Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Clemson - PSYCH 3060 - Study Guide
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Clemson - PSYCH 3060 - Study Guide

Already have an account? Login here
Reset your password

CLEMSON / Psychology / PSYC 3060 / What is bacteria?

What is bacteria?

What is bacteria?


School: Clemson University
Department: Psychology
Course: Human Sexuality
Professor: Bruce king
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: human sexuality, Psychology, psych 306, Dr. King, bruce king, and King
Cost: 50
Description: This study guide contains information about all of the STI's we discussed, including the answers to each of the 5 questions discussed in class. I have also gone through the notes and found topics Dr. King suggested we look over at home, and have added them to the study guide as well as the study guide answers at the end of each chapter.
Uploaded: 02/25/2016
18 Pages 6 Views 15 Unlocks

Ada Romaguera (Rating: )

Please tell me you're going to be posting these awesome notes every week..


What is bacteria?

PSYCH 3060

THIS WILL BE ON THE TEST: If a person has AIDS, they have HIV. If a person has HIV, they do not always have AIDS.



   Every year, approx. 19 million Americans contract an STI  (actually more than this but many go undiagnosed)  

   1 in 4 teenage girls has an STI  

   1 in 2 Americans will contract at least one STI in  their lifetime *Sexually transmitted infections are spread,  for them most part, by sexual contact (including vaginal  intercourse and oral genital sex) with someone who has  the bacteria, viruses, or parasites that cause the  infections*  

  Bacteria are very small single celled organisms that lack a  nuclear membrane but have all the genetic material to reproduce themselves Don't forget about the age old question of kevin, marketing manager of the north american bowling league, has decided to televise major bowling competitions to viewers in multiple countries rather than only in canada and the u.s. which of the following goals would this most likely help kevin accom

  Viruses are just a protein shell around a nucleic aid core and  cannot reproduce themselves. They invade host cells that  provide the material to manufacture new virus particles  

Sexually related diseases

  Some infections used to be called venereal diseases (after  Venus, goddess of love) but this generally referred to diseases  spread exclusively through sex Then people called them STD’s  but today the term STI’s (infections that can be, but are not  necessarily always, transmitted by sexual contact) is preferred  because these are infectious diseases  

  Sexually related diseases are diseases of the reproductive  system or genitals that are not contracted through sexual  activity. Often involve overgrowths of bacteria, yeast, viruses, or  fungal organisms that are normally found in the reproductive  organs in smaller amounts  

1 Where did they come from?  

   It is likely that previously harmless bacteria  mutated into strains causing infection  

   Some have been around for thousands of years  (gonorrhea, herpes, syphilis—Columbus died of this and people  argue if it was brought back from the New World)  

What is Gonorrhea?

We also discuss several other topics like engg2400


  Gonorrhea: Caused by bacterium; gonococcus lives on warm,  moist mucous membranes in the urethra, vagina, rectum, mouth, eyes and throatAlmost always transmitted during sexual  intercourse from mucous membrane contact

1 Symptoms in men:

   Inflammation of the urethra resulting in a thick, pus like white/yellowish discharge from urethra 210 days after  infection  

   Irritation/burning sensation at urethral opening     Frequent and painful urination  

    20%25% of men show no symptoms but are still  infected and can pass the infection to partners  

    Complications if not treated early:  

    spreads up the man’s reproductive system and  causes inflammation of the prostate, seminal vesicles,  bladder, and epididymis  

    severe pain and fever  

    Symptoms in women:  

    invades the cervix but unlike men, most women  show no symptoms (only 20% do in initial stages)  

    For those who do there may be abnormal vaginal  discharge  

    Irritation of the vulva and urethra causing burning  during urination  

    Complications if not treated early:  

    Spreads to fallopian tubes which become inflamed; called pelvic inflammatory disease (severe abdominal  pain and fever)  

    This can cause sterility and tubal pregnancies If a  woman is pregnant and contracts gonorrhea, the main  concern is during childbirth because the babies eyes can  become infected if delivered vaginally  this can rapidly  lead to blindness so in the U.S. all babies are given  antibiotic drops after birth  

Typically diagnosed with culture test but a urine test may be  used if the urethra is infected

Treated with antibiotics but we are quickly becoming resistant  to them  Don't forget about the age old question of biology 1201


