Exam 2 Study Guide(s)
Exam 2 Study Guide(s) 70916 - BIOL 103 - 001
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alison Notetaker on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 70916 - BIOL 103 - 001 at George Mason University taught by Gwendolyne Y Fondufe (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 248 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology I in Biology at George Mason University.
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Study Guide Chapter 19 – Vertebrate Diversity 1) What type of evidence is used to develop a hypothesis for the evolution of chordates? a. Anatomical, molecular, fossil 2) Make sure you know the key derived characteristics that define the clades in chordates. (See figure. 19.1) head vertebral column jaws lungs/derivatives lobed fins legs amniotic egg milk 3) Define the following: craniates, tetrapods, amniotes, vertebrates craniate: chordate with a head tetrapod: jawed vertebrates with two pairs of limbs. First vertebrates on land amniotes: tetrapods w eggs adapted for life on land vertebrates: chordates with vertebral column 4) __lancelets_______ are thought to be the first animals to branch from the chordate lineage. 5) _____hagfish_____ and ___lampreys___ are the most primitive craniates 6) How do hagfishes and lampreys acquire their food? hagfish: scavenger lamprey: parasites, freaky tongues 7) What is the function of slime in hagfishes? defense 9) What are the three groups of fishes? chondrichthyans rayfinned lobefinned 10) Answer the following questions about chondrichthyans: a) What is their skeleton composed of? cartilage b) What do they use the lateral line system for? Locate prey c) How do they acquire food from their environment? predation d) What are some examples sharks, rays 11) Answer the following questions about rayfinned fishes: a) What is their skeleton composed of? bone b) What is the operculum? Covers gills c) What is the swim bladder used for? float d) What are some examples? Tuna, trout, goldfish 12) Answer the following questions about lobefinned fishes: a) What is the key derived characteristic? Rodshaped bones in pelvic and pectoral fins b) What are some examples? Coelacanth, lungfish c) Which ones adapted to life on land? tetrapods 13) List some obstacles that animals might have faced during the transition to life on land. Gas exchange Water conservation Structural support Locomotion Sensory organs worked well in water, not land reproduction 14) The first vertebrates able to colonize the land are the __amphibians_______. 15) List some examples of amphibians and their characteristics. Salamander, frog, caecilian Moist skin to supplement lungs for gas exchange Poison glands 16) Where are amphibians found? Damp habitats 17) Describe the ‘double life’ of amphibians. Some time on land, some time in water. Tadpole is aquatic w gills. 18) In what ways are amphibians not completely adapted for terrestrial life? Need moisture or else they’ll dry out 19) Give some examples of amniotes. Reptiles, birds, mammals 20) The amniotic egg has four extraembyonic membranes. List them. Amnion fluid filled sac surrounding embryo Yolk sac rich store of nutrients for developing embryo Chorion oxygen from air, dispose of carbon dioxide (allantois does this too) Allantois help dispose of metabolic waste 21) Give some examples of reptiles and their characteristics. Lizard, snake, turtle, crocodilian, bird, dinosaur Snakes limbless bc burrowing ancestors Turtles haven’t changed much Crocodilians largest reptiles, most of time spent in water 22) Apart from the amniotic egg, list some adaptations that reptiles have that allow them to live on land. Scaly and keratinwaterproofed skin Most oxygen acquired via lungs Lizards, snakes, crocodilians, turtles ectothermic 23) What is the difference between ectothermic and endothermic organisms? Ectothermic: coldblooded Endothermic: warmblooded 24) What adaptations do birds have that enhance flight? Forelimbs wings Large flight muscles for power Reduced weight: no teeth, few small vertebrae in tail, hollow shafted feathers, honeycombed bones 25) Strong evidence indicates that birds evolved from twolegged dinosaurs called ___theropods________. 26) Archaeopteryx is the oldest known most primitive bird. True/False 27) Are mammals endothermic or ectothermic? endothermic 28) What are the two distinguishing traits of mammals? Hair Mammary glands 29) List the three lineages of mammals. Monotremes Marsupials eutherians 30) What are the differences between the groups of mammals? Monotremes lay eggs Marsupials have pouches where babies finish developing Eutherians birth fully developed young placental mammals 31) List examples of animals in the above groups (questions 31 and 32). Monotreme platypus Marsupial kangaroo Eutherian human, dog 32) Humans are in the order __primate______________. 