Psychology 1410 - Exam 2 Study Guide
Psychology 1410 - Exam 2 Study Guide Psy-1410-007
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carley Olejniczak on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psy-1410-007 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Seth Marshall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 208 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
General Psychology Exam 2 Review: Chapters 4-6 Psychology of Consciousness (Ch. 4) Definition of consciousness: awareness of the outside world and the inside world (“self”) Examples of altered states of consciousness: o Getting your name called when you’re focused on something else – “snapping out” of it o Reading a book o Child’s play – using imagination to create a whole new world o Sleeping o Hypnosis o Driving – driving all the way to a destination and not recalling how you got there Sleep General effects of sleep deprivation o Delusions o Emotional o Decreased executive functions Consolidation of memory theory o REM sleep is believed to strengthen neurological connections o Sleep helps create neural connections after learning new experiences o Sleep may help solidify and absorb what one learns every day The most important aspect of a restful slumber o The number of sleep cycles completed Features of sleep cycles o Stage 1 Drifting off Twitching Easily woken Sometimes get the sensation of falling o Stage 2 Brief bursts of sleep spindles Falling deeper asleep Still easy to wake o Stage 3 First stage of Deep Sleep Combination of slow (delta waves) and fast waves Harder to wake up Groggy if woken o Stage 4 Deep sleep Breathing is slow and loud Can be frightening to be woken Very hard to wake up o REM sleep (Rapid Eye Movement) AKA Paradoxical Sleep Dream state Brain patterns look like those when awake o Average cycle is 90 minutes long Sleep Disorders o Insomnia Trouble falling asleep and staying asleep o Narcolepsy Randomly falling asleep o Sleep Apnea Breathing difficulty during sleep Need a machine to breathe normally during sleep o Sleepwalking Walking as if in a wakeful state, but still remain asleep Usually only in children but can effect up to 4% of adults o REM behavior disorder People enter REM sleep without being under near-paralysis (which normally occurs), and can lead to acting out their dreams Can be dangerous Circadian rhythms o Human biological clock Includes functions such as sleeping, waking, eating, urination, and hormone release o Linked to signals such as daylight or darkness at night o But even without the light cues, people’s bodies can typically still maintain their circadian rhythm o Can vary from person to person “larks” or “owls” – a morning person or a night person Sleep deprivation o Condition in which people don’t get the proper amount of sleep necessary to function at their highest abilities Can refuse cognitive functions Inattention Increased risk of accidents Sleep interventions o Sleep routine and sleep hygiene What it takes someone to “wind down” in order to go to sleep Different for everyone Examples: hot shower, reading a book, drinking a warm beverage Dreaming o Sigmund Freud- believed dreams are like your subconscious Iceberg theory: consciousness is the “tip,” unconscious is the “bottom” Dreams are interpretations of the unconscious Example: naked in a dream means you are self-conscious, shameful, etc. teeth falling out = inadequacy; fear of rejection Flying = flying over problems with ease Falling/drowning = lack of control Being chased = pressure or stress o Dreaming subjects contain little/no activity in the frontal area of the brain (Braun 1998) o Dreams are likely to reveal individuals’ projected view of the world and specific historical experiences (Hobson 1998) Hypnosis “Hypnosis” – derived from the Greek word for sleep State vs. Non-state debate o Is it a state of sleep? Imaging provides no evidence for hypnosis trance A wakeful state of focused attention EEG studies indicate that a hypnotized person is fully awake Have to relax, focus, imagine, and be open to suggestion to be hypnotized It messes with the line that separates make-believe from reality We are able to construct our own reality 10-15% of adults are highly hypnotizable o 1/5 adults are resistant to hypnosis 80-85% of children are highly hypnotizable Hypnosis for treatment o Limb amputations o Child birth o Dental work o Anxiety, depression, eating disorders o Trauma Hypnosis and memory o Eyewitness to crime o Unlock childhood experiences o Past lives Psychology of Learning (Ch. 5) Definition of Learning: a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience Different approaches to understanding learning o Behavioral Psychology – looking outside the black box, as opposed to cognitive or biological psychology that focuses on the brain Behavioral psychology focuses only on the observable Classical conditioning vs. operant conditioning o Classical: Involuntary physiological responses Example: salivation, nausea, sweating, anxiousness, sexual attraction, blinking o Operant: Voluntary behaviors Ex: Getting good grades as a reward for hard work in classes Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (US) –stimulus that naturally