MidTerm 1 Study Guide POSC 200
MidTerm 1 Study Guide POSC 200 POSC200-02
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in Intro to the Study of Politics
Popular in Political Science
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Denise Gomez on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POSC200-02 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Dr. C.M. Shamim in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Intro to the Study of Politics in Political Science at California State University - Fullerton.
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POSC 200 Introduction to the Study of Political Science Midterm Study Guide SPRING 2016 Answers will be in this color Additional information will be in this color Chapters 1 through 4: 1. Definition of Politics p. 3 Process through which power and influence are used in the promotion of certain values and interests. Competing values and interest = Savana Redding’s core theme to politics 2. Description p. 5 Focuses on what questions and based on 1 or more ‘facts’. Straightforward political facts. Questions with no indisputable answers. 3. Explanation p. 6 Specify why something happens and provide the reason or process by which the phenomenon occurs. It is difficult b/c of the complex patterns in cause & effects. 4. Prescription p. 6 Value judgement that indicates what should occur and should be done (resolution). 5. Table 1.1 The Acid Test 1. China and India pp. 79. China (Gamma) vs India (Delta). Measuring country’s wealth per capita/economic growth rate. Acid Test, challenges viewer to decide what aspects political, social, economic, and personal life are significant to the viewer. Mao Zedang Democratic politics w/ multiparties Communist “world’s largest democratic party” Reduce inequalities improved Slowly reduced inequalities literacy and health disparities literacy/health 6. Normative p. 6 Your value judgements with the 3 types of understanding/political knowledge. 7. Sources of Political Knowledge p. 9 1) Authority 2)Personal Thought 3)Science Authority to appeal to any document, tradition, or person believed to possess the controlling explanation regarding a particular issue. [general, specific, everyone] Personal Thought assumes that the individual can use own rationality, intuition, or personal experience to assess a knowledge claim. 8. General Authority p. 10 One that has huge influence on a large proportion of people in a society (constitution, books, religious teachers) ‘Specific’ authority is to author, teacher, or parent ‘everyone’ authority is a belief strongly held by other people Cons: (SA) no guarantee everyone is 100% correct. (everyone) has different cultural background. (GA) might have relied on false data, ambiguous interpretation. 9. Women’s role in politics p.12 Women’s role in politics differentiates based on culture like cultures that follow boundaries of the Koran. Countries like Saudi Arabia & Sudan have followed the Koran to be said that women should be restricted in political roles, in contrast countries like Bangladesh view the Koran as allowing women to be active in politics or the right to participate. 10. Rationality p. 12 Agreement among all; selfevident to reasonable people & needs no further justification (logical) Part of the Personal Thought concept 11. Intuition p. 12 Knowledge based on feeling or based on understanding/empathy than reason. Another part of the Personal Thought concept Last part of Personal Thought concept was ‘Personal Experiences’. Cons: We don’t all deploy the same kind of logic & people have different personal experience that can affect their views. 12. Science p. 13 Uses explicit methods that attempt to enable different people to agree about what they know → answers what, why, & how questions. 13. Empirical p. 14 It is concerned with phenomena that can be observed or at least measured. Part of scientific method. 14. Theory p. 15 Sets of systematically related generalizations that provide explanations and predictions about the linkages between certain concepts (Identify & name important phenomenon) 15. Political Analysis p. 14 The attempt to describe the answer in what questions & explain politics which answers the why & how questions. 16. Political Science p. 14 Includes a set of techniques, concepts, and approaches that want to increase the clarity and accuracy of our understanding about the political world. 17. The Debate in 1: Is Political Science Possible? P. 16 It can be possible because you are theorizing how to resolve a conflict, testing if a law one enforces will settle whatever issues the community is dealing with, and jotting down series of events that concluded whether it solved the problem or did nothing at all. It CANNOT be possible because it cannot be objective or biased, politics defies generalization, researchers find that political science don’t agree on coherent set of concepts, theories, and rules of interpretation, and the ‘scientific’ study of politics can’t address normative politics. 