Exam 3 study guide!
Exam 3 study guide! 70916 - BIOL 103 - 001
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alison Notetaker on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 70916 - BIOL 103 - 001 at George Mason University taught by Gwendolyne Y Fondufe (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 176 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology I in Biology at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
STUDY GUIDE Final Exam Friday, December 12 10:30 am – 1:15 pm Innovation 103 Exams will begin at the scheduled time. Any student who arrives after another student has handed in a completed exam, will not be allowed to take the exam. The final exam is cumulative. This study guide contains concepts covered from the second exam to the end of the semester. You will need Exams 1and 2 to study for the material that you have been tested on previously. There will be 100 multiplechoice questions, for a total of 250 points. – 50 questions will include material from the 2 previous tests (NOTE: SOME OF THESE QUESTIONS WILL BE REWORDED), and – 50 questions will include material that you have not been tested on (this study guide). Don’t forget to bring a scantron, a pencil, a good eraser, and your GMU ID card. Good Luck! Chapter 6: How cells har y 1) a. Both provide energy for lifen cellular respiration and photosynthesis? b. CR makes ATP, consumes O during 2reakdown (oxidation) of glucose to CO 2nd H O 2 c. Photosynthesis uses solar energy to produce glucose and O from C2 and 2 H 2 2) What is misleading about the following statement? Plant cells perform photosynthesis, and animal cells perform cellular respiration. a. Plants have mitochondria perform CR 3) How is breathing related to cellular respiration? a. Breathing: exchange O and2CO btwn 2ungs/air b. CR: O h2lps get en from food mols, CO as wa2te 4) In what organelle does cellular respiration occur? Can you label the parts of this organelle on a diagram (outer membrane, matrix, inner membrane, cristae, intermembrane space)? a. Mitochondria, and probably not 5) In terms of energy yield, a cell is more efficient that an average automobile. True/False 6) About 75% of the energy a person takes in is used to maintain the body. true 7) An average adult needs about 1,000kcal of energy per day. True/False 8) Can you write the chemical equation for cellular respiration? C 6 O12+66O 2CO +6H O+2ATP 2 heat 9) Which of the following regarding cellular respiration is false? a) Cellular respiration consumes glucose b) Cellular respiration is a single chemical reaction with just one step c) Cellular respiration produces water d) Cellular respiration produces carbon dioxide e) Cellular respiration releases heat 10) What are redox reactions? Define oxidation and reduction. Movement of electrons from one molecule to another. Oxidation loss of electrons from substance Reduction addition of electrons to substance (reduce charge) 11) In cellular respiration glucose is oxidized, while oxygen is reduced. True/False 12) What is the role of NAD in cellular respiration? Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Coenzyme. Accepts electrons and becomes reduced to NADH. But idk what that does and I don’t really care so 13) List the stages of cellular respiration discussed in class (include the chemical grooming of pyruvate). Indicate where they occur. Glycolysis occurs in cytosol (make ATP) Pyruvate oxidation and the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) occurs in matrix of mitochondrion Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in mitochondrion 14) NADH and FADH carry2electrons to the electron transport chain. True/False 15) What is oxidative phosphorylation? Where does it occur? It’s electron transport and chemiosmosis (synthesize ATP), and occurs in the mitochondrion 16) What are the products of each stage of cellular respiration? How many ATP molecules are produced from each stage? How many pyruvate, acetyl CoA, CO , 2 NADH and FADH molecules are produced from each stage? 2 Glycolysis: 4 ATP, 2 pyruvate, 2 NADH Pyruvate oxidation: 2 acetyl CoA molecules, 2 CO , 2 NADH Citric acid cycle: 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH , 4 2O 2 Overall: 4 ATP, 10 NADH, 2 FADH 2 17) During what stage is the first CO2 olecule produced? Pyruvate oxidation 18) During which stage of cellular respiration is citric acid produced? Citric acid cycle 19) How many energyrich molecules has the cell gained by processing one molecule of glucose from glycolysis through the citric acid cycle? 