causes a response Unconditioned Response (UCR) – natural response to a specific stimulus Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – an originally neutral stimulus that now causes a response Conditioned Response (CR) – the response to the conditioned stimulus Van Petrovich Pavlov o Russian Physiologist o Received Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine in 1904 o Famous experiment: ringing the bell to make dogs salivate o Experiment: Pavlov noticed his dog salivated every time he brought the dog food. The food is the US and salivation is UCR. Pavlov then starts to ring a bell every time he is about to give his dog food. Eventually, after several times of ringing the bell and bringing the food, the dog begins to salivate as soon as he hears the bell because he knows the food is coming shortly after. The bell is the CS and the continued salivation is the CR. John B. Watson o “Father of Behaviorism” o Little Albert- famous patient/test subject for Watson Tested inborn fears in infants Found the Albert wasn’t fearful of any animal he came in contact with (dog, cat, rabbit, rat, etc.) To instill fear in Albert, every time he saw the white rat, a loud noise was made, which startled Albert Now, every time he saw a white rat or anything that resembled one, he acted in fear Generalization: a similar stimulus to that of a conditioned one triggers the same response o Ex: being bitten by a dog makes you now afraid of ALL dogs Discrimination: making distinctions between similar stimuli o Ex: New parents respond to the sound of their own baby crying, but not to a stranger’s baby’s cry. Extinction: the loss of a conditioned response over time (usually due to no longer being exposed to the conditioned stimulus) Flooding: treatment used to reduce a fear (usually to a phobia) in which a person is kept in a fearful (but harmless) situation that they can’t escape Counterconditioning: a therapy device used to replace a “bad” response, like fear, with a more pleasant response o Attempt to un-condition a conditioned response o Ex: A person with a fear of dogs is shown pictures and video of dogs playing with children, and eventually working up to a point to there the person can touch a puppy and then play with a dog Systematic desensitization: procedure that associates a new response with a feared stimulus Edward Thorndike Law of Effect o You stick to what you know o A response that is followed by something satisfying is more likely to be repeated o Response followed by unpleasant consequences is less likely to be repeated Used puzzled boxes to observe learned behavior o Put a cat in a box. The cat had to open the box to get to some food by stepping on a pedal. Every time the cat got out by pushing the pedal, the cat was put back in the box. The cat eventually got faster and faster at opening the puzzle box because it learned how to do it. Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner o Skinner box” – cage for an animal that has sealed exits with levers or buttons inside for the animal to use to open the box Designed to provide an environment to condition an animal to do a task (i.e. pull the lever or push the button to open the box) ABC’s of behavior o Antecedent (what happens before B) o Behavior o Consequence (What happens after B) If you change A or C, you change B Positive reinforcement o Continuous reinforcement A reinforcer is delivered every time the target response is done o Intermittent reinforcement Reinforcement is given only some of the time Ratio schedule (numberrdf responses) o Ex: For every 3 response, a reinforcement is given Interval schedule (period of time) o Ex: Reinforcement is given every 20 minutes o Considerations of reinforcement is not working Reinforcer does not reinforce (maybe there’s a competing reinforcer) Reinforcer is inconsistent Change is not worthwhile for the subject Shaping proceeds too rapidly (too much expected too soon) Negative reinforcement o It is an escape from an adversive stimulus o This is a way of preventing something unpleasant from occurring o Behavior increases o Example: Your alarm clock wakes you up with the sound of annoying ringing. In order to escape the adversive stimulus, you get up for the day. Punishment o An adverse consequence presented after a response o The removal of a positive event after a response o Decreases behavior o Side effects Models aggressive behavior for children We tend to stick with what we know, so if we are punished physically as a child, we will tend to be more aggressive in punishment later in life Punishment is often delivered in frustration (emotional reaction) Fail to teach new behavior Only temporarily suppresses behavior Emotional reaction prevents learning Increase in escape and avoidance Difference between punishment and negative reinforcement o Reinforcement, positive OR negative, is always associated with INCREASES in behavior o Punishment DECREASES behavior Primary reinforcers o Used to sustain life (such as food, water, or oxygen) Secondary reinforcers o 4 different types Concrete Reinforcement Examples: money, toys Social Reinforcement High fives, “good job!” Positive feedback “keep up the good work” Activity reinforcement – AKA Premack Principle Having to first do chores or homework before going to play with friends Shaping Behavior (Applied Behavioral Analysis) Steps: 1. What is the problem behavior? 