  Chlamydia and Nongonocoocal Urethritis—Any  inflammation of the urethra not caused by the gonococcus  bacterium

  Caused by a bacterium

  Much more common than gonorrhea and more likely to damage  reproductive organs if untreated  

  Lives only on mucous membranes and is spread when infected  membranes come in contact with other mucous membranes   80% of men and 20% of women show symptoms in initial stages    Symptoms are often mistaken for gonorrhea and include irritation and burning of the urethra and clear, runny discharge If you want to learn more check out discrete math study guide

  It is recommended that all sexually active women age 25 and  younger get regular screenings because if not detected early, it  causes PID in women  three times more likely to cause sterility  than gonorrhea  

In men it causes infection of the prostate and epididymis and  possibly sterility

Diagnosed with culture or urine test

Treated with antibiotics  

Risk of eye infection for babies born to mothers with the infection - Commonly paired with gonorrhea

Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)—A sexually transmitted  infection common in tropical countries caused by chlamydia.  -If untreated it causes swelling of the inguinal lymph nodes, penis,  labia, or clitoris  


Caused by a bacteriumCan live on mucous membranes but can also  enter through the bloodstream through cuts or scrapesAlmost all  infections are passed through sexual intercourseSymptoms generally  appear two to four weeks after infection and appear in four stages  

    Primary stage: appearance of very ugly ulcerlike  sore called a chancre at site where it entered the body  full of  bacteria and highly infectious, but usually painless generally  appears on the cervix in women so it is not noticeable disappears in 1014 days but person remains infectious  

    Secondary stage: usually appear 46 weeks after  the chancre heals, but could take several monthsItchless,  painless rash develops covering the entire body including palms  of hand and bottoms of feet sore throat, lowgrade fever, nausea,  loss of appetite, aches and pains, even hairlosswill disappear  with in several weeks1 year and never return  If you want to learn more check out ah 201

    Latent stage: After about a year they aren’t  contagious because the bacteria is no longer found on mucous  membranesmay show no symptoms for years but the bacteria is  attacking internal organs  We also discuss several other topics like anat 215

    Late or Tertiary Stage: Ulcers called gummas  often appear on the skin and bonesdamage to the heart and  blood vessels frequently results in death while damage to the  nervous system results in paralysis, insanity and/or deafness An  unborn baby can catch the disease from an infected mother but  if detected early it can be treated  will be aborted, stillborn, or  born with an advanced stage of the infection—congenital syphilis diagnosed by looking at chancre under a microscope but blood  tests are usually done as well  

Treated with antibiotics

  Mycoplasma Genitalium:bacterium discovered in the 80’s frequently found in men with urethritis and women with cervictitis who  do not have gonorrhea or Chlamydiamore prevelant than gonorrhea  and was 22x more common in people engaged in sexual intercourse  than those who were not  

  Less common bacterial STI’s:Chancroid is caused by a  bacteriumsymptoms include small bumps on the genitals or other sites that rupture into soft, craterlike sores in 314 daysvery painfullymph  nodes in groin area become swollenabout 7 million cases in the world  annually but less than 50 per year in the U.S.treated with several  antibiotics  

  Granuloma inguinale is rare in the U.S. but is common in more  tropical areas of the worldmain symptom is a painless pimple that  ulcerates and stpreads to surrounding areas , permanently destroying  tissue, and causing death if not treated treated with antibiotics  Shigellosis caused by exposure to feces infected with the Shigella  bacterium (oral stimulation of the anus)Symptoms include diarrhea,  fever, and pain30% of cases in the U.S. occur in male homosexuals - treated with antibiotics  


 1 million Americans a year get genital herpes (1/5 Americans age 12  and older have it)

100 million have oral herpes

it is caused by a virus and can live anywhere on the body there is no cure but there are antiviral drugs to help relieve symptoms - spread by direct skin to skin contact from the infected site symptoms: fluidfilled blisters on dry areas of skin

Two different types:  

-Type 1(oral) is Much more common than type 2 (genital) -fever blisters and cold sores are herpes simplex 1

Type one and type 2 can both cause oral or genital herpes and  both can be transferred from mouth to genitals and vise versa  Genital herpes is almost always contracted through sexual intercourse   more women have it then men

Most cases of oral herpes are contracted through casual contact not  sexual intercourse  

