Cross-Cultural Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide
Cross-Cultural Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC 354
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natania Lipp on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 354 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Susan Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 377 views. For similar materials see Cross-Cultural Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Maryland - College Park.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
PSYC354 Exam I Study Guide CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Culture and Psychology Groups that have cultures: Nationality Language Ethnicity Gender Disability Sexual orientation Culture’s 3 sources of origin: Ecology Climate Population density Arable land Resources Food Water Money People Group living Basic human needs and motives Universal psychological toolkit The contents of culture Objective elements Subjective elements Values Beliefs Norms Attitudes Worldviews Race a group of people distinguished by certain similar genetically transmitted physical characteristic Ethnicity derived from the Greek word “ethos” meaning people a nation or tribe Nationality group of people who share common geographical origin, history, and language Sex refers to biological differences between men and women Anatomical differences, mainly in reproductive systems There are also sex roles, which describe patterns and behavior differences in men and women. Sex vs. gender gender refers to behaviors of patterns of activity that a culture or society seems appropriate; sex refers to biological differences between men and women Religious affiliation individual’s acceptance of knowledge, beliefs, and practices related to a particular faith Sexual orientation the kinds of sexual relationships that people form The contents of Objective elements culture Subjective elements Norms Attitudes Worldviews Subject elements Includes values and beliefs Norms generally accepted standards of behavior for a cultural group Attitudes evaluations occurring in ongoing thoughts Worldviews belief systems about the world Cultural factors Manners Cultural rules Learning Resources Level of human basic needs Climate effects Population density 2 main goals of 1. Understand behavior when it happens, explain why it psychology happens, and predict behavior before it happens. 2. Taking the body of knowledge obtained in no. 1 and applying it to intervene in people’s lives to make their lives better. What do WEIRDOS Western educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic cultures stand for? The ultimate question Is what we know about human behavior true for all people, of cultural psychology regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, culture, class, or lifestyle? Crosscultural Primary research method to test the cultural parameters of research psychological knowledge A matter of scientific philosophy the logic underlying the methods used to conduct research and generate knowledge in psychology Tests limitations in our knowlegde by examining whether theories are universal (true for all people of all cultures) or culturespecific (true for some people of some cultures) Culture’s 3 sources of 1. Ecology: the relationships of organisms to one another and their physical surroundings. origin 2. Resources: money, food, water 3. People: group living, basic humans needs and motives, universal psychological toolkit Universal A set of basic psychological skills and abilities that people can use to psychological toolkit meet their needs. a) Shared intentionality a unique human quality that separates them from animals is the ability to use language to communicate this. b) Ability to continually build upon improvements (ratchet effect) c) Cognitive skills, including memory, personality traits, and emotions Factors of ecology a) Climate especially deviation from temperature climate influences cultures; harsher climates create more risks, humans can regulate body temp more easily in more moderate temperatures; affects clothing, housing, working arrangements b) Population density c) Arable land number of people in relation to the amount of land that can produce food Groups that have Nationality, language, ethnicity, gender, disability, sexual orientation cultures Culture vs. race Race is more of a social construction than a biological essential; culture is a biological essential. Culture vs. Culture is a macro, social, grouplevel construct; personality is the personality individual difference that exists among individuals within groups Culture vs. pop “Popular culture” refers to trends in music, art, and other expressions culture that become popular among a group of people Society vs. culture A society is a system of interrelationships among people, referring to the fact that relationships among individual exist, and in human societies people and groups have interrelationships with multiple other people and groups. Culture refers to the meanings and information that are associated with social networks. Objective elements of Elements that are physical, like clothes, food, art, eating utensils, architecture culture Subjective elements The elements that do not survive as physical artifacts, and include of culture psychological processes like attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors. Hofstede’s 5 value 1. Individualism vs. collectivism tendency for which people will dimensions encourage looking out for one another in exchange for loyalty. 