33) List the primate characteristics that are arboreal adaptations. Limber shoulder/hip joints: climbing, brachiation 5 mobile digits on hands and feet Flexible thumb Short snout, eyes set closely together: depth perception 34) The phylogenetic tree of primates, divides them into three main groups. Name these groups. Give examples of members of each group, and where they are found. Lemurs, lorises, and pottos: lemurs in Madagascar, lorises/pottos tropical Africa and southern Asia. Slender loris Tarsiers: small nocturnal tree dwellers. SE Asia. More closely related to anthropoids than to LLP Anthropoids: incl monkeys and apes w fully opposable thumb 55) What is an opposable thumb? Tip of all 4 fingers can touch thumb 36) List the differences between New World and Old World monkeys. List examples. New: prehensile tail, nostrils wide open/to side and father apart. Golden lion tamarin Old: no prehensile tail, nostrils open downward. Liontailed macaque 37) List the characteristics of apes (including gorillas, chimpanzees, gibbons, and orangutans) No tail Relatively long arms and short legs Relatively large brains w respect to size More flexible behavior 38) Among the apes, humans and _chimps________ are especially closely related sharing 99% of their genes. Plant Diversity (Chapter 17): 1) The ancestors of plants were probably algae. True/False 2) What do plants and the green algae charophytes have in common Thought to have evolved from a common ancestor Complex multicellular bodies Photosynthetic eukaryotes 2) What advantages did life on land provide for plants? a. Unlimited sunlight b. Abundant carbon dioxide c. Initially, few pathogens or herbivores 3) What were the disadvantages for life on land for plants? a. Maintain moisture inside cells to keep from drying out b. Support body in nonbuoyant medium c. Reproduce/disperse offspring w/out water d. Anchor bodies in soil e. Obtain resources from soil and air 4) What are some differences between plants and algae? a. Algae (not plants): i. No rigid tissues ii. Supported by surrounding water iii. Carbon dioxide and minerals directly from water around whole body iv. Light/photosynthesis over most of body v. Flagellated sperm vi. Disperse offspring by water 5) How do land plants maintain moisture in their cells? a. Waxy cuticle b. Cells regulate opening/closing of stomata 6) What structures do land plants use to obtain resources such as water, minerals, and CO ?2 a. Roots b. Air c. leaves 7) List the two types of vascular tissue found in plants. What do they carry? Are they composed of dead cells or living cells? a. Xylem: dead cells, water/minerals b. Phloem: live cells, sugar 8) What is the function of lignin in plants? a. Thickens/reinforces cell walls of some plant tissues 9) Define the following: sporangia, apical meristem, spore, pollen grains. a. Sporangia: protected structures that hold spores for reproduction b. Apical meristem: growthproduction regions of cell division c. Spore: d. Pollen grains: spermproducing cells in pines and flowering plants 11) The life cycle of a plant involves an alternation of a haploid generation called the _gametophyte_____ and a diploid generation called the __sporophyte______________. 12) Which generation in the above question produces eggs and sperm, and which generation produces spores? Egg and sperm are gametophyte, spores is sporophyte 13) List the 4 key adaptations for life on land that distinguish the main lineages of the plant kingdom. dependent embryos Lignified vascular tissues Seeds flowers 14) In plants, a fertilized egg develops into an embryo while attached to and nourished by the parent plant. True/False 15) Bryophytes are seedless vascular plants. True/False They’re seedless and nonvascular 16) List some examples of bryophytes. Mosses Liverworts hornworts 17) Like other plants bryophytes have true leaves, roots and lignified walls. True/False But they have apical meristems and embryos retained on parent plant 18) Bryophytes, lycophytes (such as club mosses), and monilophytes (such as ferns) require, moist conditions for fertilization. True/False 19) Ferns and club mosses are seedless vascular plants with lignified cells walls. True/False 20) What is a seed composed of? Embryo packaged w food supply w/in protective covering 21) Gymnosperms and angiosperms have seeds but do not have vascular tissue. True/False Seeds and vascular tissue 22) Conifers and ginkgos are _______ (gymnospersms, angiospersm, or bryophytes). 23) Flowering plants are ________ (gymnospersms, angiospersm, or bryophytes). 24) Which of the following has naked seeds? (gymnospersms or angiospersm). 25) The majority of plant species today are ________ (gymnospersms, angiosperms, clubmosses, monilophytes, or bryophytes) Biol 103 – Study Guide Chapter 1 Biology: Exploring Life 1) Define the following terms: organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere, biology, producers, consumers, decomposers, systems biology, genes a. Organelle: specialized part of cell w specific function. eg nucleus b. Cell: basic unit of life. Smallest level @ which life emerges. Can be eukaryotic (true nucleus, membrane enclosed organelles incl nucleus w DNA) or prokaryotic (prenucleus, no nucleus or other organelle) c. Tissue: formed of cells, specific function d. Organ: tissues in a unit to perform specific function e. Organ system: group of organs work together: spec func f. Organism: contiguous living system g. Population: all of a particular organism living in a particular place h. Community: all organisms in an ecosystem i. Ecosystem: the environment, living and nonliving. Eg FL Everglades j. Biosphere: any place life is possible k. Biology: study of life l. Producers: photosynthesize m. Consumers: eat plants/animals n. Decomposers: dispose of waste of other organisms, including their bodies o. Systems biology: re interactions of biological systems p. Genes: unit of inheritance, transmits information from parents to offspring. Control activities of the cell 2) List and explain the characteristics of living things discussed in class. a. Order: complex organization of living things b. Regulation of internal