First outbreak is called the primary attack—average duration of 16  days symptoms appear in three stages  

    Prodromal stage: tingling, burning, or itching  sensation on skin where it was contracted—indicate viral  replication and shedding  

    Vesicle stage: painful blisters appear and after  awhile break open. This can last from 23 weeks. A person may  also experience muscle and head aches, fever, and swollen  lymph glands

    Crusting over stage: Lesions develop scabs and  heal without scars   subsequent attacks are caused by stress every time you get an attack your body builds up antibodies  causing less frequent outbreaks higher chance of premature  births and spontaneous abortions but greatest risk for a baby is  during child birth if the mother has an outbreak blisters can  appear anywhere on the body  


    Liver infections caused by viruses  

    3 types:  

1 -Hepatitis A (infectious Hepatitis): caused by a  

small virus that is spread by  

2 direct or indirect oral contact with contaminated  


2 Not usually spread through sexual contact but can be if a  person comes in  

3 contact with an infected anus  

4 Symptoms include yellow tinged eyes and skin, vomiting,  diarrhea, poor  

5 appetite, and fatigue

2 There is now a vaccine that is effective for preventing it -Hepatitis B: (serum hepatitis) caused by a virus and spread by  infected  

blood or body fluids  

about 50% contracted through sexcan cause a number of liver  diseases including cancer

vaccines have greatly reduced the number of infected people  over 2/3 of pregnant women will pass to their baby

four drugs are available to treat it and about 90% of people  recover

-Hepatitis C: caused by a virus and most commonly spread  through contact with contaminated blood (druggies who share  needles)  

rarely spreads during sexno vaccine available but some drugs  help about 50% of cases  


caused by a virus  

symptoms include genital warts that appear 3 weeks to 8 months after  contact with the infected person they can cause itching, irritation, and  bleeding

can be transmitted to a baby during birth  

can also cause cancer of the cervixan

women are more likely to develop warts

-Most women with an HPV infection who are at risk of developing cervical cancer will not show symptoms

can be diagnosed with a pap smear test  

Molluscum Contagiosum:  

a painless growth caused by a poxvirus

easily spread by skin to skin contact but large majority of cases aren’t  spread during sex

virus incubates for two weeks and then erupts into dome shaped  growths that look like pimples filled with corn kernels

diagnosed by the appearance of growths and is treated by removing  them; they usually disappear on their own in 69 months  

HIV Infection and AIDS:  

A virus that kills CD4+ cells, eventually resulting in AIDS 50%75% of newly infected people experience flulike symptoms 1315  days after infection

-This is called primary HIV infection and can last for several  weeks  

The bodies immune system launches a huge counter attack killing the  virus by the billions, but in time, it again begins killing CD4+ cells The first stage of chronic infection is called asymptomatic HIV  infection and the infected person shows no visible symptoms, which  can last years  

Symptomatic HIV infection is the stage in which CD4+ count drops  below 500 and symptoms begin to show

-may include fatigue, headaches, loss of appetite, diarrhea,  weight loss, fever, and long lasting colds and yeast infections HIV becomes AIDS when the CD4+ count drops below 200 at this point the person is at risk of opportunistic infections which are often accompanied by a severe decline in mental ability 40%45% of people with HIV will develop AIDS in about 2 years  w/o medication (HIV 2 takes longer to develop than HIV 1) usually diagnosed with a blood test to determine if you have  antibodies to HIV

spread through needles or very intimate sexual activity such as  anal sex because there is often bleeding allowing passage to the  bloodstream possibility of transferring it to a baby is 25%HIV  originated in Africa, in primates that had a very similar strand;  SIV (it mutated and was spread from primate to human and then  eventually human to human)

90% of people who have AIDS live in developing countries AIDS has become the leading cause of death among Americans  aged 2544 The largest proportion of HIV infections are acquired  by heterosexual transmission  

Drugs have been developed that may slow down the progression  but for the large majority of people, there is no cure

Can be prevented by no drug use, and safe sex1/3 of Americans  have a negative attitude about AIDS  

If a person has HIV it does not mean they have AIDS  

Parasitic Infections:

Pubic lice:  

-12 mm long, grayish, 6 legged parasites that attach themselves to  pubic hair and feed on human blood

They are not the same as head lice

Almost always transmitted by sexual contact—chance of getting them  during sex with an infected partner is 95%

cause intense itching

typically don’t live for more than 24 hours away from the human body,  but eggs may fall off and hatch up to 10 days later

use a prescription rinse to get rid of them and wash all clothing,  sheets, etc.  