2. Power distance degree to which cultures encourage members to accept power as distributed. 3. Uncertainty avoidance degree to which people feel threatened by the unknown, and have developed beliefs, institutions, or rituals to avoid them 4. Masculinity vs. femininity characterised by pole of success, money, and things compared to caring for others and quality of life 5. Long vs. short term orientation degree to which cultures encourage delayed gratification of material, social, and emotional needs among member Schwartz’s 7 values Embeddedness degree to which cultures will emphasize the maintenance of the status quo, propriety, and restraint of actions that might disrupt solidarity or traditional order Hierarchy degree to which cultures emphasize the legitimacy of it Mastery degree to which they emphasize getting ahead by changing or mastering the natural and social environment Intellectual autonomy degree to which they emphasize promoting individual ideas; fosters curiosity, broadmindedness, and creativity Affective autonomy emphazise promotion and protection of people’s individual pursuits of positive experiences Egalitarianism emphasize transcending selfish interests in favor of voluntary promotion of welfare of others, focusing on equality, social justice, freedom, responsibility, and honesty Harmony emphasize fitting in the with the environment; unity with nature, protecting the environment Belief A proposition that is regarded as true Dynamic externality outward oriented, simplistic grappling out with external forces; more collectivistic, hierarchical, conservative, high unemployment, less freedom, fewer human rights; aspire for security, longer life, material resources Societal cynicism cognitive apprehension or pessimism of the world confronting people; they are surrounded by inevitable negative outcomes; people are suppressed by powerful others and subjected to the depredations of willful selfish individuals, groups, and institutions. Attitudes evaluations about objects occurring in ongoing thoughts about the objects, or stored in memory Cultural worldviews Culturally specific belief systems about the world; containing attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and values about the world. People have worldviews because of evolved, complex cognition; so having a worldview is a universal psychological process. Specific content varies in every culture. Culture A unique meaning and information system, shared by a group and transmitted across generations, that allows the group to meet basic needs of survival, pursue happiness and wellbeing, and derive meaning from life Deviation from The degree to which the average temperature of a given region will temperature climate differ from what is considered to be the easiest temperature to live in Enculturation The process of learning about and being indoctrinated into a culture. Emics Aspects of life that appear to be consistent across different cultures; universal or pancultural truths or principles. Ratchet effect The concept that humans continually improve on improvements, that they do not go backward or revert to a previous state. Progress is always occurring because improvements move themselves upward, like a ratchet. Religion An organized system of beliefs that tie together many attitudes, values, beliefs, worldviews, and norms. They provide people guidelines for living. Sacred values Values that are considered to be nonnegotiable, and outweigh other values, like economic ones. They are different from normal values because they incorporate moral beliefs that drive action in a way different from drive to success. Selfconcept The sum of one’s idea of one’s self, including physical, mental, historical, and relational aspects, and capacities to learn and perform. It’s central to personality and changes over time partially conscious and partially unconscious depending on the situation. Social axioms General beliefs and premises about oneself, the social and physical environment, and the spiritual world, people use them to guide their behavior in daily living. Tightness vs A dimension of cultural variability that refers to the variability within a looseness culture of its members to norms. Tight cultures have less variability and more homogeneous with respect to norms; loose cultures have more variability and are more heterogeneous. Value A transsituational goal that serves as a guiding principle in the life of a person or group. They motivate and justify behavior and serve as standards for judging people, actions, and events CHAPTER 2: Cross Cultural Research Methods Types of CrossCultural Research: Method validation studies Internal validity External validity Indigenous cultural studies Crosscultural comparisons Types of CrossCultural Comparisons: Exploratory vs. hypothesis testing Presence or absence of contextual factors Structure vs. level oriented Individual vs. ecological (cultural) level Designs that establish linkage between culture/individual mental processes and behaviors: Unpackaging studies Individuallevel measures of culture Selfconstruct scales Personality Cultural practices Experiments Priming studies Behavioral studies Types of Bias and Equivalence: Conceptual bias Method bias Sampling bias Linguistic bias Back translation Committee approach Procedural bias Measurement bias Response bias Socially desirable responding Selfdeceptive enhancement Impression