18. Subfields of Political Science p. 17 1) Comparative politicssimilarities and differences in political processes and structures 2) American politicsIssues and approaches, similar to comparative politics 3) International relationspolitical relations among countries, behavior of transnational actors, & dynamics within the worldwide system of states and groups 4) Political theoryideas & debates dealing with significant political questions 19. Focus in 1 Pol Knowledge and Age Groups in USA p. 20 Analysis Pew made in which he discovered that age did not matter (the political knowledge an age group had was no different from the rest) 20. Table 1.2 Pol Knowledge Among Adults in USA p. 21 Chart that divides age groups to see if they knew a few basic political knowledge to which every single one of them had an average result. Speculates there may be flaws in Pew’s research for some raise questions on the participants that took on these political questions. Chapter 2 21. Micropolitics p. 27 Individual’s beliefs and actions. Analytic focus on individual and small group political processes, with a particular emphasis on how the individual understands the political world and how the individual acts politically. Also known as political behavior 22. Macropolitics When the community at large and the leaders of the government as a whole are brought into the discussion and determination of policy. 23. FOCUS in 2 Great Political Theorists p. 29 Thomas Hobbes, believed monarchy should be put to play to reduce disorder Author of Leviathon Adam Smith, believed Britain should abandon American colonies because of cost sustaining imperialism & emphasized the benefits of individual labor. Author of An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations Karl Marx, predicted the future of English capitalism Author of Capital: A Critique of Political Economy 24. Political ideology p. 30 Comprehensive set of beliefs about the political worldabout desirable political goals and the best ways to achieve the goals Offer strategic methods about how to make changed to where we want to be. 25. Conservatism p. 31 Attempts to prevent or delay the transition away from a society based on traditional values and the existing social hierarchy. 26. Classical Liberalism p. 33 Places the highest value on individual freedom and posits that role of government should be quite limited. Existed during feudal Europe in 16 18 century 27. Socialism p. 35 A major Western ideology with a goal is to provide a high quality, relatively equal standard of living for all. Each individual is encouraged to enhance the collective good of all in an environment that encourages cooperation and sharing. Government plays a significant role as it attempts to use allocation of values and control of resources to increase the material, social, and political equality of all citizens. Two major variations are MarxistLeninist socialism and democratic socialism. 28. Table 2.1 A Brief Primer on Political “Isms” p. 39 List of ‘ism’ or system of beliefs that address how societies should function, how political systems should operate. Anarchism, authoritarianism, capitalism, collectivism, communism, conservatism, corporatism, environmentalism, fascism, feminism, Islamism, (Classical) Liberalism, Libertarianism, Marxism, Nationalism, Pacifism, Socialism, Totalitarianism. 29. Islamism p. 39 Guided by a rigid and conservative interpretation of Islam, this “political Islam” encourages active, even violent, opposition against any who undermine its beliefs about the appropriate way of living, both public and private. 30. Marxism p. 39 Set of ideas based on the writings of Karl Marx, who argued that society is composed of competing classes based on economic power, that class struggle and change are inevitable, and that the desired goal is the equal distribution of welfare in the society. 31. Political Beliefs: Cognitive p. 40; Affective p. 41; Evaluative p. 41 1) Cognitive orientations; individual’s knowledge about the political world Involves descriptive knowledge of names of political leaders, policies that support politicians, events in history, features of constitution, or actions of a governmental agency 2) Affective orientations; any feelings or emotions evoked in a person by political phenomena For example feelings a few get when one sees another burning American flag. 3) Evaluative orientation; synthesis of facts and feelings into a judgement about some political phenomenon. Involves around topics a bit controversial such as restricting women the right to abort or abortion. 32. Table 2.2 Beliefs in 6 Countries p. 42 Gives a chart of the public opinion polls from Canada, Japan, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, & United States But consider if it was fairly bias 33. Political Belief System p. 43 The configuration of an individual’s political orientations Questions to ask analytically would be: What is the content of beliefs? What is the salience/importance of the beliefs? What is the level of complexity of the beliefs? Is there a consistency among subsets of beliefs that suggest a series of general principles from which specific beliefs are derived? How stable are the beliefs over time? Do the beliefs motivate the person to undertake any political actions? 34. Political Culture p. 45 The configuration of a particular people’s political orientations (generalized belief system of many). 35. National Character Studies p. 46 Attempts to capture the essence of a people’s political culture (Basically stereotypes) 36. Debate 2 Is there a “Clash of Civilizations”? pp. 4748 Clash of Civilization exists; disagreement of social views (Westerners v Muslims), ethnic/religious identities cause violent conflicts, the fear of being heavily influenced by another culture, & revolutions occurring here and there. Clash of Civilization DOES NOT exist; there is much variation within each civilization as there is among civilizations, compelling empirical evidence of deep divisions with Western countries (women’s rights, homosexual marriage), globalization blurs differences, & military stance each can improve to reduce clashes. 