2. What is the target behavior that is incompatible with problem behavior? a. Can a dead person do it? 3. Select reinforcement (will it work?) 4. Administration and schedule of reinforcement Psychology of Memory (Ch. 6) Anterograde Amnesia o Difficulty in learning new info after brain damage Retrograde Amnesia o Difficulty in remembering events that happened before brain damage Case Studies: o Clive Wearing Virus destroyed his hippocampi (long-term memory structure in brain) Long term memory is gone (to some degree) o H.M. Sever epilepsy Hippocampi removed Can remember everything before the operation Cannot create new memories Mirror Drawing – doctors would have HM trace an image that was reflected in a mirror Very difficult to do Doctor records completion time and accuracy Does the same task every day (HM doesn’t remember doing it), and noticed that HM improves his skill every day Herman Ebbinghaus o Forgetting curve – the shape of the curve is an initial drop in memory, followed by a more minor decrease over time Is the same for any information you want to remember Distribution of Practice Effect o Practicing a little every day for several days is better than cramming for one day Total Time Hypothesis o A specific amount of time is required to learn a specific amount of material Memory as a multifaceted construct Information Processing System o Sensory register takes in information and hold onto it for just a split second Perception and attention determine what will be held in short term memory for further use o Short-term memory Frontal lobe Temporary storage of information Ex: trying to remember a phone number long enough to write it down or type it in Digit Span Short term memory can hold about 5-9 digits – limited capacity “mental plate” – a plate can only hold so much stuff before things start falling off after adding too much food Easily disrupted – maintenance required o Long-term memory 3 types: Semantic memory o Based on acquired facts that you know – ability to retrieve known facts and info o Ex: playing Jeopardy – trivia o Not based on personal experiences, rather, based on info that you’ve read or saw or learned about Episodic Memory o “I remember when...” o An “episode” of your life Procedural o Performing a set of procedures typically not mediated by language o Ex: riding a bike, tying your shoes o Becomes automatic, even after not doing it for a long time Working Memory o Allows us to mentally manipulate info held in short-term memory o Located in the frontal lobe o Children have a less developed short-term and working memory because their frontal lobes haven’t fully developed Transferring info to long-term memory o Maintenance Rehearsal – saying things over and over again in your head until you remember it fully o Chunking- grouping info together to make it easier to remember o Elaborative Rehearsal – to remember info by associating it with a place that you are familiar with EX: remembering a set of numbers – think about your house and walking through each room. And in each room, there is a number in the sequence o Make a connection – associating new info with old info in long- term memory Serial Position Curve o A curve that shows the probability of remembering items of a list that appear at different serial positions in that list Most people remember the first few items and the last few items in a long list o Primary effect – when recall is good for the first 2-3 words of a list o Regency effect – when recall is good for the last 2-3 items of a list Levels of processing o External stimuli -> sensory memory -> short-term memory -> long-term memory Accuracy of eyewitness testimony o People can make mistakes about details in their memory These mistakes occur because people encode into long- term memory not just the meaning of info, but also what they think and assume about it too Just because people think they remember something clearly, they could be wrong o Long term memories are also subject to distortion, so when witnesses are questioned, they might be unconsciously influenced to “remember” something that didn’t really happen State dependent memory o When people encode into their memory how they felt emotionally when they learned something, these internal feelings can influence memory retrieval Context-specific memory o Memories that are aided or hindered by environmental context Mood congruency effect o Mood states can effect memory o Mood congruency effect is strongest when people try to remember personally meaningful memories Guidelines for more effective studying o Distributed practice o Reading a textbook Preview: skim, read headings and boldfaced/italicized words Question: ask yourself what will info will be covered Read: think about material as you read and make connections Reflect: think of your own examples and about what the material means Recite: recite major points; summarize Review o Take lecture notes Express major ideas in few words Summarize major points Think about what is being said
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