notes/study guide for midterm
notes/study guide for midterm 485
Popular in Professional Ethics in forensic science
Popular in Education and Teacher Studies
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 35 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dejia Braxton on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 485 at West Virginia University taught by Robin Bowen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Professional Ethics in forensic science in Education and Teacher Studies at West Virginia University.
Reviews for notes/study guide for midterm
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/25/16
What is Ethics? (ch.1) 01/17/2016 ▯ What is ethics? A guided philosophy Principles that govern an individual/group Discipline dealing with what’s good and bad ▯ - “arbitrary rules that define appropriate behavior in personal/professional life” specific to various groups standards for behaviors ▯ Morals- personal guidelines, values ▯ Ethics- broader guidelines for groups Accounts for individual morals Legitimate expectations of one another Guidance on how to live Protect individuals rights/morals ▯ Model of morality ▯ - psychological process consistent with behaving morally ▯ - applies to standards and codes of conduct ▯ 1. moral sensitivity; should address any issues ▯ 2. moral reasoning; legitimate expectations ▯ 3. moral commitment; actions have consequences ▯ 4. moral perseverance; obligations/duties of protagonist ▯ Framework for decisions ▯ - inherent good > non-inherent good ▯ - non-inherent evil > inherent evil select highest good, lowest evil ▯ Moral career ▯ - how a person changes in terms of morality/ethical behavior ▯ - no universally accepted morals ▯ - can be broken down in stages ▯ 1. Contingences – social pressures ▯ 2. Moral experiences – which values to follow ▯ 3. Apologia - resolving feelings between what happened and what should’ve happened ▯ Morality ▯ - based on triad of life: faith health justice o peace and order o liberty and security o fulfillment and happiness ▯ Guide to moral life ▯ - treat everyone decently ▯ - Golden rule ▯ Norms – not all standards of conduct are considered “ethics” ▯ Law – actions are illegal but not unethical ▯ Types of ethics ▯ - applied: “most concerned with”, moral theory in a particular context, study of ethical dilemmas, choices, standards ▯ - normative: behaviors that are morally right/wrong ▯ - ▯ Context of ethics ▯ - personal: objective testing/questioning ▯ - social: based on conditions/environments ▯ - field specifics: “most concerned with” Criminal Justice – creating/upholding law Forensic science – objective testing ▯ - combines personal/social context; balance ▯ We learn morals from the time we’re kids ▯ - culture, religion, family, nationality ▯ - informal education; may have downfalls ▯ Formal education needed ▯ - most classes are “general” and more philosophical ▯ - nature of the field should be addressed ▯ - not intended to teach right from wrong ▯ - include discussions/scenarios ▯ Steps to study ethics ▯ 1. awareness of issues appearance vs. reality ▯ 2. critical thinking skills encourage openness prevent “bad” solutions good intentions ▯ 3. become personally involved use our ability to respond to situations see the “big picture” ▯ 4. recognize how the system works abusing authority force others to do something checks and balances system ▯ Discussing ethics ▯ - inform people ▯ - negotiate the outcome ▯ - gain further perspective ▯ - use neutral, descriptive terms ▯ - be specific and clarify ▯ Merriam-Webster ▯ - the study of ideas about knowledge, truth, the nature and meaning of life ▯ - a particular set of ideas about knowledge, truth, the nature, and meaning of life ▯ - a set of ideas about how to do something or how to live ▯ Egyptians: ▯ - boys in the ruling class ▯ - 3000 years before Christian era ▯ - advice on how to live happily, avoid unnecessary trouble, and advance one’s career ▯ - lists of precepts: threat their people justly and judge impartially aim to make their people prosperous share with those who don’t have, or who have less treat humble and lowly people with kindness not laugh at the disabled ▯ Religion ▯ - ethical question came before religion ▯ - foundation of similarity: attitudes toward work desires for success respect for authority compassion for others ▯ - some ethical theories are taught in the Bible ▯ Ethics in the Bible: ▯ - ruler must be just ▯ - path to justice is the shining light ▯ - through knowledge, justice shall be delivered ▯ - is its joy to do justice ▯ - the just shall be protected form evil ▯ - the just shall increase in faith ▯ - all things should be done with charity ▯ Torah ▯ - Hebrew “teaching” ▯ - everything created in the world is for the purpose of carrying out the Torah ▯ - foundations of Jewish belief system stems from knowledge that the Lord is GOD Who created the world ▯ Islamic ▯ - basis: every human being is called to command the good and forbid the evil in all spheres of life ▯ - moral responsibility to submit to God’s will and to follow Islam as stated in the Qur’an ▯ Buddhist’s Ethics: ▯ - broader than religion: way of life : philosophy ▯ - philosophy means “love of wisdom” lead a moral life be mindful