Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide 70916 - BIOL 103 - 001
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alison Notetaker on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 70916 - BIOL 103 - 001 at George Mason University taught by Gwendolyne Y Fondufe (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology I in Biology at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Biol 103 – Section 001 Exams will begin at the scheduled time. Exams will begin at the scheduled time. If a student arrives late, after another student has handed in an exam and left the room, they will not be allowed to take the exam. Study Guide for Exam 1 (Friday, September 19) Make sure you understand these concepts (i.e. do not just memorize). Use this guide to quiz yourself. Don’t forget to bring a scantron (form 882E), a pencil, a good eraser, and your GMU ID. There will be 50 multiplechoice questions. Chapter 1 Biology: Exploring Life 1) Define the following terms: organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere, biology, producers, consumers, decomposers, systems biology, genes a. Organelle: specialized part of cell w specific function. eg nucleus b. Cell: basic unit of life. Smallest level @ which life emerges. Can be eukaryotic (true nucleus, membrane enclosed organelles incl nucleus w DNA) or prokaryotic (prenucleus, no nucleus or other organelle) c. Tissue: formed of cells, specific function d. Organ: tissues in a unit to perform specific function e. Organ system: group of organs work together: spec func f. Organism: contiguous living system g. Population: all of a particular organism living in a particular place h. Community: all organisms in an ecosystem i. Ecosystem: the environment, living and nonliving. Eg FL Everglades j. Biosphere: any place life is possible k. Biology: study of life l. Producers: photosynthesize m. Consumers: eat plants/animals n. Decomposers: dispose of waste of other organisms, including their bodies o. Systems biology: re interactions of biological systems p. Genes: unit of inheritance, transmits information from parents to offspring. Control activities of the cell 2) List and explain the characteristics of living things discussed in class. a. Order: complex organization of living things b. Regulation of internal conditions: ability to maintain an internal environment consistent with life i. Ex workout warm sweat cool. Thermoregulation ii. HOMEOSTASIS c. Growth and development: consistent, controlled by DNA d. Energy processing: acquiring energy and transforming it into a form useful for the organism (ATP) e. Response to environment: able to respond to environmental stimuli f. Reproduction: of own kind g. Evolutionary adaptation: acquire traits that best suit the organism to its environment 3) What are emergent properties? a. New properties emerge w each step in hierarchy of life (the first terms defined in the study guide, molecule organelle cell, etc) and the whole is greater than the sum of its parts 4) Which of the following levels of biological organization includes all others in the list: cell, organism, organ, organ system, tissue, cells, and organelles? a. Organism, organ system, organ, tissue, cell, organelle 5) What is the difference between an eukaryotic cell and a prokaryotic cell? a. Eukaryotic cells have membraneenclosed organelles, including a nucleus with DNA. Eukaryote means true nucleus b. Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus or other organelle, but a nucleoid area. They’re simpler and smaller. Prokaryote means before nucleus. 6) The genetic material is _____DNA__________. 7) Differentiate between nutrient flow in an ecosystem and the flow of energy in an ecosystem. a. Chemical nutrients cycle: air/soil plants animals decomposers air/soil. b. Energy: one way. Does not cycle. Enters ecosystem as light, exits as heat. Always lose useful energy as useless energy (typ as heat). Sun producers consumers heat 8) Energy enters an ecosystem as __light__ and exits as ___heat__. 9) Until recently organisms were divided into 5 kingdoms. What are the five kingdoms? a. Monera b. Protista c. Fungi d. Animalia e. Plantae 10) Biology’s enormous scope has two dimensions. List them and how do they differ? a. Vertical: size scale, molecules to biosphere b. Horizontal: diversity of all the organisms to ever exist 11) Organisms are now classified into 3 domains. List them. a. Bacteria: most diverse, widespread prokaryotes b. Archaea: prokaryotic like bacteria. Live in extreme conditions (that’s c. diff btwn them and bacteria) d. Eukarya: eukaryotic (not all multicellular) i. Protists ii. Fungi iii. Plantae iv. Animalia 12) Prokaryotes are in which domain/s? Eukaryotes are in which domain? a. Prokaryotes: bacteria, archaea b. Eukaryotes: eukarya 13) List the kingdom/s included in the domain Eukarya. a. Protists b. Fungi c. Plantae d. Animalia 14) Evolution is the core theme of Biology. True/False a. true 15) Explain Darwin’s theory of natural selection. a. Editing mechanism b. From exposure of heritable variations to environmental factors that favor some individuals over others 16) Natural selection is an editing mechanism. What does this mean? a. It edits vs creating new life 17) Differentiate between deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning. a. Deductive reasoning: specific conclusions from general principles. Big to small. b. Inductive reasoning: general conclusions from many observations. 