conditions: ability to maintain an internal environment consistent with life i. Ex workout warm sweat cool. Thermoregulation ii. HOMEOSTASIS c. Growth and development: consistent, controlled by DNA d. Energy processing: acquiring energy and transforming it into a form useful for the organism (ATP) e. Response to environment: able to respond to environmental stimuli f. Reproduction: of own kind g. Evolutionary adaptation: acquire traits that best suit the organism to its environment 3) What are emergent properties? a. New properties emerge w each step in hierarchy of life (the first terms defined in the study guide, molecule organelle cell, etc) and the whole is greater than the sum of its parts 4) Which of the following levels of biological organization includes all others in the list: cell, organism, organ, organ system, tissue, cells, and organelles? a. Organism, organ system, organ, tissue, cell, organelle 5) What is the difference between an eukaryotic cell and a prokaryotic cell? a. Eukaryotic cells have membraneenclosed organelles, including a nucleus with DNA. Eukaryote means true nucleus b. Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus or other organelle, but a nucleoid area. They’re simpler and smaller. Prokaryote means before nucleus. 6) The genetic material is _____DNA__________. 7) Differentiate between nutrient flow in an ecosystem and the flow of energy in an ecosystem. a. Chemical nutrients cycle: air/soil plants animals decomposers air/soil. b. Energy: one way. Does not cycle. Enters ecosystem as light, exits as heat. Always lose useful energy as useless energy (typ as heat). Sun producers consumers heat 8) Energy enters an ecosystem as __light__ and exits as ___heat__. 9) Until recently organisms were divided into 5 kingdoms. What are the five kingdoms? a. Monera b. Protista c. Fungi d. Animalia e. Plantae 10) Biology’s enormous scope has two dimensions. List them and how do they differ? a. Vertical: size scale, molecules to biosphere b. Horizontal: diversity of all the organisms to ever exist 11) Organisms are now classified into 3 domains. List them. a. Bacteria: most diverse, widespread prokaryotes b. Archaea: prokaryotic like bacteria. Live in extreme conditions (that’s c. diff btwn them and bacteria) d. Eukarya: eukaryotic (not all multicellular) i. Protists ii. Fungi iii. Plantae iv. Animalia 12) Prokaryotes are in which domain/s? Eukaryotes are in which domain? a. Prokaryotes: bacteria, archaea b. Eukaryotes: eukarya 13) List the kingdom/s included in the domain Eukarya. a. Protists b. Fungi c. Plantae d. Animalia 14) Evolution is the core theme of Biology. True/False a. true 15) Explain Darwin’s theory of natural selection. a. Editing mechanism b. From exposure of heritable variations to environmental factors that favor some individuals over others 16) Natural selection is an editing mechanism. What does this mean? a. It edits vs creating new life 17) Differentiate between deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning. a. Deductive reasoning: specific conclusions from general principles. Big to small. b. Inductive reasoning: general conclusions from many observations. 18) Differentiate between qualitative and quantitative data. a. Qualitative is subjective b. Quantitative is measurable, quantifiable 19) “All organisms are composed of cells”. This is an example of __inductive___ approach (inductive reasoning or deductive reasoning). 20) What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory? a. Theory is broader, is general enough to generate new hypotheses, and is supported by a large, growing body of evidence. 21) To be scientifically valid, a hypothesis must be testable. True/False a. true 22) Why is it difficult to draw a conclusion from an experiment that does not have a control? a. Because it affects the validity! We’re not sure what we’re measuring 23) Make sure you understand the controlled experiments discussed in class. 24) The scope of science is limited to the study of structures and processes that that can be directly observed and measured. Hypotheses about supernatural forces are outside the bounds of science. True/false a. true 25) How do science and technology interact? a. They benefit and grow from each other Study Guide The Chemical Basis of Life (Chapter 2): 1) Define the following: matter, element, atom, trace element, proton, electron, neutron, atomic number, atomic weight, isotopes, radioisotope, molecule, compound, salt, ion a. Matter: comprises living things. Anything that occupies space and has mass. Consists of elements b. Element: substance that can’t be broken down to other substances by chemical means. Pure substance, one kind of atom. 92 natural, 20 manmade. c. Atom: smallest particle of matter than still retains the properties of an element d. Trace element: essential to life, but in very small amounts. Eg iron, iodine 2) List the 4 elements that make up about 96% of the weight of an organism. a. CHON b. Carbon c. Hydrogen d. Oxygen e. Nitrogen 3) What are the functions of the trace elements iron, fluorine (fluoride), and iodine? a. Iron transports oxygen b. Fluorine helps strengthen teeth c. Iodine helps in the production of thyroid hormones 4) An iodine deficiency can result in goiter. True/False 5) Where are protons, neutrons and electrons located? Protons and neutrons are in the central nucleus Electrons are in a cloud or shell around the nucleus 6) Can you determine the atomic number and atomic weight from the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an