Nutrition Quiz 2 Study Guide
Nutrition Quiz 2 Study Guide Nutrition202
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lena Sargenti on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Nutrition202 at Ithaca College taught by Dr. Julia Lapp in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in Physical Education at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Digestion Digestion: breaking down food (protein bonds) into smaller pieces Absorbing: nutrients leaving the lumen Hunger: the physical need to eat, blood glucose, presence of food Appetite: your willingness to eat (emotion), moods, illness/fever, external stimuli, preferences Appetite and hunger regulation: When your stomach is empty the enteric nervous system releases a hormone called Ghrelin in the stomach, which is then received by the brain, which stimulates the hypothalamus and tells your body to eat! You eat something, your stomach stretches, ghrelin stops, fat cells (adipose tissue) absorb energy (macronutrients) and then the hormone Leptin is produced which tells your brain and stomach that you are full. Taste: olfaction (smell) plays a huge roll in taste acuity Kids have more bitter receptors (hence the dislike for most bitter vegetables) Umami sensors: glutamate or MSG Fungiform: pores on tongue to absorb Filiform papillae: more food to back of mouth We like warm foods because it smells good Teeth: we are omnivores because we have molars for grinding but incisors for flesh tearing GI Tract: salvitory glands: salivary amylase lubrication carbohydrates Bolus (food mass superior to pyloric sphincter) → chyme (food in the stomach/inferior to pyloric sphincter) Enzymes in stomach break down! food stretch receptors hormones: gastrin stimulates release of pepsinogen and HCl Pepsin (enzyme) protease Pepsin = inactive H Cl + Pepsin (protease) Motility: movement in the GI tract! Small intestines: duodenum: pancreatic enzymes such as bicarbonate and bile (liver → gallbladder → duodenum). Primary site of digestion Jejunum and Ileum: villi and microvilli, primary site of nutrient absorption! Enteric nervous system: second brain in the stomach Celiac Disease: autoimmune disease, comes from either the environment, genetic predisposition, or leaky small intestine gluten: general name for proteins found in wheat Bile Emulsification: increase surface area = easier to digest fat emulsifiers used in food products (salad dressing) movement = motility Peristalsis: “the involuntary constriction and relaxation of the muscles of the intestine or another canal, creating wavelike movements that push the contents of the canal forward.” Google swallowing disorders: disphagia hydrolysis: catalyze reaction with water HCl denatures the protein Pepsin → protease (enzyme that digests proteins) Remember: Hydrogen and chloride = HcL due to gastrin Gastrin due to food Recap of hormones: ghrelin, leptin, brain pepsin protease insulin helps muscles take up glucose for metabolism Enterogastrones (in gut): hormones in enteric system such as Cholecystokinin (CKK). It is a hormone produced by the duodenum, it tells the bladder and pancreas to send material into duodenum. Other Disorders: GERD: lower esophageal sphincter or cardiac sphincter disorder. Horn players have a high risk of hiatal hernia Ulcers: avoid acidic and spicy foods. Stress, helicobacter pylori Duodenal ulcer: if not enough bicarbonate is present, pH doesn’t change. May be problem with sphincter Diverticula in colon: herniation in colon (holes where food gets stuck) Water and fiber bulk up stool
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