management Acquiescence bias Extreme response bias Reference group effect Interpretational bias Validity the degree to which a finding, measurement, or statistic is accurate, or represents what it is supposed to Reliability the degree to which a finding, measurement, or statistic is consistent Method validation studies validity mainly asks how accurately does your tool measure what it is supposed to measure Internal validity what your measure within the study External validity the sample that you pull from for the study Crosscultural validation a study that examines whether a measure of psychological studies construct that was originally generated in a single culture is applicable, meaningful, and thus equivalent in another culture. Indigenous cultural studies that use rich, complex, and indepth descriptions of studies cultures and cultural differences to predict and test for differences in a psychological variable Hypothesistesting studies designed to test why cultural differences exist. They go studies beyond simple quasiexperimental designs by either including context variables or by using experiments Exploratory studies studies designed to examine the existence of crosscultural similarities or differences. These are generally simple, quasiexperimental designs comparing two or more cultures on a psychological variable Exploratory vs. exploratory examine the existence of crosscultural Hypothesis testing similarities/differences (strength more broad; weakness can’t assess the cause of discovered differences); hypothesis examines why cultural differences may exist (strength can lead to more substantial contributions to theory development) Contextual factors any variable that can explain, partly or fully, observed crosscultural differences; may involve characteristics of participants or their cultures Structural equivalence the degree to which a measure used in a crosscultural study produces the same factor analysis results in the different countries being compared Leveloriented studies studies that examine cultural differences in mean levels of variables Structural vs. level Structure compares constructs, structures, or relationships with oriented studies other constructs (ex: age, race, gender); leveloriented focuses on relationships among variables (ex: depression, mood) Ecological (cultural) level a study in which countries or cultures, not individuals, are the unit studies of analysis Linkage studies studies that attempt to measure an aspect of culture theoretically hypothesized to produce cultural differences and then empirically link that measured aspect of culture with the dependent variable of interest Unpackaging studies studies that unpackage the contents of global, unspecific concept of culture into specific, measurable psychological constructs and examine their contribution to cultural differences Individuallevel measures asses psychological dimensions related to meaningful of culture dimensions of cultural variability and that are completed by individuals. Often used to ensure that samples in different cultures actually harbor the cultural characteristics thought to differentiate them. often used as context variables. Equivalence a state or condition of similarity in conceptual meaning and empirical method between cultures that allow comparisons to be meaningful; a lack of bias Bias differences that do not have exactly the same meaning within and across cultures; a lack of equivalence Sampling bias degree to which different samples in different cultures are equivalent to each other Linguistic bias equivalence between protocols used in crosscultural comparison studies. The two procedures used to establish linguistic equivalence are back translation and the committee approach Back translation Taking the research protocol in one language, translating it to the other language, and having someone else translate it back to the original. Decenter the culturalspecific concepts of a language getting lost in translation Committee approach several bilingual informant collectively translate a research protocol into a target language Procedural bias the degree to which procedures used to collect data in different cultures are equivalent to each other Measurement bias degree to which measures used to collect data in different cultures are equally valid and reliable Operationalization they ways in which researchers conceptually define a variable and measure it Psychometric degree to which different measures used in a crosscultural equivalence comparison study are statistically equivalent in the cultures being compared whether the measures are equally valid and reliable in all cultures studied Structural equivalence degree to which a measure used in a crosscultural study produces the same factor analysis results in the different countries being compared Internal reliability degree to which different items in a questionnaire are related to each other, and give consistent responses. Response bias a systematic tendency to respond in a certain way to items or scales Socially desirable the tendency to give answers that make oneself look good responding some cultures might have a greater desire to make themselves look good than others. It has two main factors: selfdeceptive enhancement, and impression management Selfdeceptive seeing oneself in a positive light enhancement Impression management concern for one’s impression on others Acquiescence bias tendency to agree rather than disagree with items on questionnaires Extreme response bias tendency to use the ends of a scale regardless of item content Reference group effect based on the notion that people make implicit social comparisons with others when making ratings on scales, rather than relying on direct inferences about a private, personal value system people implicitly compare themselves to others in their group. 