed • Spartans were shocked by this Other Reforms • No more extravagant dowries • Any citizens could take legal action of behalf of another • “Personal modesty and frugality” • After laws in place: self-exile for 10 years o 594 BC is when the laws came into place Debates About the Past: Greek Civilization, History and Culture Persian War Notes Based on PowerPoints/Class Lectures/Assigned Readings Herodotus (born in 484 BCE) is our main source for the Persian War • He is considered one of the first historians • He often mixed myth and history so it is hard to differentiate what is myth and what is fact • Wrote The Histories (450’s BC) o 9 books o Mythological: Rapes of Io, Eurpoa, Helen (reasons for tension); Amazons o Factual: Croesus, Peisistratus, Cleisthenes, Egypt, rise of Persians o For our use: Persian War against the Greeks § Battles of Marathon, Salamis, Thermopylae, etc. Persia really emerges in 550 BC Kings of Persia • Cyrus (the Great) o Ruled 559-530 BC § Established an autocratic government • Satraps: provincial overseers/governors o Cyrus will leave a satrap in charge of the area after he conquers an area and just let them be almost independent o Earth and water § Symbol of giving everything you have to the king § Established Persian Empire • Capital at Susa § Conquered Media (550 Bc) 9 years into his ruling § Defeated Croesus of Lydia (546 BC) Croesus of Lydia (ruled 560-547/6) • Conquers Greeks in Ionia o Vassal state (making them providences) • Encounter with cyrus and the Persians: 547/6 BC • “If Croesus crosses the river Halys, he will destroy a mighty empire.” – Delphic Oracle o Destroys his own empire • His funeral is a weird situation because one version is that he is on a pyre and he asks for help form Apollo and it rains and saves him or that Cyrus feels kinda bad and saves him. Back to the kings • Cyrus (cont) o conquers Babylon in 539 BC o Cyrus dies in 530 • Cambyses (ruled 530-522 BC) o Conquers Egypt • Darius I (ruled 522-486 BC) o Invasion of Thrace (510 BC) Meanwhile in Athens… • 510: Expulsion of Hippas o Hippas goes to the persians • 508: Reforms of Cleisthenes • 507: Envoys to Persia o Earth and Water mix up Back to Darius I: • Ruled 522-486 BC • Invasion of Thrace (510 BC) • Ionian revolt (499 BC) Ionian Revolt: 499 • Conflict: Rise of democracy in Greece vs. tyrants and satraps in Persia • Aristagoras, tyrant of Miletus o Restoration of aristocracy on Naxos o Goes to the Persians and gets them on board o Goes to Naxos and it fails o Histiaeus’s warning § Histiaeus is an advisor of Darius but also Aristagoras’s father in law § He warns Aristagoras that the Persians are after him and will attack o As a result…Resigns as tyrant but, rallies revolt against Persia § He goes to Sparta to ask for help and they say no because it would take too long (3 months) to go over there (if they leave the helots may attack) § He goes to Athens and appeals to them through their Ionian connection • Athens sends 20 ships (Triremes) • Eretria sends 5 • 498: Greeks take Sardis (and burn it) • 498: Persians defeat Ionians at Ephesus o Athens are out by 498 • 497-494: Back and forth combat • 494: Battle of Lade and sack of Miletus o Many people die o Women are captured o Children sold into slavery • In Athens: “The Sack of Miletus” by Phrynicus (A play) o “The whole theater burst into tears, and they fined him a thousand drachmas for reminding them of their misfortunes.” o Athens feels so guilty • 493: Persians crush the remaining rebels o Democracies allowed • “Master, remember the Athenians” o Darius is so mad at Athens because he sees it as a betrayal because they gave him “earth and water” so he has a slave say “remember the Athenians daily” All this leads to Darius’s campaign against the greeks (492-490 BC) Meanwhile in Athens: • Themistokles o (head) Archon in 493 o Democrat (Champions the demos) o Support of navy § Large ports § Merchant society § Empowers a lot of people to participate o Piraeus as main port of Athens o Great speaker • Miltiades o Athenian aristocrat o Family sided with Hippias § He tries to downplay that o Refugee from Ionian War § Still considered an Athenian o Elected military general (strategos) in 490 BC o Key player in battle of Marathon What about Persia? First campaign against Athens 492 BC • Mardonius: Persian general • On the way to attack there is a Storm at Mt. Athos o 300 ships destroyed o 20,000 men killed § They turned around § Lucky for Athens • 491: Persian messengers sent to Athens and Sparta, asking for earth and water (may not have happened) o They say no • Aegina submits, but Athens and Sparta intervene by taking hostages until Aegina obeys Darius I’s second campaign against the Greeks (490 BC) • Battle of Marathon (490 BC) • Persia o Persian military leaders: § Datis and Artaphernes o Bring a 15,000 army (horsemen, light infantry, archers) o The Immortals • Herodotus’ word (was it a mixup?) § Heavy infantry of 10,000 men(?) § Armed with: • Short spears • Swords or large daggers • Bow and arrow • Wicker shields • Round caps • Siege of Eretria o Remember how Eretria gave Aristagoras ships? Well the Persians were upset and destroyed