20) What is the total number of ATP molecules that can be produced from the complete breakdown of one molecule of glucose? 4 21) There is only one copy of the electron transport chain and one ATP synthase complex in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. True/False 22) What is the importance of oxygen during cellular respiration? Which stage uses oxygen directly? What does oxygen become after accepting the electrons? + 23) How is the H gradient created? The electron transport chain creates it. Idk, does that count?? 24) What is chemiosmosis? During what stage does it occur? Coupling of redox reactions of the electron transport chain and they synthesis of ATP. Occurs during oxidative phosphorylation. 25) Where does the energy for chemiosmosis come from? ATP? Is that the answer? 26) What is the function of ATP synthase? Enzyme that synthesizes ATP 27) How efficient (percentage) is aerobic cellular respiration? 34% 28) How do cyanide, oligomycin, and carbon monoxide affect celluthr respiration? Cyanide and carbon monoxide: Bind to electron carrier in 4 protein complex. Blocks electrons from reaching oxygen (no ATP) Oligomycin: Blocks passage of H through ATP synthase. Prevents fungal cells from making ATP 29) Why do mitochondria in brown fat produce heat? Burns fuel without making ATP, so releases heat. 30) Brown fat is found only in babies. True/False 31) In cold environments, the brown fat of lean people is less active than in overweight people. True/False 32) Distinguish between cellular respiration and fermentation. Fermentation is anaerobic. Glycolysis produces ATP and NADH. Generates 2 + ATP. Provides anaerobic path for recycling NADH back to NAD 33) The ATP produced during fermentation is from glycolysis. True/False 34) NAD is regenerated during fermentation. True/False 35) Distinguish between alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation. Where do these processes take place (examples of organisms or cells)? Lactic acid fermentation: pyruvate lactate (ionized form of lactic acid). Happens w some bacteria like in yogurt and cheese, or in muscle cells when oxygen is limited. Alcohol fermentation: glycolysis pyruvate alcohol (ethanol) and CO . Car2ied out by yeasts. Ethanol for dranks, CO 2akes bread rise, carbonates beer/champagne 36) CO 2is produced in both alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation. True/False. Not in lactic acid fermentation. 37) Both alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation operate anaerobically. True/False. 38) A child is born with a rare disease in which mitochondria are missing from skeletal muscle cells. However, the muscles still function. Physicians find that a) the muscles contain large amounts of lactate following even mild physical exercise b) the muscles contain large amounts of carbon dioxide following even mild physical exercise c) the muscle require extremely high levels of oxygen to function d) the muscles cannot split glucose to pyruvate. e) the muscles require extremely large amounts of carbon dioxide to function 39) Glucose is the only fuel that cells always use for cellular respiration. True/False 40) Biosynthetic pathways require energy. True/False 41) Intermediates from cellular respiration can be used to synthesize other organic molecules. true 42) Explain how a person can gain weight and store fat even when on a lowfat diet. Because sugar and because empty calories Chapter 7: Overview of Photosynthesis 1) Define the following: autotroph, producer, photoautotroph, stomata (lets CO in2 O 2out the pores in leaves), chlorophyll, stroma (dense fluid w biochemical activities. Stored btwn 2 membranes), grana (stacks of thylakoids), thylakoids (interconnected membranous sacs. Sep stroma and thylakoid space) ,and thylakoid space. 2) List some examples of autotrophs. Freaking PLANTS. 3) What is the organelle of photosynthesis? chloroplasts 4) The leaves are the major sites of photosynthesis. True/flase 6) How do CO a2d water necessary for photosynthesis enter the plant? Stomata and roots 7) Photosynthesis is a redox process. True/False 8) In photosynthesis _____ is oxidized and _________ is reduced. a) glucose … oxygen b) Carbon dioxide … water c) Water … carbon dioxide d) glucose …carbon dioxide e) water oxygen 9) When photosynthesis, electrons are boosted up an energy hill when pigment molecules absorb light energy. True/false 10) What are the two metabolic stages in photosynthesis? Light reactions Calvin cycle 11) Where do the two metabolic stages in photosynthesis occur? Light reactions thylakoid membranes Calvin cycle stroma 12) What are the products from the light reaction? O 2 ATP NADPH 13) What are the products from the Calvin cycle? Glyceraldehyde3phospate (G3P) 14) What is NADP+ and what role does it play in photosynthesis. The reduced form of NADP+ is ____NADPH__________. Idk, it’s an electron carrier. 