and aware of thoughts and actions develop wisdom and understanding ▯ - foundation = Pancasila no killing, stealing, lying, sexual misconduct, or use of intoxicants ▯ - principles look at whether actions are likely to be harmful ▯ - skillful mind avoids harm and suffering remorse, anguish, and guilt cultivate calm and peace ▯ Greeks: - birthplace of Western philosophical ethics ▯ - code of moral correctness ▯ - “VERITAS” (the truth) was the focal point ▯ - Socrates>Plato>Aristotle ▯ -- Socrates: most info about him, his life, his teaching were passed down form his disciples dramatic accounts, not historical works Plato – most reliable source, though his accounts changed over time Self-awareness to identify moral characteristics Search for wisdom about right conduct Dialectic o Method of examining statements by pursuing their implications o Soul is a combo of waking consciousness and moral character Holding knowledge and virtue to be identical, so no man knowingly does wrong Evil could only be committed in error, when a person values the wrong things Long term effects of actions are more important than short term gain Importance of morality = internal well being of the individual, not society First to recognize need to define ethical concepts and attempt to establish a universal standard 2 interrelated functions o establishment of the purpose of the phenomenon that is being examined o demonstration of the goodness of the phenomenon by fulfilling what is it? What good is it? How do we know? Devised by Aristotle Still used in most American law schools ▯ -- Plato: Student of Socrates Mathematician, writer of philosophical dialogues, founder of Academy of Athens- first higher ed. institution Just exists in the individual when 3 elements of the soul act in harmony o Intellect o Emotion o Desire Republic o Most famous dialogue o “is it always better to be just than unjust?” o meaning of justice and impact on happiness o how to live a good life People ought to be a reflection of the ethics of their government 4 cardinal virtues of human nature o temperance o wisdom o courage o justice o the first 3 should conclude in justice divided people based on intelligence, strength, and courage o producers o auxiliaries o guardians o all three classes must exhibit moderation Producers o Not overly intelligent, strong, or brave o Professions include farming, building o Overwhelming majority or people o Corresponds to the desiring part of the soul Auxiliaries o Average intelligence, strength, and courage o Professions include military and policing o Courage defines this group o Corresponds to the spirited part of the soul Guardians o Extraordinarily intelligent, virtuous, and brave o Best suited to run the state, aristocracy o Very small rare group o Wisdom is displayed in their lives and government o Corresponds to the rational part of the soul ▯ - Goodness is measured by his ideal ▯ -- Aristotle: student of Plato and rival of influence on Western philosophy agreed that a life of virtue was rewarding and beneficial disagreed that in order to be good, a person must have knowledge of the principles of goodness all living things have inherent potential and its their nature to develop that ultimate goal of humans should be to develop their reasoning powers human nature would show what one ought to do in a given situation need to exercise the knowledge of good each item, practice, or individual has a distinct ultimate goodness generally, man knows what he ought to do in an ethical dilemma desires and judgments in harmony to result in happiness morally weak and strong is based on behaviors not desires more realistic than Plato character centered ethics practical application- happiness is achieved through right actions ▯ ▯ ▯ - Socrates universal standard individual focus, not society outcome based no man knowingly does wrong ▯ - Plato political order determines moral problem solving ▯ - Aristotle human nature is good, but people need to act on it morality is based on behaviors not desires practical application Natural Law - principles of human nature - sets the standard for conduct and laws - considered an ideal - “unwritten law” that is the same for everyone - peoples “good” - downside: humans have free will and do not always obey the law - not made by human beings - based on the structure of reality - same for everyone at all times - unchanging rule or pattern that is available for humans to discover - a means by which human being can guide themselves to their good - Thomas Aquinas (Christian philosopher) o Eternal law of God o Humans use the power of reason o Application to a particular social situation o Fundamentals of natural law (to follow) ▯ - given by God ▯ - naturally authoritative over human ▯ - knowledgable to all ▯ - right action is action that responds to the good ▯ - variety of ways action can be defective ▯ - can creat general rules but also allow for interpretation - morally binding IF: o reasonable o made by a person w/an appropriate authority o directed towards common good o disseminated o just ▯ -- John Locke (English philosopher): people are free and equal, yet insecure in freedom to fit into society, surrender only right that are necessary for security and common good