-A contagious infestation of .3.4 mm long pearly white parasitic mites Have 8 legs and burrow under the skin to lay eggs resulting in  extremely itchy, red, pimplelike bumps when the eggs hatch  large patches of scaly skin result if they aren’t immediately destroyed  secondary bacterial infection is common

can be spread through sexual intercourse but also through close  contact  

Treated with creams, lotions, and medication  


-live in the large intestine and are generally gotten through nonsexual  contact with the eggs

female pinworms leave the rectum at night and lay eggs around the  anus which causes intense itching  

common in children who contract through handtomouth contact while  playing

can also be transmitted sexually through anal contact w/ an infected  person  

can also result in dysentery caused by infestation of amoebae  Vaginal Infections:  


-A type of vaginitis caused by a onecelled protozoan (parasite) that  usually lived in the vagina and urethra and is usually transmitted  during sexual intercourse

symptoms in women usually appear 4 days 1 month after exposure  and include a copious, foamy, yellowishgreen discharge with a foul  odor accompanied by severe vaginal itching  

80% of infected women show no symptoms

Many men are asymptomatic carriers as well  if they do show  symptoms, they will include urethral irritation and discharge

If untreated, it can lead to infertility, premature labor in pregnant  women, and facilitates the transmission of HIV from and infected  partner  

diagnosed by examining discharge and growing the parasite in a  culture  

treated with a drug that both partners should take  

Moniliasis (Candidiasis):  

-Caused by an overgrowth of a microorganism normally found in the  vagina

fungus of yeast infection that is very common in women -3/4 of women will experience at least one in their lifetime  symptoms include a thick, white, cheesy discharge accompanied by  intense itching

considered a sexually related disease because it can be contracted  from sex but it almost always is not  

anything that changes the normal chemistry of the vagina can result in an overgrowth (hormone changes, diabetes, antibiotics, etc.) treated with antifungal creams  

Bacterial Vaginosis:  

-Most common of the three types of vaginitis  

caused by bacteria replacing H2O producing bacteria

wasn’t considered an STI until recently (not for sure yet) use of condoms decreases the prevalence and douching increases it  symptoms include fishy odor and abnormal discharge  can lead to serious upper reproductive tract infection  treated with antibiotics  


-a bacterial infection of the bladder, often called a urinary tract  infection

20% of women will experience in their lives

much more common in women in men and is strongly associated with  recent intercourse  

symptoms include a frequent urge to urinate, painful urination, and  lower abdominal pain

treated with antibiotics  


-E coli bacteria is transmitted to a man’s prostate during sexual  activity

symptoms include lower back and/or groin pain, fever, and burning  during ejaculation  

treated with antibiotics  

Practicing Safer Sex:  

Restrict sexual activity to a mutually faithful, long term, monogamous  relationship

always use condoms: this is actually more effective then reducing your  number of sexual partners

If you have an STI:  

    See a doctor immediately  

    Abstain from having sex until you are cure or if there is  no cure, always use condoms  

    Tell you partner or partners  

  Sex does not cause any of these infections  

Birth Control

• Over 75% of American married women use contraception, putting the average age of having a first child at 25 Unfortunately, this is not the  same with American teens because the United States has the highest  teen pregnancy rate of any developed country  

∙ However, in the past few decades the rates have gone down, why?    Sarah Brown says “kids are having less sex and using  contraceptives better”  

    The teenage pregnancy rate is related so social and  economic status Much more likely to occur among those with  low income or low levels of education and/or live with a single  parent Thus the teenage girls most likely to have babies are the  least likely to be able to provide proper care for them The U.S.  also has one of the highest infant mortality rates because many  teens choose to not seek prenatal care50% of fathers are at least 20 years old  

    Margaret Sanger gave up her nursing career to found the birth control league (Planned Parenthood)Birth control became  legal in all states after Griswold V. Connecticut Birth control pill  was introduced in 1960  