15) What is Carbon fixation, and in which stage does it occur? When CO i2 incorporated into organic compounds. Happens in the Calvin cycle. 16) The products from the light reaction are used in the dark reaction. True/False 17) The lightindependent reactions always require light directly. True/False 18) What does the plant use G3P for? To make glucose and other organic molecules as needed 19) Sugars also serve as the starting material for other organic compounds such as cellulose. True/False 20) Plants store excess sugar as starch in roots tubers and fruits. True/False 21) Photosynthesis is the ultimate source of the food we eat and the oxygen we breathe. True/False 22) Light is a form of electromagnetic light. True/False 23) Define wavelength. Distance between crests of two adjacent waves 24) Shorter wavelengths of light have less energy while longer wavelengths of light have more energy. True/False Shorter wavelengths have more energy. Think about a little kid bouncing up and down 25) Visible light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum and drives the light reactions of photosynthesis. True/False 26) UV radiation can cause skin cancer. Defend this statement. No thank you 27) Why do leaves appear green? Bc chloroplasts absorb the rest of the spectrum and reflect the green 28) What type of pigments are found in chloroplasts, and where in the chloroplast would one expect to find these pigments? Chlorophyll. Also carotenoids (make yellow/orange shades). In thylakoid membranes. 29) What colors does chlorophyll absorb and reflect? Absorbs blueviolet and red, reflects green 30) What is the function of carotenoids? What colors are carotenoids? Broaden spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis. Also photoprotection: absorb excessive light that would damage chlorophyll or interact w oxygen to form molecules (oxidants) that could damage cell molecules. They reflect yellow and orange shades 31) Explain the greenhouse effect. Solar radiation warms surface. Heat absorbed by atmospheric gases but some reflects back to earth. 32) Give examples of greenhouse gases. Methane CO 2 33) What causes global warming? Deforestation Fossil fuel consumption 34) Burning of fossil fuels has increased the concentration of CO in the atmosphere. 2 True/False 35) What are some consequences of global climate change? Polar bears 36) How can photosynthesis moderate global warming? Reduce CO 2 37) How can global warming be reduced generally? Get rid of Al Gore 38) How can global climate change affect plants? Al Gore knows 39) According to documented research, the increase in plant growth due to rising CO 2 levels is often higher in weeds, such as poison ivy, than in crop plants. True/False 40) How is ozone formed? Solar radiation coverts O2 to O3 (ozone) high in the atmosphere 41) Where does the ozone layer come from and why is it so important to life on Earth? See above. Protects from UV radiation 42) What are CFCs and what is the problem associated with them? Clorofluorocarbons. They’re greenhouse gases 43) Global emissions of CFCs are near zero now. True/False 44) The recovery of the ozone layer is expected next year. True/False Chapter 8: The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance: 1) What are the roles of cell division? Make new organism Replace/repair 2) What are the differences between sexual and asexual reproduction? Asexual: offspring identical to original, involves inheritance from one parent Sexual: offspring similar to parents but variations in traits, inherit genes from both parents, not identical to self or each other 3) What is binary fission? What type of organisms divide by this process? Asexual: dividing in half. Prokaryotes do it (singlecelled bacteria and archaea) 4) Chromosomes are composed of DNA only. True/False 5) What is the relationship between chromosomes and chromatin? Chromatin is one long DNA mol + proteins. Chromosome is coils of chromatin 6) Before a cell divides, a chromosome replicates producing 2 identical sister units called __homologues__ joined together at the __centromere__. 7) Discuss the cell cycle (make sure you know the sequence of the stages in the cell cycle). In what stage does the cell spend most of its time? Interphase (G 1 S, G2), miotic phase (mitosis [prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase] and cytokinesis). Cell spends most time in interphase. 