atom? Atomic number: number of protons Mass number: number of protons and number of neutrons 7) Protons and neutrons are about the same weight. True/False 8) Can you determine the number of protons, neutrons and electrons from the atomic number and the mass number of an atom? Yes: Atomic number is number of protons Mass number minus atomic number is number of neutrons Protons = electrons unless there’s a charge; adjust electron number accordingly 9) Can you sketch an atom (indicating the number of shells and the electrons on each shell) from the atomic number of that atom? Yes bc atomic number = protons, and protons = electrons unless there’s a charge. Two electrons on innermost shell, then fill in a clockwise direction one at a time up to 8 on each subsequent shell 10) What are the differences/similarities between C, C, and C? The superscript on the lefthand side is the mass number: protons plus neutrons Electrons don’t change, and neither do protons: the neutrons here change (no change in charge) So Carbon12 has 6 protons, 6 neutrons ,6 electrons, mass number 12. Carbon13 has mass number 13, with 7 neutrons and 6 protons/electrons. Carbon14 has mass number 14, with 8 neutrons and 6 protons/electrons. 11) Discuss the advantages of radioisotopes? Use for medical diagnosis: PET scan 12) Discuss the disadvantages of radioisotopes? Damage molecules in a living cell, esp DNA Broken chemical bonds formation of abnormal bonds replication of damaged cells 13) Discuss the arrangement of electrons on shells. (Make sure you include the number of electrons that each shell can hold, as well as the energy levels of electrons). Did this a couple of questions ago. Lowest energy level is the inside, because it’s closest; greatest gravitational pull 14) If the atomic number of an atom were given, can you determine the number of electrons that atom will require in order for it to be stable? Yes: draw it out. Atomic number is number of protons which is the number of electrons unless there’s a charge. So draw out the diagram 15) Discuss the difference between covalent bonds, ionic bonds, and hydrogen bonds. Covalent: atoms of same or different elements. Sharing of electrons. Ionic: ions with opposite charge attract. Weak in aqueous environments bc ions move apart. In NaCl, Na has 1 valence electron and Cl has 7. One transfers to Cl, so Na is now positive and Cl now negative; they bond Hydrogen: H atom covalently bonded to one strongly electronegative atom attracted to another electronegative atom: partially charged hydrogen bond. Holds water molecules together. Water is held together covalently, hydrogen bonds between molecules 16) What is the difference between a single covalent bond and a double covalent bond? Single shares one pair of electrons (2 total), double shares two pairs of electrons (4 total) 17) What is electronegativity? Measure of degree of attraction. Bigger atoms are more electronegative 18) Discuss the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds and give some examples. Polar has an unequal sharing of electrons; more on one side Nonpolar has an equal sharing of electrons (not polar; not unequal). Generally atoms of the same element 19) Give some examples of molecules with polar and nonpolar bonds. Polar: water Nonpolar: H ,2O a2, CH 4 20) In a water molecule, which atom has a higher electronegativity and which atom has a lower electronegativity? Which atom has a partial positive charge and which one has a partial positive charge? Higher electronegativity by the oxygen bc it’s bigger. Partial negative charge there. Lower electronegativity by hydrogen bc it’s smaller. Partial positive charge there. 21) Covalent bonds are very strong bonds. True/False. 22) In an ionic bond in which Na and Cl are involved, can you determine which atom has lost or gained electrons and how many electrons have been lost or gained? Na has 1 valence electron and Cl has 7, so Na loses 1 and gives it to Cl. 23) Individual hydrogen bonds are weaker than covalent bonds. True/False. 24) In chemical reactions atoms are rearranged to form products. True/False 25) Chemical reactions always destroy matter. True/False Make and break chemical bonds 26) What are reactants and products? Reactants: molecules at the beginning of the equation interact Products: molecules at the end of the chemical reaction 27) What type of bond holds the atoms of each water molecule? What type of bond holds separate water molecules together? Polar covalent holds the atoms together. Hydrogen holds the molecules together. 28) Make sure you understand all the special properties of water discussed in class. (Include examples) Um. Well. Most of the properties are bc the molecules are polar and form hydrogen bonds… 29) Define the following: cohesion, heat, temperature, surface tension, adhesion, thermal energy, solution, solute, solvent, aqueous solution, hydrophilic, hydrophobic. Cohesion: tendency for like molecules to stick together. High in water. Heat: thermal energy in transfer from warmer to cooler body of matter Temperature: measures intensity of heat: average speed of molecules (hotter = faster) Surface tension: measure of how difficult it is to stretch/break the surface of a liquid Adhesion: tendency for two kinds of molecules to stick together Thermal energy: energy associated with random movement of atoms and molecules. Solution: homogenous mixture of two or more substances Solute: what is dissolved (eg salt) Solvent: what dissolves the other