difference between knowledge and belief o knowledge: direct awareness of facts o belief: taking some position to be true ▯ -- St. Augustine: doctrine learn from others, but only God can teach us to be ethical people are unethical without divine assistance people who don’t believe in a supreme being cant be ethical ▯ -- Karl Marx: morality as a social construct o dependent upon environment o one’s sense of goodness, justice or liberty is relative impacted by social status ▯ ▯ Stoicism: ▯ - ethics of freedom from passion moral fortitude tranquility ▯ - philosophy of tranquility & indifference to pain ▯ - Fear and envy + false judgments ▯ - False judgments = no moral and intellectual perfection ▯ - “ master of my own fate” ▯ - When a person is on the right path, they are good ▯ - When a person is on the wrong path, they are bad ▯ - Bad luck is your fault ▯ - Life based on research ▯ Hedonism: ▯ - Ethical systems that advocate feelings of happiness are the goal of conduct Increasing pain = wrong Increasing good = right ▯ - Ethics of the pursuit of pleasure ▯ Virtue School: ▯ - ethics of knowledge and moral character ▯ - reflected in teachings of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle ▯ - behavior is based on knowledge what guides us, what kind of person we are ▯ Religious School: ▯ - based on the love of God and beliefs St. Augustine and Thomas Aquinas ▯ - are actions good or bad? Not judged by consequences Determined by will of GOD Good is the inherent state of nature Moral choices based on benefit for person or society ▯ Natural School: ▯ - ethics of egoism and power Thomas Hobbs and Friedrich Nietzsche ▯ - based on the Golden Rule ▯ - belief in life, creativity, health, and realities ▯ - humans are aggressive with a desire to dominate ▯ - life affirmation – honest questioning of whatever drains life’s energies ▯ - war against all no ethical pretense society cant prosper because no one can rely on each other constant fear of your neighbor come together to create societal norms ▯ Utilitarianism: - persons, actions, and institutions are measured by how well they promote happiness - Jeremy Bentham (father of criminology) and John Stuart Mill ends justify the means pleasure=good, pain=evil actions should have the greatest good not a sacrifice of desire to act in society’s best interest ▯ Ethics of duty and reason: ▯ - possibility of human knowledge assumes active participation of the mind Immanuel Kant ▯ - standard of rationality called the “categorical imperative” ▯ - Deontological: human intention, duty, obligation, rule based ▯ Duty/Reason formulas ▯ 1. act by maxims that should become a universal law ▯ 2. treat humanity as an end an never only as a means ▯ 3. all maxims ought to correspond with all possible ends ▯ Existential school: ▯ - ethics of moral individualism and freedom of choice Jean-Paul Sartre o Man was condemned to freedom from authority but will have to face the authority to become moral o Absence of divine entity o Human constructs its own ethic o Relies on authenticity of experience Simone de Beauvoir o women’s rights o start life in the world already endowed with meaning o limited in decision making by our situations o meaningful life requires a reconsideration of purpose ▯ - social justice society of free citizens, with basic rights, cooperating John Rawls Political power only acceptable when done so that citizens are free and equal Power only used in reasonable ways ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ - associating people, places and things involved in criminal activity assist in investigating utilizes science to find answers answer questions in court through reports and testimony ▯ - roles: Officers (sworn) CS personnel (civilian or sworn) Lab analysts (civilian) Federal Doctors Legal professionals ▯ How to become a forensic scientist? ▯ - ideals: profession needs to be trusted as a truth o high stakes in justice system o larger impact data collection o in cases, when issues arise, better understanding consistency o policies, procedures, methods ▯ - guiding principles of FS: professional should be technically competent and use reliable methods honest about qualifications and area of expertise honest about data and basis for exams, conclusions, and opinions objective in review of evidence and testimony ▯ - learning about FS: degree programs o BS o MS o PhD Forensic Science Education Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) o Ethics are a component, doesn’t need to be a class ▯ - training: minimal opportunities range of o needs o jurisdiction o disciplines casework specific o new techniques o new instruments too expensive labs don’t have the budget ▯ - learning ethics in FS: reading, writing, discussing general in nature “safe” environment use questioning goals o shape thought about proper conduct o avoid future issues o open line of communication/awareness ▯ - why teach ethics in FS?: C.Y.A. Teach right/wrong To avoid issues Codes of ethics don’t cover everything Provides a person with tools o To question, evaluate, recognize issues o Discuss situations with different perspective ▯ - mentoring: mentor/training o trusted friend, advisor, or teacher o administrators of scientific integrity o