8) What events occur during the G ,1S, and G 2hases of interphase? G 1 growth, increase in cytoplasm S: duplication of chromosomes (S is Synthesis of DNA) G 2 growth, prep for division 9) Draw a duplicated chromosome and label the centromere, and sister chromatids. No thank you 10) The Mitotic phase is composed of __mitosis_ and __cytokinesis__. 11) List the stages of mitosis in the correct order. Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Anaphase telophase 12) Can you list the events that are going on at each stage of mitosis? Make sure you can recognize cells at different stages and also label different structures in the cell (such as nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromosomes/chromatin, centrioles, centrosome, spindle, kinetochore, centromere, cleavage furrow, cell plate) Heck no R U jOkINg Interphase cytoplasmic contents double, two centrosomes form, chroms duplicate in nucleus during S phase, and nucleoli are visible (site of ribosome assembly) Prophase microtubules emerge from centrosomes + form spindle (in cytoplasm). In nucleus, chromosomes coil/compact, each appears as 2 sister chromatids, nucleoli disappear Prometaphase spindles reach chromosomes: attach at kinetochores (on centromere) and move chroms to center of cell via ass’ted pro “motors.” Other microtubules meet these from opp poles. Nuclear envelope disappears. Metaphase spindle fully formed. Chroms align @ metaphase plate (cell equator). Kinetochores face opp poles of spindle. Microtubules attached to chromatids come from opp poles. Anaphase chromatids sep @ centromeres. Considered fullfledged daughter chroms. Move to opp poles as motor pros move chroms along spindle icrotubules and kinetochore microtubules shorten. Cell elongates (nonkinetochore microtubules lengthen) Telophase cell conts to elongate. Nuclear envelope forms around chroms @ each pole daughter nuclei. Chromatin uncoils, nucleoli reappear. Spindle disappears. Opp of prophase in terms of chrom/spindle struc. 13) Discuss the role of a spindle in cell division. Composed of microtubules. Required to divide the chromosomes. Produces by centrosomes (in cytoplasm, org microtubule arrangement and contain a pair of centrioles in animal cells) 14) The microtubules of the spindle in animal cells originate from the _______________. (centrosome, centriole, centromere) 15) What is cytokinesis? How does it occur in a) animal cells and b) plant cells? Cytoplasm divides into sep cells. Animal: cleavage furrow forms from contracting ring of microfilaments and deepens to sep into 2 cells. Plant: cell plate forms in middle from vesicles. Grows outward to reach edges, dividing into 2 cells: each now has plasma membrane and cell wall. 16) At the end of mitosis, how many daughter cells have been produced? Are they genetically identical? Are the daughter cells diploid or haploid? 17) While cells such as skin cells and those lining the digestive tract divide frequently, liver cells usually do not divide unless the liver is damaged, and nerve cells do not divide at all. True/False 18) List some factors that affect cell division. Nutrition, growth factors (pros that stim division), densitydependent inhibition (crowded cells stop dividing), anchorage dependence (need to be in contact w solid surface) 19) Discuss the effect of anchorage, cell density and growth factors on animal cell division LLLLL just did 20) What is the cell cycle control system? What is a checkpoint? Cycling set of mols in cell that trigger and coordinate key events in cell cycle. Checkpoint is ctrl pts where stop/go sigs reg events 21) List the checkpoints in the cell cycle. G1, G2, M 22) What happens to a cell that gets the ‘go’ signal at the 1 checkpoint? Entry into S phase, complete cell cycle, divide 23) What happens to a cell that does not get the ‘go’ signal at the 1 checkpoint? Leave cycle, nondividing G 0hase 24) Nondividing cells such as muscle and nerve cells are in the ___G 0_____ phase. 25) Growth factors are proteins secreted by cells that stimulate other cells to grow and divide. True/False 26) How does cancer develop? Not inhibited by other cells, often in absence of growth factors 27) What is the difference between benign and malignant tumors? Benign stays at original site. Malignant spreads. 