World Population:  

is estimated to be 9.1 billion in 2050

many predict that if our population growth isn’t slowed, there will be  widespread poverty, starvation, and political instability In 1982 China was forced to implicate mandatory birth control We have limited natural resources and if the population continues to  double every generation, we may be able to live comfortable but life  for our grandchildren may not be so easy  

    Perfectuse pregnancy rate—for a particular birth  control technique, the percentage of pregnancies during the first  year of use by couples who use the technique properly and  consistently  

    Typicaluse pregnancy rate—Percentage of  pregnancies during the first year of use by all couples who use  the technique, regardless of whether they use it properly or  consistently  

Relatively Ineffective Methods:  

    Withdrawal (coitus interruptus)—Withdrawal of the  man’s penis from his partner’s vagina before ejaculation in order

to avoid contraception Cowper’s glands secrete fluid before  ejaculation that may contain sperm (very small amount, but still  possible)

1 Also, many men claim that they withdrew before ejaculation but  actually did not in time  

    Lactational Amenorrhea Method—The sucking  response by a baby on the mother’s nipple inhibits the release of FSH, thus preventing ovulation  

1 if a mother is fully breastfeeding and is not menstruating the  chance of pregnancy during the first 6 months is less than 2%  2 However, the risk of ovulation quickly rises if a woman continues  beyond 6 months  

Fertility Awareness: Abstaining from Sex During Ovulation  Only method acceptable to certain religionsbased on predicting when  ovulation occursidentify “safe days” in the cycle and abstain from sex  during “unsafe” days All fertility awareness methods must take into  account that only 1/3 of women have “normal” cycles and ovulate  between days 10 and 17  

  Calendar Method:Mark on calendar every month for a  long period of time to figure out when you ovulate

1 Subtract 18 days from shortest cycle and 11 from the longest  2 between days 6 and 21 don’t have sex

3 25% failure rate

4 Standard Days Method: A fertility awareness method of birth  control for women who typically have cycles of 2632 days    Basal Body Temperature:The temperature of the body  while resting. It rises slightly after ovulation

1 couples abstain from sex from the end of menstruation until  about 4 days after a rise in temperature is noted

2 still involves a long period of abstinence and 25 of 100 couples  will still get pregnant  

  Billings Method (Cervical Mucous or Ovulation  Method): A fertility awareness method in which changes in the  consistency and quantity of cervical mucous (the slimy  secretion of mucous membranes located inside the cervix) are  used to tell when ovulation has occurred  

1 couple is instructed to abstain from sex from the end of  menstruation until four days after the mucous has changed  consistency

2 Symptothermal method combines the basil body temperature  and billings method to enhance effectiveness  

Spermicides: Contain chemicals that kill sperm

placed in the back of vagina before intercourse

more effective if used in combination with barrier methods do don’t protect against STI’s and frequent use could actually increase  risk of contracting HIV

Barrier Methods: designed to prevent pregnancy by placing a  blockade between the penis and cervix so that sperm cannot reach the egg if ovulation has occurred  

   Condoms: Thin sheaths of latex rubber that fit tightly  over the penis to trap the sperm (also effective in preventing the  spread of STI’s)

1 many men do not use condoms because they are embarrassed to purchase them  

   Female condoms: an intravaginal pouch that is held in  place in the vagina by two flexible rings

1 -pregnancy rate for typical use is 21% mostly due to slippage  and improper insertion  

    Diaphragm: A domeshaped rubber cup with a flexible  rim that fits over the cervix and thus acts as a contraceptive  device by serving as a barrier to the passage of sperm into the  uterus

1 used with a spermicidal jelly for increased effectiveness, must  insert no more than 3 hours before sex, leave in for 68 hours  after intercourse to ensure there are no more live sperm but not  for longer than 12 hours  

   Cervical Cap: Fits over the cervix by suction, thus  blocking the passage of sperm  

1 made of latex rubber and smaller and more compact then the  diaphragm used with a small amount of spermicide

2 more difficult to insert but more comfortable and can be left in  for 24 hours  

    FemCap: Made of silicon, it has a concave side that fits  over the cervix spermicide can be applied to both sides and once inserted, it can be left in for 48 hours

1 comes in 3 sizes that a woman must be fitted for  

2 both require a prescription  

3 must be replaced after a year  

4 Typical use rate is 16%  

   Contraceptive Sponge: 2 inches in diameter, 1 inch  think and contains spermicide  

1 works by blocking the cervical opening and killing sperm 2 it does not require a pelvic exam and is available without a  prescription  

3 can have sex multiple times with it in and then change after 24  hours typical use has a 16% pregnancy rate  

 Barrier methods most commonly fail because people don’t want to  take the time to insert something and “ruin the mood”  The IUD: A device made of plastic with either a copper or  progesterone coating that is placed in the uterus to prevent  contraception and implantation.  