37. Survey Research Analyses p. 48 Survey research analyses than aggregate these empirical data, searching for patterns or configurations that profile the political culture of the sample. 38. The Civic Culture p. 48 An example of survey research analyses; written by Gabriel Almond & Sidney Verba (1963). In their study they did lengthy interviews about political views from Italy, Mexico, United States, West Germany, and United Kingdom. 39. Compare in 2: Value Differences Across Countries pp. 4951. Chart that compares each countries values from survival to selfexpression. English speaking countries: U S, Canada, Ireland, Britain, New Zealand, Australia; & Protestant Europe are towards selfexpression values. Islamic, Orthodox, Confucian, are towards survival values. Catholic Europe, South Asia, Africa, and Latin America seem to be the middle. Chapter 3 40. Aung San Suu Kyi p. 55 An activist spreading ideals of human rights & democratic freedom in Myanmar or Burma. She addressed her first speech in 1988 and was marked a national security threat. 41. Figure 3.1 Individual Political Action p. 58 Very High | Leadership Revolutionary | Foot Soldier | SingleIssue Activism Extent of Activism | Political Engagement Extremist Activist | Voting | OneTime Extremist Low | Apathy ______________________________________________ None Conventional Unconventional Conventionality of Action 42. Political Activists and Political Leaders p. 59 & 61. Political activists; sometimes risk their freedom and life in the pursuit of a political objective. Political Leaders; succeed in capturing supreme political power within a government and using it with extraordinary energy and effect (good/bad). 43. Revolutionary p. 60 Person who attempts to overthrow the existing political order and to replace it with a very different one, using political violence if necessary. 44. Table 3.1 Voting Participation in Selected Countries p. 62 List from high to low percentages of voting outcomes affected by the countries despite some countries making voting a mandatory requirement. Vietnam is the highest, Nigeria is the lowest. 45. Table 3.2 Recent Political Actions in 10 countries p. 63 Groups that were asked about their participation in politics, discuss politics openly, convince friends to join, & how active they are in politics. Brazil, Canada, Chile, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, United States. South Africa; lowest discussion, convincing friends, contacting political leaders, donate, boycotts but have high attendance in meeting in rally and taken part of demonstration. 46. Group Political Actions p. 65 Groups; an aggregation of individuals who interact in order to pursue a common interest. They come together to perform an action based on their beliefs. 47. Political Interest Groups p. 67 Common interest the group pursues is a political objective. All political groups share the common objective of attempting to influence the allocation of public values. These groups can employ a variety of strategies: Political action Provision of material resources Exchange information Cooperation 48. Types of Interest Groups p. 72 1) Association Interest Groups; organized specifically to further the political objectives of its members British Medical Association (BMA) provides information to government agencies, contribute political parties, and guides to doctor’s willingness to cooperate with government policies. Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) volunteer organization with goals to stop drunk driving and underage drinking. 2) Institutional Interest Groups; formed to achieve goals besides affecting the political system. They also pursue political objectives University of California is a large institution of higher education. 3) Nonassociational Interest Groups; fluid aggregates of individuals who are not explicitly associated with a permanent organizational entity but who share some common interest regarding certain issues and become politically active on an issue. Social movement; when its activities on an issue of social change becomes more sustained, its supporters increase in number and loyalty, and its form becomes more of an organized campaign spread over a broader geographic area. Women’s Rights Movement 4) Anomic Interest Groups; shortlived, spontaneous aggregations of people who share a political concern. Ideal type; a set of distinctive forms of phenomenon defined in order to reveal the different ways in which key characteristics can be combined. A riot 49. Political Parties p. 74 Groups that tend to capture political power directly by placing its members in government office. Activities they engage: 1. Broker policy ideas 2. Engage in political socialization 3. Link individuals and the political systems 4. Mobilize and recruit activist 5. Coordinate government activities 6. Organize opposition to the governing group 50. Ideological parties p. 74 Hold major programmatic goals (Islamic fundamentalism) and are deeply committed to the full implementation of these goals. Usually extreme within the context of their particular political culture. The German Green Party In contrast, Pragmatic parties; hold flexible goals and are oriented towards moderate or incremental policy change 51. FOCUS IN 3 Let’s Party! Green Party in Germany P. 75 Known in Europe as representation of selfexpression and postmaterialist values. It remains as an ideological