PSYC 1000 - Study Guide Exam 2 (Chapters 3, 7-9)
PSYC 1000 - Study Guide Exam 2 (Chapters 3, 7-9) Psyc 1000-04
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by HaleyG on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
PSYC1000 Study Guide Exam 2 (Chapter 3, 79) CHAPTER 3 Consciousness: awareness of things happening around you Can we be influenced by stimuli of which we are unaware? Yes. Priming describes when prior exposure to a stimulus influences our behavior subconsciously. Additionally, we're not consciously aware of subliminal stimuli, which are very faint/weak stimuli. People can be primed with subliminal stimuli. How effective is subliminal persuasion? Subliminal persuasion is not as effective as consciously perceived messages Attention: a concentration or focusing of mental activity Selective attention: trying to pay attention to just one thing while ignoring everything else Cocktail party effect: ability to pay attention to just one conversation while other conversations are happening Divided attention: trying to focus on two or more things at once Decreases accuracy of attention Change blindness: failure to detect large changes Circadian rhythm: daily cycle of behavior and physiology, controlled by suprachiasmic nucleus in hypothalamus What are some factors influencing whether a person tends to be more alert in the morning or evening? People's individual alertness throughout the day depends on age and genetics Circadian lowpoints: times when people are at their sleepiest (14 AM and 14 PM) results in a drop in performance and an increase in accidents Electroencephalogram: measures electrical activity in brain ("brain waves" that are wavelike bursts of activity of neuron firing) What are the stages of sleep? NREM 1 Light sleep, easily awakened NREM 2 Deeper than NREM 1 Most sleep time is in NREM 2 NREM 3 Deepest stage of sleep Physiological slowing (heart rate, blood pressure) REM In what order does one progress through the sleep stages during a complete sleep cycle? NREM 1 > NREM 2 > NREM 3 > NREM 2 > REM Slowwave sleep: deeper stages of sleep (as the stages progress, the EEG recordings report brain waves of increased amplitude and decreased frequency) What happens during REM sleep? (Why is REM sleep paradoxical?) All dreaming happens during rapid eye movement sleep. It's called "paradoxical sleep" because people still have brain activity and internal physiologic activity similar to when awake. However, people have muscle paralysis during REM so they don't act out their dreams. Does evidence suggest that other animals dream during REM? Yes, mammals exhibit REM and evidence suggests that animals dream during REM How does the amount of time spent in the stages generally change as a night’s sleep progresses? As sleep progresses, you spend increased time in REM and NREM 2, as well as decreased time in NREM 3. Does everyone need the same amount of sleep? No, some people need more or less sleep based on age and genetics. Microsleeps: sleep that lasts for a few seconds at a time, although eyes can remain open and people are not necessarily aware that they are experiencing microsleeps What happens when someone goes without sleep? Sleep deprivations leads to fatigue, irritability, and inattention. It impairs driving ability and disrupts the immune system. What are the theories we covered regarding the functions of sleep? There isn't a solid reason as to why we sleep but theories include improvement of memory, concentration, and immune function. Sleep is restorative, as it increases our protein synthesis. It also helps with learning and problem solving. REM rebound: tendency to spend a longer time in REM sleep after we have been deprived of it (some drugs suppress REM sleep) What might be some functions of dreaming? Learning, memory, and emotional processing Activationsynthesis hypothesis: the cause of dreaming: bursts of activity in the brain stem causes the activation of random memories and concepts; dreams are the brain's interpretation of this randomness Sleep disorders/Parasomnia: undesirable behaviors or experiences related to sleep Insomnia: problems falling and/or staying asleep (temporary or permanent) Narcolepsy: periodic overwhelming sleepiness Cataplexy: partial or full relaxation of muscles triggered by strong emotions Body attacks neurons that release orexin (neurotransmitter involved in circadian rhythm) Sleeptalking: more common in children, sleepdeprived individuals, and individuals who have a fever (NREM 3) Sleepwalking: more common in children, sleepdeprived individuals, and individuals who have a fever (NREM 3) Nightmares: scary dreams (REM) Night terrors: sympathetic nervous system activation like screaming, sweating, rapid breathing, and movement (NREM 3) REM behavior disorder: individual loses the muscle paralysis associated with REM More common in men over 50 Associated with the development of Parkinson's disease Psychoactive drugs: influence psychological processes by altering synaptic activity in the brain Agonist: enhances/mimics neurotransmitters Antagonist: inhibits/blocks neurotransmitters Addiction: repetitive and compulsive use of a drug despite negative consequences Withdrawal syndrome: undesirable effects of discontinued drug use, usually opposite of the drug's initial effects Tolerance: the need of increased amounts of a drug to get the same effect as you did when you first started it How does the body’s attempt to maintain homeostasis relate to tolerance and withdrawal? The body and brain initiate the processes of tolerance and withdrawal to counteract the effects of the drug in order to maintain homeostasis. What are some biological, psychological, and social factors involved in drug use/abuse and addiction? (See added notes on Blackboard for psychological and social factors) Biological factors: mental disorders relieved by drug use, genetic predisposition towards particular drugs, rewarddeficiency syndrome (deficiency of dopamine receptors, made up for by drug use for pleasure) Psychosocial factors: stress/depression, peer influence (rich/bored teens are more at risk for drug use, but AfricanAmerican teens have lower rates of drug use than other teens) Categories of drugs Depressants: depress activity in the nervous system Relaxation, drowsiness, decreased anxiety Ex. alcohol Impairs thinking/judgment, memory, balance Benzodiazepines: agonist of GABA (results in drowsiness, relaxation, slowing) Ex. Valium, Xanax, Librium, tranquilizers Addiction, deadly withdrawal syndrome Opiates: provide euphoria, pain relief, and induce sleep Endorphin agonists Ex. morphine, heroin, cocaine Highly addictive but commonly prescribed Stimulants: increase CNS activity Increase wakefulness, energy, and confidence Ex. caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines, MDMA Nicotine: one of the most addictive drugs Cocaine vs. amphetamines (methamphetamines, Benzedrine) Increase norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin High addiction potential Cocaine has a shorter but more widespread effect than amphetamines Amphetamines don't provide as much euphoria as cocaine MDMA Causes euphoria but damages serotonin neurons Leads to depression, anxiety Psychedelic hallucinogens Serotonin agonists Hallucinations, alter thinking and emotions Low addiction potential Therapeutic uses for depression, drug addiction, PTSD Ex. LSD, psilocybin, marijuana Active ingredient: THC Perceptual alterations, relaxation, disinhibition Therapeutic uses for pain, nausea, and loss of appetite Which drugs produce the most dangerous withdrawal syndromes? Alcohol, benzodiazepines, and opiates Hypnosis: technique used to increase someone's susceptibility to suggestion You cannot be hypnotized against your will Not effective for memory retrieval or for treating drug addiction Effective for pain relief and treating obesity CHAPTER 7 Learning: a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge due to experience Behaviorism: the subdiscipline of psychology associated with learning What is the relationship between genetic/biological control of behavior and the capacity for learning among species? Organisms with a greater propensity for learning are more likely to adapt to surroundings and less likely to be controlled by biology and instinct Ivan Pavlov: discovered classical conditioning through his experiments with ringing bells and giving dogs food Classical conditioning: learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to produce a response through association with a stimulus that produces a similar response Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): stimulus that naturally produces a response without any association [the meat in Pavlov's study] Unconditioned response (UCR): unlearned, automatic response to the UCS [salivation to the meat in Pavlov's study] Conditioned stimulus (CS): stimulus that acquires the ability to produce a response by being associated with the UCS [the bell in Pavlov's study] Conditioned response (CR): learned response to the CS [salivation to the bell in Pavlov's study] Stimulus generalization: tendency to produce CR to stimuli similar to CS Stimulus discrimination: learning not to produce CR to stimuli that don't signal CS Extinction: getting rid of CR by repeatedly presenting CS without UCS Acquisition: process of pairing CS and UCS until CR is established Acquisition will occur most rapidly when CS is presented right before UCS Biopreparedness: we learn some associations more quickly than we learn others Humans are predisposed to learn associations involving evolutionary threats Conditioned taste aversion: tendency to associate foods with stomach problems or nausea Unique aspect of pairing (onetrial learning develops the association), also CS can occur before UCS and we still learn the association Operant conditioning: organism learns to associate its own behavior with a consequence of that behavior Contrast with classical conditioning CC associates two stimuli OC associates behavior with stimulus (consequence) CC does not depend on behavior of organism, OC does CC reactions are involuntary and automatic, while behavior in OC is voluntary Stimulus discrimination: learning that a behavior will lead to a particular consequence only in the presence of certain stimuli Discriminative stimuli: signal that a behavior will lead to a particular consequence Stimulus generalization: engaging in behavior in presence of stimuli similar to the discriminative stimulus that signaled reinforcement B.F. Skinner: created the Skinner box/operant chamber in which a small animal can learn that pressing buttons