Two types:

Paraguard: copper wire; remains effective for 1012 years  Mirena: slowly releases progesterone; effective for 57 years  -it is the copper or progesterone that impair the passage of sperm  inexpensive and very effective; typical use rate of 1% per year  

Hormonal Methods of Contraception  

  The birth control pill:

Must be taken every day at the same time

most popular are combination pills—contains estrogen and  progesterone  works primarily by a thickening of the cervical mucous  which prevents sperm from traveling and preventing ovulation The progestinonly pill contains only progestins and works primarily  by keeping cervical mucous thick, impairing the passage of sperm.  Ovulation is often inhibited as well

-this pill is for women who are breast feeding or who cannot  tolerate the effects of the estrogen pill

Neither protect against STI’s  


the combination pill will decrease your sex drive  

it will make you gain weight

you have a higher risk of getting breast cancer  

Health benefits:

decreased risk of cancer of the endometrium and ovaries substantial decrease in the number of benign breast tumors and  ovarian cysts

lower risk for endometrosis and PID

Reduces PMS and clears up acne  

Injectable Contraception “the shot”:

DepoProvera—Market name for medroxprogesterone acetate, a  chemical that when injected surpresses ovulation for three months  works by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucous, and  preventing buildup of the endrometrium

usually takes 910 months for fertility to return

does not protect against STI’s

side effects include irregularities in menstrual bleeding and  weight gain  

Hormone Implants:Implanon—A hormone implant with a single  progestinreleasing rod that is effective for 3 years

works by thickening cervical mucous and preventing ovulation  side effects include irregular vaginal bleeding, and then little or  no bleeding

Jadelle—is a hormone implant with two progestinreleasing rods that is  effective for 5 years (not yet marketed in the U.S.)  

The Patch:

OrthoEvra—a patch (containing the same hormones as the  combination birth control pill that is inserted into the vagina and is  effective for 1 week  

slowly releases progesterone and estrogen into the bloodstream 3 patch week followed by 1 no patch week (menstruation)  

NuvaRing: A flexible ring containing the same hormones as the  combination birth control pill that is inserted into the vagina and left  for three weeks(then removed for a ring free week (menstruation)) side effects similar to the pill  

Emergency Contraception: Methods that prevent contraception  when used in the first few days after sexual intercourse NOT an abortion!

works by preventing ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a  fertilized egg  

although it is not more readily available, it has not lead to an increase  in teenage sexual behavior  

Voluntary Sterilization: A general term for surgical techniques that  render an individual infertile

In men, it is called a vasectomy—the vas deferens is tied off and cut,  thus preventing the passage of sperm through the reproductive tract  -does not interfere with production of hormones or sperm in the  testicles  

In women, this procedure is called tubal sterilization—used to only  refer to a tying of the fallopian tubes but now is used to describe a  number of female sterilization techniques  

Minilaparotomy—1 in incisions are made in the abdomen and the  Fallopian tubes are pulled to the opening and cut, tied, or blocked with  clips

Laparoscopy—is a procedure in which a laparoscope is inserted  through a small incision in the navel. Once the tubes are located,  surgical instruments are inserted through the laparoscope and the  tubes are cut  

both are done with general anesthesia but do not require lengthy  hospitalization  

Essure—a nonsurgical technique that does not require general  anesthesia and only takes about a half hour to complete   fallopian tubes are reached via the cervix and a microinsert is  placed in each tube. Dacronlike mesh in the coils irritates the  tubes which results in scar tissue that plugs up to tubes  


   Medical (nonsurgical) abortion: Woman takes two pills  that cause shedding and contractions in the uterus that expel the embryo  

   Dilation and curettage (D&C): Under general anesthesia,  the cervix is dilated and the lining of the uterus is scraped off     Dilation and Evacuation (D&E):A tube is inserted through  the cervix and the embryo is removed by suction  

   Induced labor: For pregnancies beyond 16 weeks (less  than 5% of abortions) a hormone that induces labor is injected  into the amniotic sac and labor begins in 1236 hours. The fetus is born dead.  

