ALL CLASS NOTES 1/13/16 - 2/10/16
ALL CLASS NOTES 1/13/16 - 2/10/16 PSYC1000
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Annalise Ellis on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC1000 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Fabian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
CLASS NOTES 1/13/16-2/10/16 CHAPTER ONE: The Birth of Modern Psychology 1. Evolved from philosophy 2. Wilhelm Wundt a. First person to think of psych as a science b. Conducted experiments and recorded observations 2 Structuralism a. User introspection to explore structural elements of the mind 2 Functionalism a. William James b. What are the functions of human thoughts, behaviors, and feelings? How do they contribute to our ancestors' survival? c. Influenced by Darwin 2 Behaviorists a. Dismissed introspection bc its not scientific b. Studied things that could be controlled and observed c. Believed people are controlled by their environment 2 Sigmund Freud a. Founder of psychoanalysis b. Originally a doctor -> had patients with medical issues and couldn't find physical reasons to cause those issues -> led him to believe that something was wrong in their unconscious minds c. Can't study scientifically; not based on facts 2 Humanism a. Third force in psych b. All people are inherently good c. Negative behaviors due to living in bad environments d. Studied people who were happy and successful 2 Cognitive psych a. How we perceive, process, remember information 2 Cognitive neuroscience a. Brain activity underlying mental activity 2 Today's psych definition a. Science of behavior and mental processes 2 Nature vs. nurture a. What's more influential - genes or the environment you were raised in? 2 Evolutionary psych a. We're all homosapiens, share a common origin, which gives us similarities 2 Behavior genetics a. We have differences that are shaped by our environment 2 Cross-cultural psych a. Study of different cultures 2 Gender psych 3 Positive psych a. What makes people happy and successful 2 Biopsychosocial approach a. Biology (deep level) i. Genes, brain, neurotransmitters, survival, reflexes, sensation b Environment (outer level) i. Social influences, culture, education, relationships b Psychology (middle level) i. Thoughts, emotions, moods, choices, behaviors, traits, motivations, knowledge, perceptions 2 Clinical psychologist (PhD.) a Studies, assesses, treats troubled people with psychotherapy 2 Psychiatrists (MD) a Medical professionals who use treatments like drugs and psychotherapy to treat psychologically diseased patients 2 Chapter One a Critical thinking errors i. Hindsight bias: after learning the results you believe that you could've predicted that outcome ii. Overconfidence error: people are much more certain than they are accurate (can be problematic with eyewitness testimony, tests, etc.) iii. Perceiving order when there is no order b Scientific Theory i. Theory ii. Hypothesis iii. Operational definitions (how are research variables defined?) iv. Replication b Descriptive research: a systematic, objective observation of people with a goal to provide clear, accurate picture of behaviors, thoughts, attributes i. Case study 1. Examine one or a few individuals in depth 2. Usually individuals have had something unusal happen to them 3. Danger: can be unrepresentative ii Naturalistic observation 1. Watching without trying to change anything 2. Doesn't speculate why - only what happened ii Survey 1. Gathering info through self-report 2. Allows for more subjects with less depth 3. Representative: random sampling 2 Correlation: when two traits or attributes are related to each other; does not mean causation a Positive correlation: two variables vary together in the same direction b Negative correlation: two variables vary together in the opposite direction c Correlation numbers i Close to 0 = weak relationship ii Close to 1 = strong relationship 2 Causation: found through experimentation a Experimentation: manipulating one factor to determine its effect i Experiment group: receives treatment ii Control group: doesn't receive treatment b Random sampling c Random assignment: which go into the control and experimental groups d Placebo effect e Mean, mode, median: which is the most accurate in describing a particular set of data? f Standard deviation: avg. distance of scores from the mean 2 Normal curve: most people are average and fall within 75% 3 Drawing conclusions from data a Is the difference reliable? b Statistically significant when data is reliable and when difference between control and experimental group is large CHAPTER TWO: BIOPSYCHOLOGY (BIOLOGY OF THE MIND) 1 Phrenology a Study of bumps on the skull and their relationship to mental abilities and character traits b Developed by Franz Gall c Used in early 1800's d Created the idea that different areas of the brain might have different functions -> localization of function! 