18) Differentiate between qualitative and quantitative data. a. Qualitative is subjective b. Quantitative is measurable, quantifiable 19) “All organisms are composed of cells”. This is an example of __inductive___ approach (inductive reasoning or deductive reasoning). 20) What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory? a. Theory is broader, is general enough to generate new hypotheses, and is supported by a large, growing body of evidence. 21) To be scientifically valid, a hypothesis must be testable. True/False a. true 22) Why is it difficult to draw a conclusion from an experiment that does not have a control? a. Because it affects the validity! We’re not sure what we’re measuring 23) Make sure you understand the controlled experiments discussed in class. 24) The scope of science is limited to the study of structures and processes that that can be directly observed and measured. Hypotheses about supernatural forces are outside the bounds of science. True/false a. true 25) How do science and technology interact? a. They benefit and grow from each other Chapter 14 – Defining Species 1) What is speciation? a. Process by which one species becomes multiple species 2) How is a species defined? Make sure you include all the different species concepts covered in class. a. Biological species concept group of populations w potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring b. Morphological species concept classify by observable traits, applies to asexual organisms and fossils. Subjective. c. Ecological species concept define by ecological niche. Focus on unique adaptations to particular roles. Can be similar in appearance but differ in diet or habitat d. Phylogenetic species concept phylogeny. Evolutionary history of organism or group of organisms. Smallest group of individuals that share a common ancestor and one branch of “tree of life” 3) What is reproductive isolation? a. Prevents mating btwn individuals, most likely bc different species. Prevents members of diff species from mating, and gene flow btwn species. Maintains separate species 4) What are hybrids? Give some examples. a. Different species can and do interbreed. Grolar bears, mules 5) Why is the biological species concept problematic? a. Says hybrids aren’t species bc they can’t reproduce how RUDE 6) Which species concepts (see # 2 above) could you apply to both asexual and sexual reproduction? a. morphological 7) What are reproductive barriers? Distinguish between prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive barriers. a. They are barriers that isolate gene pools and prevent interbreeding. Prezygotic reproductive barriers exist before the formation of the zygote, like habitat, temporal, behavioral, mechanical, and gametic isolation. Postzygotic reproductive barriers occur after the formation of the zygote, like reduced hybrid viability and fertility, and hybrid breakdown. 9) Make sure you understand the different prezygotic and postzygotic barriers discussed in class. 10) Two closely related fish live in the same lake, but one feeds along the shoreline and the other is a bottom feeder in deep water. This is an example of __habitat___ isolation, which is a _prezygotic_ (prezygotic or postzygotic) barrier. 11) What is allopatric speciation? a. geographically separated 12) What is sympatric speciation? a. new species in same geographic area 13) In sympatric speciation, certain factors can reduce gene flow between populations. List three of these factors discussed in class. a. habitat differentiation b. sexual selection c. polyploidy 14) What is polyploidy? a. extra sets of chromosomes! A triploid organism cannot breed with a diploid org 15) Polyploidy can occur within a species by selffertilization. True/False a. true 16) Failure of chromosomes to divide after cell division could double the number of chromosomes in a cell from diploid to tetraploid. True/false a. false it’s failure of the cell to divide 17) Self fertilization in tetraploid plants produces plants that are sterile and cannot reproduce with other tetraploids. True/False a. false 18) Why is the formation of a tetraploid an instantaneous speciation event? a. They can’t produce fertile offspring with their parent species they’re immediately separated by a reproductive barrier 19) Most polyploidy species arise from hybridization of two different species. True/False 20) Infertile hybrid plants cannot reproduce asexually. True/False 21) Polyploidy has never been observed in animals. True/False 22) Sympatric speciation commonly occurs through _____________ (polyploidy, habitat differentiation, sexual selection) in plants, but is more likely to occur through _________________ (polyploidy, habitat differentiation, sexual selection) in animals. 