responsible for guidance o role model o combo of formal and informal lessons formal: topic specific informal: how the topic relates to the job mentors should be: o demonstrate and teach style and methods o share talents o evaluate and critique trainees’ performance o foster the socialization of trainees o familiarize trainees with guidelines o promote career development downside: o “burden” – one more thing o lack of time o lack of availability o lack of interest o informal lessons become more about negative lessons cut corners socialization beat the system ▯ - incompetence: “lacking necessary ability/skills” not legally qualified inadequate to or unsuitable for a particular purpose lacking the qualities needed for effective action unable to function properly ▯ - why is ethics important?: Learn standards and guidelines o Basis for personal and professional behaviors o Boundaries o What is/isn’t acceptable o Consequences Professional cultures influence one another o Awareness of differences o Potential impact o Decrease pressure Prevention o Recognizing issues or potential issues o Understanding what to do o Learning from mistakes o Not allowing mistakes to grow ▯ - standards: quality assurance codes of ethics management general ideals of science no universal standard for ethics ▯ - Scientific working groups (SWG): subject matter experts collaborate to determine best practices set standards purpose: improve processes goals: competency, relevant, roles, and disclosure ▯ - Competence: varied training and experience o inconsistent o creates public uncertainty who decides? o Other professionals o Judges – expert? o Jury – believable o Self-determined – less credible Pressure o Accuracy o Efficient o Speed needed o Training (budget, time, availability) o Complete objective analysis o Reasonable o Straight forward ▯ - Disclosure: what about the irrelevant data tendency what about a procedure that was not written down should reports contain opinions how extensive should reports be ▯ - CSI Effect: jurors expecting scientific evidence blind trust of evidence presented general public thinking they know more than they actually do may slow crime scenes unrealistic expectations for processing time ▯ - test : doing what is requested and necessary downside of extra steps – time, money, consumables not doing the extra steps – could missing something o FS”s must be balances ▯ - Relevancy: test must be appropriate to the issues of the case/investigation o ex: someone running a test to appear like a more thorough job was done results may appear more significant o test must be available for review ▯ - Roles: need to be determined to not duplicate efforts o lab analysts: conduct research, test, and experiment o investigators: evaluate circumstances, issues, and evidence different jurisdictions may have different definitions ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ - Bias - prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another; cause to feel or show inclination or prejudice for or against someone or something usually considered to be unfair ▯ - FS professionals don’t make evidence “objective” with their analysis because bias may have been applied in selecting evidence in the field factors: time, pressure, cognitive bias, and expectations ▯ - when info is ambiguous, scientists lean on the info they are given ▯ Types of bias: ▯ - Cognitive bias: common tendency to acquire and process info by filtering it thru one’s own likes, dislikes, and experiences ▯ - Confirmation bias: tendency to filter info to retain only what conforms to one’s preferences, and to reject that does not. ▯ - Grey areas: when you have more than one answer following standards doesn’t assure the right behavior various policies: o in discipline o in sub fields o in professional orgs o in jurisdictions, agencies, departments have one source of info reduces this codes try to lessen the burden ▯ ▯ - Quality Assurance (QA): PLANNED and systematic actions necessary to demonstrate that a lab’s product or service meets specified requirements for quality - QA plans address: ▯ - a tangible document that specifies what your lab is going to do to maintain the quality of their product ▯ - Quality Control (QC): internal activities, or activities conducted according to externally established standards, used to monitor the qualities of analytical data to ensure its specified data. Day – to – day actions performed by the personnel of the lab - How important is QA/QC in FS?: If a FS lab doesn’t have the proper QA plans in place nor QC actions occurring regularly, then the job of the FS is ineffective All forensic labs need to be able to instill confidence - Training for analysts: Competency test – the evaluation of a person’s ability to perform work in a functional area prior to the performance of independent case work Proficiency test – a quality assurance measure used to monitor performance and identify areas in which improvement may be needed. May be classified as: o Internal: one prepared and administered by the lab o External: may be open or blind is one which is obtained from a second agency o Take one every year (ASCLD) – American society of crime lab directors o Twice a year (DNA) – external test ▯ - American