substance (eg water) Aqueous solution: solution w water as solvent Hydrophilic: water loving Hydrophobic: water fearing 30) Hydrophilic substances are polar or ionic, while hydrophobic substances are nonpolar or nonionic. True/False. Remember this bc water is polar too. 31) Water forms hydrogen bonds with hydrophobic substances but not hydrophilic substances. True/False 32) How are acids, bases defined? Give some examples + + Acids have a pH below 7 eg hydrochloric acid. Releases H into solution (has more H ) Bases have a pH above 7 eg sodium hydroxide. Accepts H into solution (has more OH ) 33) What is the pH of a solution? How acidic/basic it is 34) Why is the pH of water neutral? Equal amounts of H and OH 35) A solution with a pH of 9 is acidic. True/false 36) What is a buffer? Discuss the importance of buffers. A substance that reduces pH change. Important because keeps things like blood at a static pH (blood is 7.4). accept H when in excess, donate H when depleted 37) A solution of pH 5 is how many times more/less acidic than a solution of pH 3? 100x less acidic 38) The lower the pH, the _________ (lower/higher) the concentration of H . + higher 39) Human blood has a pH of _________7.4________. 40) What is acid precipitation? What are some of the problems associated with acid precipitation? 41) What is ocean acidification? How does ocean acidification affect shellbuilding organisms? + Carbon dioxide is absorbed by the ocean, which lowers the pH. Extra H ions combine with carbonate ions (CO ) to3form bicarbonate ions (HCO ) which redu3es the carbonate ion concentration necessary for coral and other shellbuilding organisms 42) What change is occurring in this figure? A) Sodium is gaining an electron. B) Chlorine is losing an electron. C) Sodium is becoming negatively charged. D) Sodium is filling its third electron shell. E) Chlorine is filling its third electron shell. Chapter 3 – The Molecules of Cells 1) The molecular basis of life is based on the properties of carbon. True/False 2) What is an organic compound? A carbonbased mlecule 3) How many electrons are present on the outermost shell of carbon? How many covalent bonds can carbon form? 4, so can form 4 covalent bonds 4) List the classes of biological molecules. Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids 5) Define the following: Macromolecule, polymer, monomer. Macromolecule: carb, lipid, protein, nucleic acid Polymer: many units. Some macromolecules are made from many monomers and so are polymers Monomer: building blocks for polymers. 6) Discuss dehydration reactions. Links together monomers, removes water. Each link removes one water. Aka polymerization. 7) Discuss hydrolysis reactions. Breaks polymers, adds water. Eg starch is too big to enter a cell so hydrolysis changes it to glucose (stored as glycogen in skeletal muscles for movement) 8) Make sure you know the difference between dehydration and hydrolysis reactions. 9) Polymers are made from a small set of monomers. True/False well I mean it can be a lot right 10) What is the monomer of carbohydrates? Monosaccharides. Simple sugars 11) Give some examples of monosaccharides. Glucose, fructose 12) What is a disaccharide? How is maltose formed? Two monosaccharides. Maltose is two glucoses 13) What molecules are produced from the hydrolysis of a disaccharide? Dehydration synthesis involving two monosaccharides produces what type of molecule? Two monosaccharides. Dehydration synthesis would get you a polysaccharide 14) Give some examples disaccharides. Sucrose (table sugar) glucose + fructose Lactose (milk sugar) glucose + galactose Maltose (malt sugar) glucose + glucose 15) How is a polysaccharide made? 100s to 1000s of monomers 16) Give some examples of polysaccharides. Which ones are storage and which ones are structural polysaccahrides? Starch: storage in plants Glycogen: storage in animals Cellulose: structural in plants Chitin: structural in animals 17) Make sure you know the similarities and difference in function between starch, glycogen, cellulose, and chitin. 18) Lipids are true polymers. True/False 19) Lipids are mostly hydrocarbons, and are hydrophobic. True/false 20) What is a triglyceride? What molecules are produced from the hydrolysis of a triglyceride? Glycerol linked to 3 fatty acids. Hydrolysis yields fatty acids and glycerol 21) What is the major function of fats? List the other functions of fats Major function is energy. Also insulation, and cushions vital organs 22) List some examples of lipids. Butter, oil 23) What is the difference between a saturated and an unsaturated fatty acid? Most animal fats are _____________ (saturated or unsaturated). Which one is associated with cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis? Saturated is solid at room temperature, unsaturated is liquid at room temperature. Unsaturated is bc a double covalent bond creates a bend/kink so they cant stack neatly and be solid. Animal fats or normally saturated. Saturated fats are associated w cardiovascular disease but that’s stupid 24) Hydrogenation creates trans fats which have been associated with heart disease. True/False 25) Discuss the health risks of trans fats. They’re bad 26) What were the benefits of hydrogenation in the 1890’s? Reduce oil spoilage, help withstand heat for frying, decrease consumption of animal fats (thought it was unhealthy) 27) What is a phospholipid composed of? Which part is hydrophilic and which parts are hydrophobic? Can you recognize the structure (symbol) of a phospholipid? Phospholipids are two fatty acid tails attached to glycerol. Hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail. Can totally recognize it. 28) Cholesterol is an example of a __steroid____ (protein, steroid, disaccharide, polysaccharide). 