28) What is the difference between carcinomas and leukemias? Carcinoma is from ext/int body coverings (idk what that means though). Leukemia is from immature white blood cells w/in blood or bone marrow 29) What is metastasis? List some treatments for cancer. Spread beyond original site Surgery for tumors Highenergy radiation chemo 30) Cancer can be caused by a faulty stimulative or inhibitive system. True/False 31) Mutations in genes that stimulate or inhibit cell division contribute to cancer. True/False 32) A single mutation will always result in a cancer cell. True/False 33) What is a carcinogen? List some examples. Causes issues. Tobacco, alcohol, drugs, pollution 33) List the roles of mitosis in cells. Growth, replace damaged/lost cells, asexual reprod 34) How many sets of chromosomes are present in a) a diploid cell, b) a haploid cell? Reg and half 35) What is the difference between somatic cells and sex cells? Body vs sexual (gametes) 36) Discuss the following: homologous chromosomes, autosomes, and sex chromosomes. Members of each pair. NotX and notY, and XY 37) Homologous chromosomes are always identical. True/False 38) Normal human males are ____ (XX, or XY), and human females are ____ (XX, or XY). 39) How many chromosomes are in human somatic cells and human gametes? 46 and 23 40) During meiosis the number of chromosomes is reduced. True/false 41) Like mitosis, meiosis is preceded by chromosome replication. True/False 42) Meiosis is characterized by two divisions. True/false 43) List the stages of meiosis 1 in the correct order and the events occurring at each stage. Prophase I chromosome coil and become compact. Homologous chroms come together, cross over. Nucleolus disappears, centrosomes to opp poles, spindle starts to form, nuclear envelope breaks down. Metaphase I tetrads align @ cell equator, spindle fibers attach to centromere Anaphase I tetrads sep, homologous chroms to opp poles. Each chrom still duplicated (has both sister chromatids) Telophase I and cytokinesis chroms have reached poles, may uncoil into chromatin. Nuclear envelope may reform around chromosomes. Cytokinesis 2 haploid daughter cells 44) Be sure you understand the following terms: synapsis (homologous chromosomes come together as pairs), crossing over (exchange of gen mat), tetrad (each pair of chroms, w 4 chromatids), chiasmata (site of crossing over). 45) Synapsis and crossing over occur during what stage of meiosis? Prophase I 46) What is the advantage of crossing over? Genetic variability 47) At the end of meiosis 1, how many daughter cells have been produced and are they diploid or haploid? Are the chromosomes in each cell duplicated or not? 2 haploid. Chroms duplicated I think?? 48) Does the replication of DNA occur between meiosis 1 and II? No (this is underlined so prob impt???) 49) List the stages of meiosis II. How do the events occurring differ from meiosis1 and how are they similar to mitosis? Essentially the same but starts w haploid cells: each of 2 haploid products enters meiosis II Prophase II chroms coil and become compact (if uncoiled after telophase I). nuclear envelope, if reformed, breaks up again. Metaphase II duplicated chroms align @ equator Anaphase II centromeres sep and daughter chroms to opp poles Telophase II chroms @ poles. Nuclear envelope forms, spindle disappears, 4 haploid cells prod w cytokinesis. 50) Following meiosis II, how many daughter cells have been produced? Are they diploid or haploid? Are the chromosomes in these cells duplicated? 4 haploid, chroms not duplicated 51) Be sure you know all the differences and similarities between mitosis and meiosis. Sim: begin w diploid parent cells, chroms duplicated during prev interphase Diff: mitosis prod 2 gen identical diploid somatic daughter cells, meiosis prod 4 gen unique haploid gametes 52) How do crossing over, independent orientation of chromosomes, and random fertilization result in genetic variation in the offspring? Crossing over: share pieces of DNA/genes Indep orientation: equal prob of mat/pat chrom facing given pole when align @ equator. 2 ombos for chroms packaged into gametes (2 to power of haploid # of gametes) 53) What is a zygote? Is it diploid or haploid? Sperm + egg. Diploid I think 54) Consider a cell that has three pairs of chromosomes. After all possible orientations have been considered, what will be the number of possible combinations of paternal and maternal chromosomes in the resulting gametes (independent orientation only)? (Hint = 2 ) 8??? 