Society of Crime Lab Directors (ASCLD): NOT the same as LAB Established in 1974 A private non-profit org and not and accrediting body The purpose is to Take once every year ▯ - Lab Accreditation Board (LAB): established in 1981 affiliated with ASCLD but still separate perform inspections and issue accreditations ▯ Ethics: People are fallible o Opinions, interpretations, insecurities aggressive growth can create unmanageable risk o field o professional org big picture - impact of decisions and precedent it may set ▯ FS – law enforcement – judicial system ▯ Pressure: Which ethics to follow when there are overlapping professions? Differences in: o Goals (why) o Processes (how) o Cultures (who) ▯ Relation: Balancing doing what is right according to your job and how that relates to others involved Something that presents no ethical issues for one may present issue for the other o FS sharing all info vs. lawyers only sharing what info is helpful to his/her client ▯ Avoid pressure: Awareness of the differences An understanding of your personal and professional ethics Who can help? How to report? ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ - “describes the individuals and agencies responsible for enforcing laws and maintaining public order and public safety” include prevention, detection and investigation of crimes includes the apprehension and detention of individuals suspected of law violation ▯ - Power/respect what do we teach kids about police? What do you do when you see a police officer has someone pulled over? What do you do when you’re driving on the highway and you see a police officer? ▯ - Danger school shootings increased mental health issues guns readily available economy decreased police trust ▯ - Who and where? Law enforcement officers and detectives Parole, probation, corrections officers Varying levels form municipal, city, county, state, federal, military, and private ▯ - Law enforcement Public servants Decisions based on society o Democracy o Generational differences (degrees/mentoring) o Variety of jurisdictions (UPD/Morgantown) o Regional issues o Technology impact ▯ - Technology life-extending technology is impacted by religious beliefs computers impact privacy o the Internet allows people to upload videos instantly and spread info social media impacts privacy o whatever is said, can reach millions of people quickly o items persist and in some cases to be used against the source ▯ - Roles protect serve educate support first responder evidence collection CSI? Interviewer Acts as a witness o Facts or expert witness Supports Cases Info Evidence Society ▯ - Themes of peacemaking idea of finding common ground among differing sides, which is an inherent duty 3 themes o Connectedness – everything is related so action will impact everyone (responsible) o Care – concern for others (cyclical) o Mindfulness – sense of awareness about what needs attention (big picture) Contributes to ethics by supporting decision making o Neutral openness solutions Acquiring as much info as possible Challenge gut reactions Are the possible solutions the best possible outcomes? ▯ - Cause of ethical issues High public trust Role models Need for coping mechanism Potential for corruption High stress Pride vs. ego Accountability ▯ - Pressures to FS FS are subject to pressures from four distinct sources: o Law enforcement – who are usually clients o Judicial system – which will evaluate data o Science – on which date is based o Personal – sense of individual morals and professional ethics Both have an obligation to the law, however, LE doesn’t have to o Remain unbiased o Conduct all necessary exams Differences in: o Goals o Procedures o Purpose ▯ - Corrections deals with probation, incarceration, management, rehab, treatment, parole, and in extreme cases executions of convicted criminals Goals: detain, protect, provide healthcare CO’s: maintain order/security, enforce rules Culture: o Dangerous o Different rules/goals o Not able to compromise o Death penalty o Confinement o Constant awareness o Various professions in one place ▯ - Corrections issues corruption professional boundaries o fear o avoid conflict o high tolerance for abuse/disrespect relationships use of force contraband benefits racism stress appearance coercion pressures low pay <-> unqualified ▯ ** NY Escape: June 2015 Richard Matt (deceased) and David Sweat Cut walls and slid thru pipes ▯ - Culture: discretion Thin blue line o what is it? o How is it beneficial? o How is it detrimental? ▯ - Ethical policing: training and continuing education appropriate procedures rejecting improper requests speaking out against bad behavior/practices hiring process top down management ▯ - Paradox of policing: police protect life and liberties and maintain order restore order by arresting suspects consequences of being arrested offender is stripped of freedom once in custody – everything is decided for them ▯ - Police pressures: responsibilities to be ethical professional privilege + power + influence “freebies” “CSI effect” Political factors Some issues overlap between FS and LE and may influence ethical behavior, here are a few: o Collecting minimum amount of evidence ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'