2 Neurons: nerve cells a Cell body: cell's life support center b Dendrites: receive messages from other cells c Axon: passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, glands d Terminal branches of axon: connect with other neurons e Myelin Sheath: covers axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses f Neural impulse: electrical signal traveling down the axon; action potential g Gland cells: support, nourish, protect neurons and assist neural transmission 2 Action potential: a neural impulse that travels down an axon like a wave a Messages taken in through dendrites i Some are excitatory signals and say to fire ii Some are inhibitory sgnals and say not to fire b Threshold reached when excitatory signals outweigh inhibitory signals by a certain amount c When threshold reached, AP starts moving i Travels down axon from ccell body to terminal branches ii Signal transmitted to another cell; messages must find a way across synapses (junctions between axon tips of sending neuron and dendrite/cell body of receiving neuron) iii Uses neurotransmitters to send signals across synaptic gap iv Neurotransmitters received by dendrites into receptor sites specific to that chemical v Reuptake: leftover chemicals that aren't received by the dendrites are taken back up into the sending neuron to be used again 2 Serotonin a Mood, hunger, sleep, arousal b Undersupply linked to depression; some antidepressant drugs raise serotonin levels 2 Dopamine a Influences movement, learning, attention, emotion b Oversupply linked to schizophrenia c Undersupply linked to tremors, decreased mobility in Parkinson's disease, ADHD 2 Neurotransmitter molecules are shaped to fit exactly with their receptor sites 3 Agonist molecule a Molecule that fills the receptor site and activates it, acting like the neurotransmitter that's supposed to be there b Ex. Morphine, heroin mimic action of endorphins 2 Central nervous system: brain and spinal cord 3 Peripheral nervous system: rest of nervous system 4 Types of neurons: a Sensory neurons: carry messages IN from the body's tissues and sensory receptors to the CNS for processing b Motor neurons: carry instructions OUT from CNS to body's tissues c Interneurons: in brain and spinal cord, process info between sensory and motor neurons 2 Nerves consist of neural "cables" containing many axons bundled together 3 Nerves are a part of the PNS and connect muscles, glands, sense organs to CNS 4 Autonomic: involuntary (breathing, heart beating) a Sympathetic: arouses i Fight or flight ii Dilates pupils, accelerates heartbeat, inhibits digestion, stimulates glucose release by liver, stimulates secretion of epinephrine by adrenal gland in kidney, relaxes bladder b Parasympathetic: calms i Rest, digest 2 Somatic: voluntary (walking) 3 Normal curve: most people are average and fall within 75% 4 Drawing conclusions from data a Is the difference reliable? b Statistically significant when data is reliable and when difference between control and experimental group is large 2 "Neurons that fire together, wire together" 3 Interneurons in the spine a Sometimes have a "mind of their own" b Reflex action 2 Endocrine system (uses hormones) a Hypothalamus: brain region controlling pituitary gland b Thyroid gland: metabolism c Adrenal gland: inner part helps trigger fight/flight response by producing epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol d Testes/ovaries e Pituitary gland i "Master gland" ii Secretes hormones that regulate/affect other glands iii Controlled by hypothalamus iv Growth hormone, oxytocin (bonding, social hormone) b Parathyroid: calcium levels in blood c Pancreas: blood sugar levels 2 Sympathetic nervous system responds to stress by sending message to adrenal glands to release hormones a Children raised in stressful environments grow up with issues dealing with stress 2 Parts of brain and functions a Brainstem and cerebellum: coordinates body i Medulla 1. Base of brainstem 2. Heartbeat and breathing ii Pons 1. Top of brainstem 2. Unconscious movements ii Thalamus: receives sensory info and sends to higher brain regions iii Reticular formation 1. Above pons 2. Alertness ii Cerebellum 1. Back of brain 2. Helps coordinate voluntary movement 3. Involved in nonverbal