55) What is genetic recombination? Prod of new combos of genes bc of crossing over 56) What is a karyotype? Why is it a useful tool? I know 57) What is nondisjunction? During what stage of cell division could it occur? Failure of chroms to sep normally during meiosis Meiosis I if both members of homologous pair go to one pole (anaphase I) Meiosis II if both sister chromatids go to one pole (anaphase II) 58) Discuss the following syndromes resulting from nondisjunction and indicate which chromosomes are involved: Down syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Turner syndrome. Down: 3 copies of chromosome 21 Klinefelters XXY Turner XO 59) What are the genders of the following individuals? Down syndrome (either), XYY male, XXY male, XO female, XXX female 60) Describe the symptoms that the individuals with the above syndromes show. I’d really rather not Only one I don’t know is turner and im sure I can figure that out 61) Why is Down syndrome also called trisomy 21? Bc 3 copies of chrom 21 62) The chance of having a child with Down syndrome increases with maternal age. True/False 63) What is polyploidy? New species can arise from errors in cell division (mitosis or meiosis). True/False more than 2 chromosome sets 64) Define the following alterations of chromosome structure: deletion (loss of segment), duplication (repeat of segment), translocation (Sttachment of a segment to a nonhomologous chrom that can be reciprocal), inversion (reversal of chrom segment) 65) Because chromosomal changes in cancer are usually confined in __________ (somatic cells or sex cells), cancer is not usually inherited. 66) Which of the following is associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia? a) deletion of somatic cells in the bone marrow b) translocation of somatic cells in the bone marrow , c) inversion of somatic cells in the bone marrow , d) duplication of somatic cells in the bone marrow Chapter 9: Patterns of Inheritance 1) Define the following terms: Pangenesis (pangenes from all parts of org incorp into eggs or sperm. Chars acquired during parents’ lifetime transfer to offspring), blending, gene, trait, allele, locus (specific loc of gene along chrom), dominant, recessive, genotype, phenotype, homozygous, heterozygous, monohybrid cross, dihybrid cross, carrier, true breeding, punnett square. 2) What do the letters P and F stand for in genetic crosses? Parent and filial 3) What are the possible gametes from the following genotypes: WW, Tt, Aa. WTA, WTa, WtA, Wta 5) Consider a cross between 2 organisms with the following genotypes Ww and WW. What is the probability of obtaining an offspring from this cross with the genotype? a) WW, b) Ww, c) ww WW, WW, Ww, Ww a. 2/4 b. 2/4 c. 0/4 6) In a monohybrid cross between a man with widow’s peak (homozygous) and a woman who has a straight hairline, what is the a) genotype, b) phenotype of the kids? (Widow’s peak is dominant over straight hairline). a. PP and pp: Pp and they have widows peak 7) Make sure you know the expected phenotypic and genotypic ratios from a monohybrid cross. a. NOOOOOO b. Not memorized but I mean, logic. 8) State Mendel’s law of segregation. a. Alleles b. Homozygous/heterozygous bc of alleles c. Dominant/recessive 9) If the kids in question 4 above were to mate with someone of the same genotype, what will be the phenotypic and genotypic ratios of their kids? What is the probability of obtaining a child with a) widow’s peak and b) straight hairline? a. Pp and Pp make PP, Pp, Pp, pp. 1:2:1, 3:1 phenotype 10) Discuss the role of a test cross. a. Find out if homozygous or heterozygous 11) State Mendel’s law of independent assortment. a. Inheritance of one char has no effect on inher of another. Dihybrid cross equivalent to two monohybrid crosses 11) The law of ________________ (segregation or independent assortment) is dependent on the separation of members of homologous pairs, while the law of __________________ (segregation or independent assortment) is dependent on the random arrangement of homologous chromosomes at the metaphase plate. 12) What are the possible gametes from the following genotypes: WWSS, WWSs, Ttgg, AABB, AaBb. wtf 12) Consider a cross between two organisms that both have the genotype AaBb. What will be the probability of obtaining an offspring from this cross with the genotype a) AaBb, b) aabb, c) AABB? AaBb makes gametes AB, Ab, aB, ab. So offspring agh eff this a. 14) Consider a dihybrid cross where a person with widow’s peak and short fingers (WWSS) is crossed with a person with a straight hairline and long fingers (wwss). a) What is the genotype of the F1 offspring? Gametes are WS and ws. Offspring are all WwSs If we now cross an F1 individual with someone of the same genotype: b) What types of gametes can each parent produce? WS,Ws, wS, ws c) What will be the phenotypic ratio in the F2 offspring? 