29) A high level of blood cholesterol may contribute to circulatory disorders. True/False but not really bc it’s a symptom, not the cause 30) What are anabolic steroids? What are the dangers associated with such steroids? Synthetic variants of testosterone. I went to high school I know the dangers 31) Phospholipids and cholesterol are found in animal cell membranes. True/False 32) The sex hormones estradiol and testosterone are __________ (proteins, steroids, disaccharides, polysaccharides). 33) What is the monomer of proteins? Amino acids 34) Protein diversity is based on different arrangements of a common set of ________ amino acid monomers. A) 10; b) 20; c) 100; d) 1000 35) What is a peptide bond and what is a polypeptide chain? Peptide bond is a covalent bond that links amino acids. Like the thread in a sweater Polypeptide chain is 100s or 1000s of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. Like the yarn in a sweater. 36) A polypeptide chain is produced by dehydration reaction. True/False 37) What is the difference between a polypeptide and a functioning protein? Polypeptide (yarn) creates the functioning protein (sweater). Functioning protein is at least one polypptide coiled twisted folded into a unique shape 38) A unique shape of a protein determines its function. True/False 39) List some examples of proteins and their functions. Collagen Hemoglobin carries oxygen Transthyretin transfer protein 40) Discuss protein denaturation. What factors cause denaturation? It’s when a protein unfolds. Cause by pH change and temperature 41) Discuss the 4 levels of protein structure Primary: combination of amino acids. Covalent peptide bonds. Linear arrangement, determined by DNA. Slight changes can affect function: sicklecell anemia Secondary: individual folds. Hydrogen bonds. One polypeptide folds on itself and bonds w different parts of itself Tertiary: overall shape of polypeptide (determines protein’s function). Quaternary: only w proteins that have more than one polypeptide chain. They aggregate into one functional macromolecule 42) Differentiate between the alpha helix and the beta pleated sheet. What type of bond stabilizes these secondary structures? Hydrogen bond. Alpha helix is coiling. Beta pleated sheet is folding. 43) What bonds are important in the tertiary structure of a protein? Hydrogen, ionic, and covalent 44) List some proteins that have a quaternary structure. Collagen, hemoglobin, transthyretin 45) What are the two types of nucleic acids? DNA and RNA 46) What determines the primary structure of a protein? DNA 47) Make sure you understand the flow of genetic information. DNA RNA protein 48) What is the difference between transcription and translation? Transcription is the process of genetic information going from the DNA to the RNA, and then it is translated to the protein 49) What is the monomer of nucleic acids? nucleotides 50) What does a nucleotide consist of? Sugarphosphate backbone and nitrogenous bases 51) What is a polynucleotide? Multiple nucleotides bonded by dehydration synthesis (which is a covalent bond btw). Phosphate of one nucleotide bonds to the sugar of the next nucleotide 52) Why are nucleic acids called informational polymers? idk 53) List the nitrogenous bases of DNA and RNA. DNA: ATCG RNA: AUCG T vs U is the difference 54) Both DNA and RNA are double stranded molecules. True/False RNA is usually single stranded 55) What bonds hold the two strands of a double helix? Hydrogen bonds 56) In DNA the base adenine pairs with __T_____, while guanine pairs with __C______. 57) Discuss lactose intolerance. Stop producing lactase in early childhood. Intolerance is normal, tolerance is a mutation 58) Which of the following lists contains only polysaccharides? A) sucrose, starch, and cellulose B) starch, amino acids, and glycogen C) cellulose, starch, and glycogen D) nucleotides, glycogen, and cellulose E) fructose, cellulose, and glucose 59) Foods that are high in fiber are most likely derived from A) plants. B) dairy products. C) red meats. D) fish. E) poultry. 60) Peptide bonds A) are used to form amino acids. B) form between fatty acids. C) are formed by a hydrolysis reaction. D) link amino acids. E) bind monosaccharides. 61) In a DNA double helix, a region along one DNA strand has the following sequence: TAGGCCT What is the complementary strand? ATCCGGA STUDY GUIDE Chapter 5: The Working Cell Membranes 1) What is the function of the plasma membrane of cells? a. Keep some things out 2) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane (include arrangement of phospholipids and proteins). a. Phospholipids have hydrophilic heads on outside, hydrophobic tails on inside. Proteins are on/in the bilayer. 3) What part of the phospholipid is hydrophobic and what part is hydrophilic? a. Tails phobic, heads philic 4) Why is the membrane considered to have fluid and mosaic qualities? a. Mosaic is different functions and the pattern of proteins embedded in phospholipid framework b. Fluid bc proteins and phospholipids can move within the membrane 5) What is the function of cholesterol in membranes? a. Stabilizes phospholipids at body temperature, keeps membrane fluid at lower temperatures 6) The inner and outer surfaces of the membrane are different. True/False 7) Define the following: glycolipids, glycoproteins. Where are they located on the plasma membrane and what are their functions. Carbohydrate chains are attached to proteins (glycoproteins ID tags attract other cells’ membrane proteins) or lipids (glycolipids) 8) List some of the proteins present in the plasma membrane (discussed in class). 