4 ways to handle 1. Preclude comparison don’t make a comparison in the nonequivalent data first place because it will be meaningless. 2. Reduce the nonequivalence in the data don’t separate equivalent and nonequivalent parts ahead of time. 3. Interpret the nonequivalence as an important piece of information concerning cultural differences 4. Ignore the nonequivalence clinging to beliefs about scale invariance across cultures despite lack of evidence Psychobiographical In depth analysis of particular individuals usually study of research outstanding people, like celebrities that represent different countries/cultures; examines diaries, speeches, letters, and memories Availability/convenience researcher chooses a culture by chance because of researchers’ sampling professional or personal contacts Systematic sampling samples collected according to a theory or theoretical assumption (ex: moms develop short term memory loss after giving birth, but they’ve discovered that they get better at multitasking which is evolutionarily more useful) Random sample large sample of countries or groups are randomly chosen Quantitative research measurements of certain aspects of human activity, with variables chosen and studies empirically, primarily through observation Measures of central Mode: most frequently occurring score tendency Median: the most middle number, with 50% of the data on one side and 50% on the other Mean: the mathematical central point of distribution (the average of the data) 4 Types of quantitative Nominal: each score does not indicate an amount measurement scales (measure of social skills) Ordinal: scores designed in rank order, but not with number values aside from that (favorite foods) Interval: scores indicate some amount with an equal unit of measurement separating each score Ratio: reflects the true amount of the present variable and the zero truly means zero of the amount (unlike interval) Correlation the relationship between two variables Positive correlation means X and Y both increase or both decrease. Negative correlation means X decreases while Y increase, or the other way around. The two parts of 1. Can have a positive or negative relationship correlation 2. Value: the larger the absolute value the stronger the relationship CHAPTER 3: Enculturation Outline: Representative sample Observation in crosscultural psychology Naturalistic observation Surveys Indirect Direct Experimental studies Independent variable Dependent variable Content analysis First/level/concrete Second level coding Cultural learning Global parenting styles: Authoritarian Permissive Authoritative Uninvolved Families and parenting Parenting as a function of economics Ordered importance of caregiving environment: Physical health and survival Promotion of behaviors leading to selfsufficiency Behaviors that promote other cultural values, i.e. prestige Goals and beliefs Cultural change Configurative culture Prefigurative culture Postfigurative culture Behaviors and strategies 3 areas in which cultures vary in behaviors and strategies Warmth and responsiveness Discipline Stimulation/teaching Siblings Authoritarian parents expect unquestioned obedience; see child as someone who needs to be controlled Permissive parents warm and nurturing; allow children to regulate own lives with few guidelines Authoritative parents sensitive to child’s maturity; firm, fair, reasonable and affectionate Uninvolved parents do not respond appropriately to children, indifferent (the worst type of parenting) Configurative culture a culture in which change occurs rapidly. Both adults and peers socialize young people. Young people may have to turn to one another for advice and information. Enculturation the process by which individuals learn and adopt the ways and manners of their specific culture Parental ethnotheories parental cultural belief systems Postfigurative culture a culture in which change is slow and socialization occurs primarily by elders Prefigurative culture a culture that is changing so rapidly that young people may be hte ones teaching adults cultural knowledge Socialization the process by which we learn and internalize the rules and patterns of behavior that are affected by culture. Over a long time, involves learning and mastering societal and cultural norms, attitudes, values, and belief systems. Socialization agents the people, institutions, and organizations that exist to help ensure that socialization occurs Surveys the most common technique of data collection in crosscultural psychology; a self report process Advantages and Advantages: it can by anonymous which would make more accurate disadvantages of results, lead to less bias, you can get answers from a lot of people surveys with very little cost/time. Disadvantages: mostly open and questions, which make it hard to measure certain variables, unclear if the respondent is answering honestly or not. 2 types of survey Indirect: does not maintain relationships with correspondent Direct: maintains a relationships with corresponded by keeping some kind of contact afterwards
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