will lead to a reward or consequence Shaping: reinforcement of successive approximations toward the desired behavior How do biological predispositions affect operant conditioning? Some behaviors are easier to condition than others Reinforcement: makes the behavior it follows more likely to occur again Positive reinforcement: addition of a desirable stimulus as the result of a behavior Negative reinforcement: removal of a negative stimulus as the result of a behavior Continuous reinforcement schedule: behavior is reinforced every time it occurs Partial reinforcement schedule: behavior is reinforced only some of the time it occurs Extinguishing: eliminating a behavior by removing enforcement Partialreinforcement extinction effect: partial reinforcement takes longer to extinguish Punishment: makes the behavior it follows less likely to occur in the future Positive punishment: addition of something unpleasant Negative punishment: removal of something pleasant What are the differences between positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment? Gained Removed Good Positive reinforcement :) Negative punishment :( Bad Positive punishment :( Negative reinforcement :) How is timing important when it comes to reinforcement or punishment? Consequences have a larger impact on behavior when they occur immediately after a behavior, so that the cause/effect sequence is more obvious What are some problems with using punishment? Punishment doesn't specify the correct behavior, only that an occurrence of an incorrect behavior Punisher may become a discriminative stimulus (organism may exhibit undesired behavior when punisher is not present) Fear and anxiety may become associated with the punisher Observational learning: natural propensity to imitate Albert Bandura’s Bobo doll study: experimental group watched adults beat up the Bobo doll, control group did not; experimental group copied actions of video but control group did not spend much time with Bobo doll Vicarious reinforcement/punishment: increase in an observer's tendency to imitate a model when the model's behavior has been reinforced What does research indicate regarding the influence of exposure to media violence? Media violence increases aggressive behavior in viewers Desensitizes and primes us to be more aggressive when provoked CHAPTER 8 Memory: the retention of information over time 3 basic processes: encoding, storage, and retrieval Automatic processing: processing of information remembered without effort Effortful processing: information it takes effort to remember How does maintenance rehearsal differ from elaborative rehearsal? Maintenance rehearsal entails repeating info over and over without thinking about the meaning while elaborative rehearsal includes thinking about what the info means Serial position effect: how well you remember an item on a list depends on its serial position Primacy effect: tendency to remember items at the beginning of a list (lasts over time) Recency effect: tendency to remember items at the end of a list (fades over time) Linking: connecting new info to info you already know enhances depth of processing Selfreference effect: tendency to best remember information we can apply to ourselves Spacing effect: tendency to better remember info when encoding is distributed over time What is the best way to form lasting memories? A combination of elaborative rehearsal, selfreference, and spacing Three stages of memory processing (Information Processing Model): sensory memory, short term memory, and longterm memory Sensory memory: holds information from senses just long enough for us to identify it STM: holds pieces of info for a short amount of time (1830 seconds) Used to solve problems, make decisions, and think ahead Working memory: function of STM that allows us to do mental work (ex. mental math) LTM: unlimited capacity and duration Explicit/declarative LTM: conscious facts we know and can state Episodic (personal experiences) vs. semantic (facts and knowledge) Implicit LTM: memory without conscious recollection Procedural: how to perform routine, automatic tasks Immediate memory span: longest string of information someone can know after being briefly presented with it ("magic number" is 7 +/2) Retrieval cues: stimuli that aid memory retrieval and cause spreading activation (waves spreading in mind about a concept that trigger other related concepts) Contextdependent memory: external cues/environment provide retrieval cues Statedependent memory: internal state provides retrieval cues What are some possible reasons for why we forget? Initial failure to encode info, storage decay (unused memories fading over time), retrieval failure (difficulty accessing stored info) What evidence supports the idea of retrieval failure? Sometimes we remember things initially forgotten with the right retrieval cues. Also, we learn things faster the second time (which shows that the info was probably stored in our brain from the first time) For what reasons is forgetting believed to occur as regards information stored in STM and in LTM? We usually forget info stored in STM because of storage decay and displacement (new information kicking out old information). We forget info in LTM because of retrieval failure. Forgetting curve: discovered by Ebbinghaus, a curve that