9) Discuss the functions of the membrane proteins in the above question. Can you identify these proteins, phospholipids, cholesterol, and glycoproteins on a diagram of the cell membrane? (Fig. 5.1). 10) Why is the plasma membrane said to be differentially or selectively permeable. Only allows certain things in 11) Why was the formation of membrane a key step to the origin of life? Basic requirement for life bc it’s regulatory 12) What is the difference between passive and active ways of crossing the plasma membrane Passive does not require ATP. Active does. 13) Discuss the following: simple diffusion, dynamic equilibrium, osmosis, facilitated transport/diffusion, aquaporin, and active transport. Simple diffusion: particles spread out evenly in an available space and move down concentration gradient (the operative force) Dynamic equilibrium: particles move around but equilibrium is maintained bc they trade evenly Osmosis: water diffuses across membrane Facilitated diffusion: transport proteins bring across ions and polar molecules Aquaporin: protein channel that allows water in and out of certain cells. Allows for rapid diffusion and is very specific: only water Active transport: ATP moves particles against concentration gradient 14) Which of the above methods requires cellular energy and which ones do not? Only active transport does 15) Transport proteins are required in both active transport and facilitated transport. True/False 16) Define tonicity, hypotonic, hypertonic, isotonic, turgid, plasmolysis, turgor pressure, osmoregulation. Tonicity: ability of solution to cause cell to gain/lose water. Depends on concentration of solute in solution relative to concentrate of solvent Hypotonic: less solute, more solvent/water Hypertonic: more solute, less solvent/water Isotonic: equal amounts Turgid: normal state of a plant cell. Occurs in hypotonic environments Plasmolysis: plasma membrane pulls away from cell wall when plant cell shrivels. Plasmolyzed. Turgor pressure: pressure as plasma membrane pushes against cell wall when swelling in a hypotonic environment. Good thing: gives plants their upright position Osmoregulation: maintain water balance within cells. Prevents excess uptake/loss of H2O. kidneys = organ of osmoregulation. 17) Consider the following solutions. Solution A contains 80% sucrose, Solution B contains 50% sucrose, solution C contains 20% sucrose, solution D contains 20% sucrose. a) Solution A is ___________ (hypertonic/hypotonic/isotonic) compared to solution B. b) Solution C is _________ (hypertonic/hypotonic/isotonic) compared to solutiuon D. c) Solution D is ___________ (hypertonic/hypotonic/isotonic) compared to solution B. 18) What will happen to a plant cell when placed in a/an: a) hypertonic solution: shriveled/plasmolyzed, b) hypotonic solution: turgid (normal), c) isotonic solution: flaccid 19) What will happen to an animal cell when placed in a/an: a) hypertonic solution, shriveled b) hypotonic solution lysed (pops), c) isotonic solution normal 20) Both animal and plant cells are healthiest in hypotonic environments. True/False Plants are healthiest in hypotonic environments, animal cells in isotonic 21) Discuss the following: exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor mediated endocytosis (include examples). Which form of endocytosis is very specific? How do macrophages and amoeba engulf bacteria and food respectively? Exocytosis: vesicle buds from Golgi with macromolecules, fuses with membrane, expels Endocytosis: membrane folds inwards (invaginates), brings material w vesicle. 3 ways Phagocytosis: cellular eating. Large objects like food particles eg macrophage (White blood cell) engulfs bacteria Pinocytosis: cellular drinking. Vesicles form around liquid material. Normally not specific; any dissolved solute can be taken into the cell. Eg amino acids. Cells lining blood vessels do this: how blood moves through body Receptor mediated endocytosis: proteins on the membrane help out. Very specific bc of protein binding site. Eg take in cholesterol to use w synthesis of membranes and other steroids. Cholesterol in blood is in LDL: binds to receptors Idk how macrophages specifically engulfs bacteria, but it’s via phagocytosis. Amoebas do it with their pseudopodia, false feet. They’re extensions that surround the material. 22) Discuss hypercholesterolemia. LDL receptors are defective or missing and so cant bind with LDL and LDL stays in the bloodstream wreaking havoc 23) What are LDLs and what is their role in the above disorder? Low density lipoproteins. They stay in the bloodstream causing problems. 