Eretria on the way to get Athens • Bay of Marathon o The return of Hippias (who is advising the generals about Athens and where to go) • Pheidippides o Runs 150 miles to Sparta to ask them to fight o They say no because they need a full moon (Religious observance) o They still want to help though but they just want them to wait • Miltiades (leading general of Athens) o There is a divide in Athens: some want to wait and some want to fight o Miltiades convinces voters to vote to fight and is successful! o Athenians (10,000?) and Plataeans (1,000) o 11,000 vs. 26,000 Persians • Battle: o The Athenians confuse the Persians by running at them and separating their formation o Many Persians flee to ships • Result: o 192 Athenians dead o 6,400 Persians • Origin of the “marathon”: o Persia goes back to their ships to get to another spot in Athens so the soldiers run and beat the Persians there. Persia turns around • After the Battle of Marathon: o Darius spends three years preparing an army o 486 BC: § Revolt in Egypt § Darius dies; Xerxes (his son) becomes king Xerxes I: • Rules 486-465 BC • Leads one of the largest invasions of Greece • 485 BC: puts down revolt in Egypt • 484-480: Xerxes prepares to invade Greece • Bridge across Hellespont • Canal at Mt. Athos Meanwhile, in Athens… • 489 BC: Trial and death of Miltiades after battle at Paros • He dies in jail (a not so glorious manner) • 487-482 BC: • Ostracisms every year • Why now? Athens is very polarized • Rise of Themistocles • Why him? Great speaker, promotes the Navy, HELPS THE DEMOS! • 483 BC: Discovery of silver at Laurion • Themistocles wants to use half for navy and split the rest among everyone • 481 BC: Themistocles’ naval bill • Builds navy as quickly as they can 481 BC: Meeting at Corinth • 31 city states willing to oppose Persia • Not Thebes • “Hellenic Alliance” • Led by the Spartans • Because they led the Peloponnesian League • Athens naval power • Agree to fight at Thermopylae and Artemisium Xerxes campaign • Mardonius: Persian general • 180,000(ish) troops • Persians, Egyptians, Ethiopians, Ionians, etc. • 1,200(ish) ships = 10x larger than Darius’ attack • Hellspot gets destroyed and Xerxes gets so upset he whips the sea 480 BC: Battles of Thermopylae and Artemisium • Thermopylae: Land battle o Doesn’t work out for the Greeks because so many events were happening! § Spartans had a religious festival § The Olympics were happening! The Battle of Artemisium • Greek fleet under Spartans • 127 Athenian • 40 Corinthian • 10 Lacedaemonian (Perioikoi) • 84 from other poleis = over 270 ships During battle: 100 ships lost • Persian Fleet • ~1200 (before storm #1) • ~800 (after storm #1, before splitting) • They decide to split to confuse them • ~600 (after storm #2) • During battle: 200 ships lost 480: Panic in Athens • Delphic Oracle warns Athens about an attack and says o “But a wall made of wood does farsighted Zeus to Tritogenes (Athena) grant alone and unravaged, to help you and your children” • What is this “Wooden Wall”? o Themistocles’ interpretation= go to ships o Others thought to stay behind the wooden walls of a temple (they were wrong and slaughtered) • Athens abandoned, destroyed • Destruction on the Acropolis • Olive tree of Athena (was burned but grew back- seen as a symbol) 480: Battle of Salamis: Greek fleet under Athenians (Themistokles) • 180 Athenian ships • 40 Corinthian ships • 30 Aeginetan ships • 16 Spartan ships • 110 ships from smaller city-states = 370 ships Persian fleet • Restoration of fleet after Artemisium? • Or 800? Themistocles and the slave • A slave is sent to trick Xerxes into attacking Athens by telling him that they are weak Queen Artemisia of Caria to Xerxes: • “If you do not hurry to fight at sea, but keep your ships here and stay near land, or even advance into the Peloponnese, then, my lord, you will easily accomplish what you had in mind on coming here.” • She knew what was up • She also fought so much better than the men and Xerxes was very impressed After Salamis • Persian fleet defeated • Greeks lose 40 ships • Persians lose 200-300 ships • Xerxes leaves Greece • Army stays under Mardonius • Persian army spends the winter in Thessaly • Invades Athens again in spring 479 • Spartans join forces, march into Attica for assistance 479: Battle of Plataea Greek forces lead by Spartans (Pausanias) • 10,000 Spartans • + 5,000 other Lacedaemonians • + 35,000 Helots • 8,000 Athenians • 5,000 Corinthians • 16,000 from smaller city-states =80,000 troops End: ~1,000 dead? Persian forces lead by Mardonius • 300,000?? 100,000? End: ~10,000 dead? 479: The Battle of Mycale Greek fleet and forces: • 40,000 men • 200? Ships Persian fleet and forces: • 60,000 men • 300 ships After Plataea and Mycale • In Persia: • Persians loses control of the Hellespont, Byzantium, Thrace, and Macedon • 14 years later Xerxes and his heir were killed in a coup • Artaxerxes I took the throne • In Greece: • 478/7: • Spartans leave from war against Persia • Suggestion to migrate the Ionian Greeks to mainland • Oath of Plataea • Athens determined to free the Greeks in Asia
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