party. It was formed by a group of individuals in West Germany who sought the inequalities in gender, Germany’s unnecessary support to the U.S. actions in Vietnam, and such. Chapter 4 52. The Environment p. 84 (Political Environment p. 85) The Environment; the broad context in which an individual lives can powerfully influence her political behavior. It include everything outside the individual. Political Environment; an element of the environment might activate, repress, transform, or amplify a person’s political behavior. Effects on information about politics (limitation of political information to the public) Effects on individuals’ political party involvement (limitation of spots for citizens to become politically active) 53. Agents of Political Socialization: The Family, Schools, Peer Groups, Media, Religion, Culture, Events pp. 8696. Political Socialization; the processes through which individuals acquire their beliefs and values about the political world. The family: political orientations of most individuals are deeply influenced by the behaviors and beliefs they experience in the family environment. Schools: Offer the opportunity for sustained and highly controlled contact with youth at the extremely impressible age when many political beliefs can still be molded. Peer Groups/Social Networks: Influenced by a friend or a colleague, emerge from social media. The Media: Involves agenda setting (media focuses on what they consider to be significant) from television to radios, political news spread. Religion: Influenced by religious beliefs that individuals should act to correct the failures of secular society and should promote religious views on issues on which the government has enacted unacceptable public policies (abortion, school curriculum…) & policy choices about economic development. Culture: Can be controlled by the dominant political order in a society and can be used to reinforce the state’s view of the political world. Events: A specific event can act as a sudden and powerful agent of political socialization. 54. FOCUS IN 4 Political Socialization in China p. 88 China heavily impacted by Confucian culture in which case an individual action must be based on what is best for the group and for society as a whole. Mao Zedong was the first to put this ideal in China. The closest party that followed the Confucian influence was The Communist 55. The DEBATE IN 4 Do the New ICTs p. 93 Have significantly shaped political beliefs and political actions: Younger generations follow the media, teacher & parents influence their children, and technologies such as the internet as a source of selfawareness. Have NOT significantly shaped political beliefs and political actions: Seek online resources that may had misleading information, powerful political groups abuse their use of power, many civilians don’t express or show interest of political knowledge as they should, & those researching certain political topics only narrow their searches. 56. Demographic Characteristics p. 96 Includes physical characteristics (gender, ethnicity, age) and less visible (education, income, social class) and occupation. Also known as personal characteristics 57. TABLE 4.1 Voting Choices in the 2012 US Presidential Election p. 97 A statistical chart that shows the voter’s group ages, ethnicity, religion, income, education and the outcome of which group voted for Obama or Romney during the 2012 election. According to the chart, Romney’s voters were all mostly Caucasian, Protestant, college graduate, over 65 of age, and had higher income Obama’s voters consisted of minorities, other religion, all other age groups as well as education, and of lower or middle income. 58. COMPARE IN 4 You Go Your Way, I’ll Go Mine pp. 99100 Two men who were raised the same way, became extreme activists but did so in different manner. Osama Bin Laden did so violently while Gandhi di so peacefully. 59. Political Psychology p. 101 Study of the deeper psychological dynamics within the individual that affect that person’s response to political stimuli. Uses theories and tools that have been developed in psychology to explain political behavior. Brief approaches: Rational Choice Cognitive and affective psychology; suggest that the brain often makes decisions more rapidly than deliberative rational thought can manage. People try to use shortcuts based on their cognitive and affective orientations to make decisions with very little information Intergroup relations; offer an explanation of group dynamics & collective behavior. It can also can explain how groups end up in turmoil or conflicts. Personality and psychodynamics Biopolitics 60. Rational Choice p. 102 An explanation of individual or group political actions on the claim that people have relatively stable preferences and that they will try to think through how to achieve outcomes consistent with those preferences. 61. Personality and Psychodynamics. P. 103 Explore aspects of the formation and effects of personality. Sometimes emphasizes important needs, motives, and experiences embedded in a person’s psyche to explain political thought and actions. 62. Biopolitics P. 103 Focuses on biological processes to explain decision making, information processing, and preference formation that have implications for political behavior. It builds on human nature and how human behavior has evolved over time within its social and environmental contexts. Good Luck on the midterm & hopefully this helped!!
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