24) Some protozoans have special organelles called contractile vacuoles that continuously eliminate excess water from the cell. The presence of these organelles tells you that the environment a) is isotonic to the protozoan. b) is hypotonic to the protozoan. That means that the contractile vacuole needs to expel water bc there’s an excess entering the cell. So there’s more water in the environment, so it’s hypotonic. c) contains a higher concentration of solutes than the protozoan. d) is hypertonic to the protozoan. e) c and d are correct. Energy and the Cell 1) Define energy. Differentiate (using examples) between kinetic and potential energy. What is chemical energy? a. Capacity to cause change or to perform work. Kinetic is energy of motion, eg heat or light. Potential is stored energy. Chemical energy: potential energy stored in chemical bonds of nutrient molecules 2) State the first and second laws of thermodynamics a. First: energy is constant: cannot be created or destroyed, only changed b. Second: energy transformations increase disorder/entropy 3) Discuss the concept of entropy and make sure you can relate this to the second law of thermodynamics. a. Entropy is the measure of disorder/randomness. Increased by energy transformations 4) Why are energy conversions described as inefficient? a. Bc they always lose heat: useless energy 5) Heat is a disordered type of energy and makes the universe more random.. True/False 6) Car engines and cells use the same basic process to make the chemical energy of their fuel available for work. True/False 7) Contrast endergonic and exergonic reactions (see Figures 5.11A, and 5.11B) endergonic: take in energy. Products have more energy than reactants. exergonic: release energy. Products have less energy than reactants. 8) Write chemical equations for aerobic cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Indicate the reactants and products for each reaction. Which one is exergonic and which one is endergonic? Why? cellular respiration exergonic because gains energy. C 6 12+66 6C2 +6H O+e2ergy2(ATP + heat) photosynthesis endergonic because loses energy. 6CO +2H O+2nergy(sunlight)C H O +6O6 12 6 2 9) Define the following: metabolism, metabolic pathway, energy coupling. Metabolism: sum of an organism’s chemical reactions Metabolic pathway: series of reactions. Builds a complex molecule or breaks down to simpler compounds Energy coupling: use of energy released from exergonic reactions to drive endergonic reactions 10) What is ATP? What is it composed of? Can you recognize the structure of ATP on a diagram? (Fig. 5.12A) Adenosine triphosphate: adenine (nitrogenous base), ribose sugar, three phosphate groups 11) Sketch the ATP/ADP cycle in cells. Which side of the cycle is exergonic and which side is endergonic? (Fig. 5.12C) 12) ATP is a renewable resource. True/False 13) What are the three main types of cellular work powered by ATP? Chemical: supplies energy for endergonic reactions Mechanical: energy for movement, eg muscle contractions, cilia, flagella Transport: actively move substances across membrane 14) The cell stores large quantities of ATP since it is so important. True/False Enzymes 1) Define the following: enzyme, substrate, active site. a. Enzyme molecules function as biological catalysts 2) List some characteristics of enzymes. a. Almost all are proteins b. Increase rate of chemical reactions without altering itself c. Can use again in same reaction d. Every chemical reaction in a cell is carried out by an enzyme 3) What is activation energy? a. Energy absorbed for a chemical reaction to begin 4) How is the activation energy affected by enzymes – Do enzymes reduce, or increase the activation energy? a. reducing activation energy needed 5) Enzymes add energy to a reaction. True/False 6) Enzymes change the relative energy content of products versus reactants. True/False 7) How is an enzyme – substrate complex formed? Enzyme ad substrate bind. 8) Discuss the ‘induced fit’ model of enzyme activity. Active site undergoes slight change to accommodate substrate: induced fit 9) Enzymes are mostly protein molecules. True/False 10) Discuss the factors that affect the rate of enzyme activity. temp: rate of reaction increases with temperature to appoint, then the enzyme denatures. Most human enzymes 3540 degrees Celsius pH: too high or too low denaturation. Most are best near neutral (68) cofactors: nonprotein helpers. Inorganic substances like ions of zinc, iron, copper 11) What does it mean to say that an enzyme has been denatured? The shape has been changed and it can no longer function 12) Discuss the factors that can denature enzymes. Uh, temperature and pH? 13) Most enzymes have an optimum temperature of 70ºC and an optimum pH of 2.5. True/False 14) What is the difference between a cofactor and a coenzyme? Give an example of a coenzyme, and a cofactor cofactor is a nonprotein helper, and inorganic substance like ions of zinc, iron, and copper. Cofactor is also a nonprotein helper, but is an organic substance like vitamins 15) Differentiate between reversible and irreversible inhibitors. Irreversible: covalently bonded. CBs really strong called irreversible. No enzyme activity. Eg poisons, pesticides, antibiotics. Reversible: not covalently bonded. Two types: competitive and noncompetitive 16) Differentiate between a competitive and a noncompetitive inhibitor. Competitive: resembles enzyme’s normal substrate. Binds at active site: competes w substrate Noncompetitive: binds at a different site than the active site, but thus changes the shape of the active site 17) Inhibitors are always harmful. True/False 18) Discuss feedback inhibition and its importance in cell metabolism. Similar to negative feedback loop. Product acts as inhibitor so that not too many of whatever is made. Regulates cellular metabolic pathways. 19) List examples of drugs that act as enzyme inhibitors. SSRIs, ibuprofen, antibiotics 20) Pesticides and nerve gases are enzyme inhibitors. True/False
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