Conception and Implantation  

   At orgasm during sexual intercourse, a man will ejaculate  200 to 400 million sperm into the vagina  

-The sperm attempt to pass through the cervix and uterus  to the  

1 fallopian tubes—not an easy journey

1 Some are stopped by gravity, some by acidity of the vagina,  some by  

2 clumping, and some by virtually taking the wrong turns  2  Only a few thousand make it to the fallopian tubes and  fewer than  

3 50 reach the egg  

   While the sperm are in the woman’s reproductive tract  they undergo a process called capacitation in which their  membranes become thin enough so that an enzyme can be  released to soften the eggs outer layers  


1   The egg sends out tiny projections and pulls one sperm to its  surface That sperm secretes the enzyme and penetrates the egg  and conception takes place—almost instantaneous chemical  reaction that prevents other sperm from penetrating the egg  

    Within 2430 hours, the nuclei of the sperm and the  ovum fuse to form a onecelled organism called a zygote— contains the genetic code for a new being  

    The zygote begins to divide and forms a collection  of cells called a morula  

    When there are about 100 cells, it has developed a fluidfilled center and is then called a blastocyst  

    About 811 days after ovulation the blastocyst  attaches itself to the endometrium via hairlike roots called villi— this is called implantation  

1 The blastocyst is now called an embryo; it is called a fetus at  about 8 weeks

    The outer cell layers of the embryo are called the  trophoblastbegins to grow and forms four protective layers  each with their own function:

1 1. produces blood cells for the enbryo until it can produce its own 2 2. forms the umbilical cord the major link between the  developing embryo and its mother

3 3. Called the amnion; thick skinned sac filled with water that  surrounds the embryo to help protect it from bumps and sudden  movements

4 4. Called the chorion; will develop into the lining of the  placenta—an organ that serves as a connection between the  embryo’s systems and those of the mother  

Problems with Implantation:  

    Ectopic pregnancy: Implantation takes place outside of  the uterus  

1 96% of cases it is in the fallopian tube (tubal pregnancy); in rarer cases maybe an ovary  

There is simply not enough room in the fallopian tubes for the egg  to grow. It will usually abort itself, but if it does not after 8 weeks, it  must be removed because the tube could burst (This is done with a  drug or laparoscopic surgery)


∙ Pregnancy lasts an average of 260270 daysIt is divided into three  month periods called trimesters  

    The First Trimester: The Mother

1 First sign of pregnancy is usually a missed period, so a woman  will go take a pregnancy test(the test works by determining if the hormone HGC is present in a woman’s urine.) This is most  accurate 2 or more weeks after the missed period; blood tests  are more accurate

1 A common symptom of early pregnancy is morning sickness— generally begins 46 weeks after conception but there is no  concrete cause that has yet been determined

2 Many men experience some of the symptoms that their partners  do. Often referred to as “sympathy pains” but the medical term  is couvade syndrome

3 other symptoms include: enlarged and tender breasts with  prominent veins, darkened areolas, enlarged nipples, increased  frequency of urination, irregular bowel movements, and feeling  tired and run down  

   The First Trimester—The Embryo/Fetus 1 Growth of the embryo occurs from the head downward and from  the center of the spine outward

2 Three inner cell layers will form specific parts of the body: 1 1. Ectoderm—forms the nervous system, skin, and teeth

2 2. Mesoderm—forms the muscles, skeleton, and blood vessels 3 3. Endoderm—forms the internal organs

4 During the third week of pregnancy a central structure called a  neural tube becomes a dominant feature; eventually becomes  the central nervous system

5 4th week: umbilical cord, heart and digestive system begin to  form  

6 6th week: “tail” which becomes tip of spine

7 At 8 weeks 1 1/8 inches long and all major organs have begun to  develop

8 Now called a fetus until birth  

   Second Trimester—The Mother

1 movements can be felt by the mother

1 -The first experience of a movement is called quickening— this is when a strong emotional attachment begins to form  women generally get over morning sickness now

figures begin to change, stretch marks are common

Breasts may leak colostrum which is a liquid produced before  milk  

Water retention may cause ankles, feet, or hand to swell  increased appetite  

   Second Trimester—The Fetus

1 begins to make sucking motions with its mouth  

2 5th month detectable heartbeat

3 responds to sound

4 shows periods of sleep and wakefulness

5 6th months can open its eyes and respond to light  6 by the end about 1 foot long and 1 pound  