23) Bread wheat is a polyploid as a result of hybridization. True/False 24) Most species on Earth are thought to have evolved from sympatric speciation. True/False 25) What is adaptive radiation? a. evolution of many diverse species from a common ancestor: adapt/evolve, and radiates out 26) Explain why isolated island chains provide opportunities for adaptive radiations. b. Physical diverse habitats, islands far enough apart for pop dif, islands close enough for occasional dispersion. 26) Darwin’s finches are an example of adaptive radiation. True/False a. true 28) What is a hybrid zone? c. Where dif species come together to mate. 29) Describe the three possible outcomes in a hybrid zone. d. Reinforcement females can tell males apart; grow further apart e. Fusion females can’t tell males apart; grow together f. Stability: continuous formation of hybrids: grow parallel 30) When hybrids produced in a hybrid zone can interbreed with each other and with both parent species, and they survive and reproduce as well as members of the parent species, one would predict that a) the hybrid zone would be stable b) sympatric speciation would occur c) reinforcement of reproductive barriers would keep the parent species separate d) reproductive barriers would lessen and the two parent species would fuse 31) Distinguish between punctuated equilibria and gradual patterns of speciation. 32) Can factors that cause sympatric speciation also cause allopatric speciation? Chapter 15.7 16 – Mechanisms of Macroevolution; Phylogeny and the Tree of Life 1) What is macroevolution? a. Major changes recorded in the history of life over long time spans 2) The continents and seafloors form a thin layer of planet Earth called the __________ (crust, outer core, inner core or mantle) which covers a hot material called the ________________ (crust, outer core, inner core or mantle). 3) What is plate tectonics? 4) What is continental drift? 5) How were the following formed? Pangea, Laurasia, and Gondwana. 6) The continents stopped drifting about 65 million years ago. True/False 7) What are mass extinctions? Discuss the causes of mass extinctions covered in class. 8) What are the consequences of mass extinctions? 9) Over the past 500 million years, how many mass extinctions have occurred? 10) Why do scientists think that a sixth mass extinction may be under way? 11) Why do adaptive radiations often occur after mass extinctions? 12) According to fossil record mammals underwent dramatic adaptive radiation after the extinction of dinosaurs. True/False 13) What is the importance of the research field called “evodevo”? 14) What is paedomorphosis? Use an example to explain this concept. 15) Define the following: phylogeny, homologies, convergent evolution, and analogy. 16) Human forearms are and a bat’s wings are _____________. (homologous or analogous). A bat’s wings and a bee’s wings are _______________ (homologous or analogous). 17) Define the following: Taxonomy, systematics, taxon, and phylogenetic tree. 18) Scientists assign each species with a twoname scientific name or binomial. What does this mean? 19) If you are given the scientific name of an organism (such as Musca domestica), can you tell which word indicates the genus and which word indicates the species? 20) List the subcategories in the classification system from the domain to species in the correct sequence. Which of these subcategories is the biggest (most inclusive)? Which of these categories is the least inclusive? 21) Define the following: Cladistics, clades, monophyletic, and phylogenetic tree. 22) What is the difference between shared ancestral characteristics and shared derived characteristic? 23) If you were using cladistics to build a phylogenetic tree of cats, which would be the best choice for an outgroup? a) tiger b) domestic cat c) lion d) leopard e) wolf 24) What is the importance of parsimony in constructing phylogenetic trees? 25) Phylogenetic trees are always correct and there is no need for any revision of such trees. True/False 26) Many lines of evidence support the idea that birds are a clade of reptiles. True/False
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