4:4:4:4??? Maybe? Gotta draw this out d) What is the probability of obtaining each of the 4 phenotypes? I think each is 4/16 but idk 15) Solve practice problems in class notes and the textbook. wat 16) What is a pedigree chart and what kind of information can one obtain from such a chart? Make sure you know the symbols used in pedigree charts. Oh it’s the family tree thing. Males square, females circle 17) Study the pedigree charts in the textbook and make sure you can determine the genotypes of the individuals in the pedigree. No u suck 18) List some characteristics of autosomal recessive traits Affect both sexes equally Heterozygotes are carriers and can have affected kids Affected parents always have affected kids Tend to skip gens Prob inc w inbreeding 19) Most human genetic disorders are recessive. True/False 20) What is Huntington disease? Degen of nervous system Is it dominant or recessive? A woman who is heterozygous for Huntington disease reproduces with a man who is normal. What are the chances that their kid will a) have this disorder, b) be normal? Hh and hh prod Hh, Hh, hh, hh. So 2/4 and 2/4 21) What is cystic fibrosis? mucus Is it recessive or dominant? 22) How can modern technology help parents learn about their genetic makeup and their baby’s genetic makeup? Amniocentesis amniotic fluid, karyotype Chorionic villus sampling chorionic villus tissue from placenta, karyotyping Blood tests, fetal imaging, newborn screening 23) What is incomplete dominance? Give an example of this inheritance pattern. Make sure you can solve genetics problems involving incomplete dominance. It’s like blending. Eg snapdragons. Rr makes pink. Also hypercholesterolemia. 24) In incomplete dominance, what are the genotypic and phenotypic ratios in the F 2 generation? 1:2:1 for both 25) Is a testcross required in incomplete dominance? no 26) Discuss the phenotypes and genotypes in hypercholesterolemia. 1:2:1 27) What is the multiple allele system? Give an example in humans. More than 2 alleles in pop like blood type 28) What is codominance. In the ABO blood group system which alleles are codominant and which one is recessive? Can a person of blood type AB possibly be the parent of a child of a) blood type O, b) blood type A, c) blood type B. It’s when both expressed. O is recessive. AB not O, yes A, yes B. 29) What type of carbohydrates is/are present on the red blood cell surfaces of a person with type A, type B, type AB, and type O? A, B, AB, and O duh 30) What are the possible genotypes of type O, A, B, and AB? OO, AO, AA, BO, BB, AB 31) Why is it important that during blood transfusions the blood types should match? Antibodies attack foreign sugars 32) A person of type AB will produce antiA and antiB antibodies. True/False 33) What is pleiotropy? One gene influences many characteristics 34) Discuss the sickle cell disease. Make sure you understand the symptoms associated with this disease. no 35) What is the sickle cell trait? Cells are sickle shaped 36) Why are the heterozygotes protected from malaria? Malaria sickles the cells, and body attacks the sickles thus killing th malaria 37) In individuals with the sickle cell trait, the alleles are codominant. True/False 38) What is polygenic inheritance? Give some examples. Phenotypic character controlled by more than 1 gene. Eg skin color, height 39) The environment can affect many traits. True/False 40) On which chromosome is the SRY gene found and what does this gene do? Y chrom. Develop testes (or ovaries in absence) 41) A sperm cell can have either a Y chromosome or an X chromosome, while all eggs contain a single X chromosome. True/False 42) What are sexlinked traits? Distinguish between Xlinked and Ylinked traits. Give an example of an Xlinked trait. Genes on sex chromosomes. More are X. eg colorblind, hemophilia, duchenne muscular dystrophy 43) List some characteristics of Xlinked recessive traits. More males than females For daughter, dad affected and mom carrier or affected For son, both parents can have normal phenotype If woman affected and man not, sons yes and daughters carriers 44) In humans hemophilia is an Xlinked recessive disorder. If a woman with hemophilia marries a normal man, which of the following is true? a) Their sons have a 50% chance of having hemophilia b) All of their sons will have hemophilia c) Their daughters have a 50% chance of having hemophilia d) Their daughters have a 50% chance of being carriers h h H X X x X Y hH hY hH hY sons 100% daughters carriers
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