memory (ex. Riding a bike) b Limbic (border) system: manages emotions and connects thought to the body i Hippocampus 1. Processes verbal memories and sends them to cortex for storage 2. Works with amygdala to form emotionally charged memories ii Amygdala 1. Processes intense emotions: rage and fear ii Hypothalamus 1. Located below thalamus 2. Regulates body temp, ensures adequate food/water intake, involved in sex drive 3. Directs endocrine system via messages to pituitary gland ii Cortex 1. Outer covering 2. Integrates information 2 Cerebral cortex a Lobes consist of outer grey "bark" structure that's wrinkled to create surface area b 300 trillion synaptic connections c Frontal lobes i Behind forehead ii Involved in speaking, muscle movements, making plans and judgments, self control, executive functioning iii Involved in most sophisticated thinking process b Parietal lobes i Include sensory cortex b Occipital lobes i Include visual areas ii Receive visual info from opposite visual field b Temporal lobes i Auditory processing area b Motor cortex: left hemisphere controls body's right side (motor output and sensory input) c More sensitivity takes up more space in brain 2 Complex activities require communication among association areas across brain a Memory b Language c Attention d Meditation, spirituality e Consciousness 2 Plasticity: brain usually repairs damaged neurons (regrowth) but it can restore some functions and reassign the function to a different area of the brain a Can form new connections, reassign existing networks b The younger you are, the more plastic your brain c "Constraint-induced therapy": get the 'bad' side working again by restraining the good side 2 Split-brain studies a To end severe whole-brain seizures, some people have had surgery to cut corpus callosum (a band of axons connecting the hemispheres) b Both hemispheres worked well independently; couldn't work together c Left hemisphere i Responsible for speech and things you see with your right eye ii Only left hemisphere has verbal ability to express words out loud iii Thoughts, logic, detail, calculation, pieces, details b Right hemisphere i Responsible for things you see with your left eye ii Feelings, intuition, big picture, language: tone, inflection, context, perception, wholes including the self CHAPTER THREE: CONSCIOUSNESS 1 Consciousness: awareness of our environment and ourselves 2 Even when you're asleep you have some form of consciousness 3 Conscious "high" track: a Our minds take deliberate actions; we know what we're doing b Ex. Reading, studying, problem solving 2 Conscious "low" track: a Our minds perform automatic actions often without being aware of them b Ex. Walking, acquiring phobias, processing details into perceptions/memories 2 Automatic processing a Ex. I saw a bird - unconsciously we see shape, depth, color, movement, etc 2 In a study, students showed brain activity related to pushing a button before they were aware of their decision to push the button 3 Two tracks makes it possible to not think about everything we do 4 Consequences of dual track mind a Selective attention: ability to choose what to focus on i Cocktail party effect: we pay attention to our conversation while others are all around ii Driving a car: we can hyper-focus on a conversation while driving a car, putting the driver and passengers at risk b Selective inattention: what we don't focus on we don't notice i Change blindness ii Inattentional blindness (video with gorilla) iii Choice blindness 2 Sleep and biological rhythms a Circadian rhythm: body's natural 24 hour cycle i Body temp, arousal/energy, mental sharpness change and fluctuate b Sleep stages i 90 min ii Falling asleep 1. Alpha waves are the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed awake stage 2. Breathing slows 3. Brain waves become slower and irregular 4. Hypnagogic: hallucinations (falling) ii REM: dreams occur iii Sleep paralysis: brainstem blocks motor cortex's messages and muscles don't move (aka paradoxical sleep) iv Stage 1: non-REM 1 v Stage 2 vi Stage 3 vii Stage 4: REM 2 Why do we sleep? a Amount affected by biology, age, culture, individual variation i Newborns typically need 16 hrs; adults need 8 hrs ii Individual (genetic) variation 2 Why do we need sleep a Ancestors protected from predators b Restores and repairs brain and body c Builds and strengthens memories d Facilitates creative problem solving e Growth hormones are active 2 Effects of sleep deprivation a Lose brainpower (IQ decrease) b Gain weight c Illness d Irritability e Age / feeling old f Brain: diminished attention, focus, memory consolidation, increased risk of depression g Immune system: suppression of immune cell production, increased risk of viral infections such as colds h Fat cells: increased production and greater risk of obesity 2 How to sleep well a Turn off lights, screens off b Eat earlier, drink less alcohol/caffeine c Get up at same time every day d Exercise (late afternoon) e Don’t check the clock; just let it happen f Counseling for anxiety and depression 2 Psychoactive drugs a Chemicals introduced into the body that alter perceptions, moods, other elements of conscious experience b Dependence/addiction i Factors related: tolerance, withdrawal, physical and psychological dependence ii Tolerance: diminished effect after repeated use; feeds addiction iii Withdrawal: painful symptoms of the body readjusting to the absence of the drug b Depressants: reduce neural activity, slow body functions i Alcohol (disinhibitor) ii Barbiturates 1. Reduce anxiety, induce sleep 2. Reduces memory, judgment, concentration ii Opiates (morphine, etc.) 1. Depresses nervous system activity; reduces anxiety and pain 2. High doses produce euphoria 3. Work receptor sites for body's natural pain reducers (endorphins) b Stimulants: dilate puples, increase breathing and heart rate, increase blood sugar, decrease appetite i Caffeine ii Nicotine 1. Reduces circulation to extremities 2. Increases heart rate and blood pressure 3. Relaxes muscles and triggers release of neurotransmitters that may reduce stress 4. Withdrawal symptoms: insomnia, anxiety, distractability, irritability ii Cocaine 1. Blocks reuptake of dopamine (reward), serotonin (mood), norepinephrine (energy) ii Methamphetamine 1. Sustained release of dopamine 2. Sometimes 8 hours of euphoria and energy ii Ecstasy 1. Synthetic stimulant increases dopamine and serotonin 2. Euphoria, CNS stimulation, hallucinations, artificial feeling of social connectedness and intimacy 3. Dangers: dehydration, overheating, serotonin-producing neuron damage causing permanently depressed mood, impaired memory, slowed thinking b Hallucinogens i LSD 1. Serotonin transmission 2. Hallucinations ii Marijuana/THC 1. Binds with cannabinoid receptors 2 What can lead to drug use? a Biological influences i Genetic predispositions ii Variations in neurotransmitter systems iii Thrill seeking in childhood iv Easily disrupted dopamine reward system b Psychological influences i Seeking gratification ii Depression iii Problems forming identity iv Problems assessing risks and costs v Coping skills b Social-cultural influences i Media glorification ii Observing peers 2 Controversies leading to addiction a Inherently addictive and should be avoided at all costs? Only 10-16% of people who try drugs get addicted b Does recovery require therapy or a 12-step group? Recovery rates don't differ much from people quitting on their own c Is addiction concept applicable to repeated behaviors that don't involve digesting chemicals? (ex. Gambling, etc.) CHAPTER FOUR 1 Behavior genetics: how heredity and environment contribute to human differences 2 Genes a Parts of DNA molecules b Found in chromosomes in nuclei of cells (humans have 46 chromosomes/23 pairs) c Aren't blueprints: they're molecules that direct the assembly of proteins that build the body d Can be activated/deactivated by environment and other genes 2 Experiments in behavior genetics a Traits in siblings vs. identital twins b Twins in adulthood: identical twins are more alike than fraternal twins in: i Personality traits ii Behaviors/outcomes iii Abilities: IQ, test scores iv Attitudes, interests, tastes v Specific fears vi Brain waves, heart waves b Identical twins separated at birth still very similar c Biological vs. adoptive relatives i Adopted children seem to be more similar to their genetic relatives than engironmental/nurture relatives b Parenting influence: religious beliefs, politics, values, manners, attitudes, habits c Siblings only share half their genes d Genetic differences become amplified as people react to them differently e Siblings raised in slightly different families; youngest has more older siblings and has older parents f Temperament: a persons general level and style of emotional reactivity i Three types appear in infancy: easy, difficult, slow to warm up ii Doesn't usually change from infancy to childhood 2 Heritability: amount of variation in population that's explained by genetic factors 3 Interaction of genes and environment a Some traits sent by genes b Other traits (physical/mental abilities) develop in response to experience 2 Molecular genetics: structure and function of genes 3 Molecular behavior genetics: how do structure and function of genes interact with our encironment to influence behavior? 