   The Third Trimester—The Mother

1 walking, sitting, and rising becomes more difficult

2 back pain is common

3 pressure on the stomach and bladder causing more frequent  urination indigestion, heartburn, gas, and constipation are  common

4 leg cramps may occur

5 low energy level  

   The Third Trimester—The Fetus

1 fatty tissues develop under the skin

2 after 8 months the fetus’s weight increases dramatically—about  a half pound each week

3 covered with light hair (lanugo) and a waxy bluish substance  (vernix caseosa)  

4 Sex During Pregnancy:  

5  Most women experience a steady decline in sexual  activity throughout pregnancy

   For a few women, sexual desire initially increases  since they are freed of the worry of becoming pregnant, but this  is followed by a decreased interest during the third trimester  

   Common reasons for a decrease in sexual activity  are physical discomfort, women not feeling attractive, and the  possibility of harming the fetus  

   As long as everything is normal and going smoothly, having sex is fairly safe up until about the last four weeks  

Prepared childbirth: Courses or techniques that prepare women for  labor and childbirth with the goal of making it a positive experience   Lamaze Method:  

attempts to determine the specific causes of pain and provides  methods for dealing with each cause

Anxiety and fear: Educate women about the different stages of  labor, what to expect, ect. Chooses a “focal point” to focus attention on during labor instead of on the pain  

Muscle tension: Relaxation techniques

Stretching of muscles: Exercises to do before the baby comes, which make labor easier

Too little oxygen getting to muscles: Breathing techniques  Pressure on nerves: Massages can help with this  

 Bradley Method:

Believed pain during child-birth resulted from a culturally learned fear emphasized giving birth without medications and husbands  play a greater role  

 Leboyer Method

advocated a “gentle birth”

baby is immediately placed on mothers abdomen

room is dimly lit to simulate inside the mothers body

umbilical cord not cut for several minutes and then the baby is  put in a warm bath  

Infertility: The inability of a couple to conceive

Fecundity: The ability of a couple to conceive within a certain period  of time  

   In men:

1 usually due to a low sperm count with can be caused by many  things such as endocrine problems, low level of pituitary  hormones, drugs, marijuana, radiation, and infections

1 -Usually a procedure called artificial insemination is used.  Sperm are collected during several ejaculation and inserted into  the partners vagina at the time of ovulation. If they choose to  use sperm from another man, it is called donor insemination

2 -The newest and most successful technique involves injecting a  single sperm directly into an egg called intracytoplasmic  sperm injection  

3 can also be caused by varicose veins in the spermatic cord  (treated w/ surgery)  



   In women:

1 generally comes from two sources: Structural problems with the  fallopian tubes or uterus failure to release eggs

2 many women have slight endometriosis which can cause a  blocked tube  

(Larparoscopic surgery can attempt to reopen the tube) failure to ovulate becomes more common as women age -a good diet can sometimes improve ovulation

if the problem is entirely hormonal, fertility drugs that  stimulate the pituitary gland to secrete FSH and LH or that  stimulate the ovaries can be helpful  

In vitro fertilization is when a mature ovum is surgically removed  from a woman’s ovary, placed in a medium with sperm until  fertilization occurs, and then placed in the woman’s uterus (usually for  women who cannot conceive due to blocked tubes) called “test tube  babies”

Gamete intrafallopian transfer is a procedure for treating female  infertility in which sperm and eggs are gathered and placed directly in  a fallopian tube

Zygote intrafallopian transfer is used when tubes are blocked. An  ovum taken from the woman is fertilized by her partner and then  transferred to the unblocked portion of the tube

Surrogate mother a woman who carries a fetus to full term for  another couple, agreeing to give the infant to the couple after it is  born. The surrogate mother may have the egg implanted with the  mother’s egg and fathers sperm through in vitro  

OR she may be impregnated with the fathers sperm through artificial  insemination

Page Expired
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here