shows that we forget about ald of info learned very quickly and then retain the rest for a long time How is memory constructive? Memory is subjective, constantly revised, and easily influenced Schemas: abstract mental frameworks that organize info based on expectations Schema theory: we mold new info to fit into our preexisting theories (ex. remembering office supplies that weren't there) Misinformation effect: when misinformation influences memory (ex. in the traffic accident experiment, the strength of the verb used influenced how severe the subjects remembered the accident to be) Is it difficult to create false memories? No. Suggestive questioning and visualizing events lead to false memories. Additionally, adults who imply that something happened to children in the past can lead to memories and even elaboration of those memories in children. Are people more likely to repress or remember traumatic events? Repression of memories is rare. People are likely to overremember traumatic experiences rather than repress them. Infantile amnesia: lack of explicit memories in the first 3 years of life due to slow maturation of the hippocampus Can we reliably distinguish between false memories and real memories? No. False memories often feel just as vivid as real memories. Confidence in a memory does not necessarily indicate accuracy. How do synapses change when memory is formed? When memories are formed, new synapses form or existing ones are modified. Additionally, some synapses are strengthened or sensitized (longterm potentiation) What neurotransmitters play a large role in memory? Acetylcholine (improves memory) and glutamate (involved in longterm potentiation) What is the role of hormones and emotion in memory? Stress hormones facilitate memory encoding What is the role of the hippocampus in memory? The hippocampus processes and transfers information from shortterm memory to long term memory. It involves the encoding of explicit memories. What structures are involved in implicit memory? The cerebellum and the basal ganglia Where are explicit memories generally stored? The front and temporal lobes (patters of activation: one memory does not have a single place in the brain where it is stored but rather various parts of the brain) Retrograde amnesia: difficulty remembering the past (results from general trauma to the brain) Anterograde amnesia: difficulty forming new memories/failure to transfer STM to LTM (results from damage to hippocampus Who was H. M.? HM was an epilepsy patient who got his hippocampus removed to control seizures. He displayed severe anterograde amnesia. CHAPTER 9 Cognition: manipulating and transforming information What do cognitive psychologists study? Thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Heuristics: mental shortcuts that simplify decisionmaking What is the availability heuristic and what factors influence availability in memory? (see outline on blackboard and text) The availability heuristic is when we judge the likelihood of an event by how easy it iis to think of examples. Likelihood increases for more recent events, dramatic or unusual events, and wellpublicized events. Confirmation bias: the tendency to seek out evidence that confirms our beliefs and the failure to recognize info that disconfirms our beliefs Belief perseverance: tendency to cling to beliefs even when presented with contradictory evidence Overconfidence: tendency to be overconfident about our knowledge and judgments The DunningKruger effect: tendency for people who lack expertise to overestimate their expertise, and for people who have that expertise to underestimate their knowledge of it (ignorance leads to confidence) What are the basic characteristics of language? Symbols and grammar (the rules for combining symbols in meaningful ways) How does language develop over the first couple of years of life? Around four months, babbling (meaningless syllable repetition) begins. At first, babies will babble in syllables heard in languages across the world but eventually the syllables they don't hear used in speech will drop out of their language. Then comes the one word stage around one year old, and then the twoword stage around two years old. Twoword stage (telegraphic speech): follows grammatical rules of parent language Receptive language: what babies can understand (develops faster than productive language) Productive language: what babies can produce What evidence suggests that we are biologically prepared to learn language? Humans develop language extremely quickly over the first few years of life, and are able to create new phrases and sentences (versus just imitating what they hear). Critical/sensitive period in language development: the ability of young children to learn language exceedingly quickly. Feral children (who have been raised isolated from human culture) have extreme difficulty learning language. Deaf children who go a few years without being exposed to any language also have extreme difficulties. Linguistic relativity hypothesis: language influences thinking, perception, and memory What are the benefits of bilingualism? Cognitive flexibility, creativity, language skills, and attention control Doublespeak: language used to manipulate (ambiguity, euphemisms)
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