4 Self-regulation a Genes can turn each other on/off in response to environmental conditions b Ex. Shortened daylight triggers animals to hibernate 2 Epigenetics a Environment acts on surface of genes to alter activity without DNA change b Epigenetic molecules attach to surface of genes and cause them to function differently c Ex. Obesity in adults can turn off weight regulation genes in offspring 2 Trait of being adaptable is built into human genome 3 Evolutionary psych a Phobias: easier to acquire phobias of heights, darkness, spiders, snakes because our ancestors were afraid of them 2 Gender a Men think about sex more and are more likely than women to think that casual sex in acceptable b Men with promiscuity trait more likely to have genes continue into next generation c Promiscuity trait in women wouldn't greatly increase number of babies and would have greater survival costs d Criticisms: in gender equal cultures, men and women are much more alike 2 Experience and brain development experiment a Mice placed in two different environments b First environment (impoverished) didn’t have wheels or other mice to interact with c Second environment contained many mice and wheels, ladders, etc. d Mice raised in an impoverished environment had less brain synapses than the mice that grew up in a stimulating environmetn 2 Growth and pruning a Experiences activate and strengthen neural connections b Unused connections are "pruned" away: "use it or lose it" 2 Parenting and development a Power of parenting is clearest at extremes: severe neglect/abuse b Average parents should ease off on both the blame and the credit they assume for how their kids turn out 2 Influence from parents vs. peers a Parents i Cooperation, self-discipline, responsibility, charitableness, religion, values b Peers i Cooperation skills, path to popularity, music/recreation choices, clothing/cultural choices, good/bad habits 2 Culture a Patterns of ideas, attitudes, values, lifestyle habits, traditions shared by a group of people and passed on to future generations b Variation over time: i Languages change in vocab and pronounciation ii Pace of life quickens iii Gender equality increases iv Sleep less v Socialize in person less vi Stare at screens more vii People marry more for love viii Expect more romance ix More divorce x More depression b Cultural changes occur too fast to be rooted in genetic change c Individualist cultures: value independence i Promote personal ideals, strengths, goals, pursued in competition with others, leading to individual achievement and finding a unique identity ii Raise children to be self-reliant and independent b Collectivist cultures: value interdependence i Promote group and societal goals and duties, blending in with group identity, achievement attributed to mutual support ii People in Asian and African cultures might raise children to be more emotionally and physically close to others than in Western European cultures b Although there are cultural differences, the differences within any group are usually greater than differences between groups 2 Gender development a Gender: physical, social, behavioral characteristics that are culturally associated with male and female roles in society b Biological differences i Females enter puberty earlier, live longer, have more fat and less muscle b Metnal and behavioral differences i Women more likely to have depression, anxiety, eating disorders ii Men more likely to have autism, ADHD, antisocial personality disorder, physical aggression b Child play i Boys focus on activity, larger groups, more competitive than intimite discussion ii Girls focus on connection, conversation, smaller groups, more social, tend to give more feedback b Communication i Men: talk assertively, state opinions/solutions, speak about things/actions ii Women: seek input, explore relationships, speak about people/feelings iii Both men and women turn to women when they want someone to talk to or share worries/hurts iv When coping with their own stress, women turn to others for support b Social learning theory i Gender role behavior learned through observation, imitation, rewards, punishments b Gender schema i Cognitive frameworks for organizing boy-girl characteristics ii Young children internally motivated to categorize everything, including people, and more motivated to conform
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