23 February 2016
I. Factors Affecting Attraction:
b. Mere exposure: when we’re exposed to something new and we don’t have a negative attitude towards it, repeated exposure leads to increased favorable attitudes towards it; initially neutral the more we like it; this happens for people and novel objects
A. Familiarity or Mere Exposure
E.g., Zajonc (1968):
Participants see different bogus words; variance comes from how many times people are exposed to given words; this means some are repeated more than others; afterwards, you’re told to infer the meaning of the word; found that the words that the participants were exposed to more frequently were said to have a positive meaning
E.g. Saegert, Swap, & Zajonc (1973):
Participants are told that the researchers are testing taste; lots of rooms, lots of people, tasting different drinks; participants pass some people more times than others; rate how much they like the other people at the end; therefore, the more you’re exposed to some people, the more you like them We also discuss several other topics like What does congress do for federal courts?
*Classical conditioning: when we are exposed to something novel, the absence of something bad is the unconditioned stimulus; when nothing bad happens, we feel calm; the more familiar we become with someone, the more we like them
B. Proximity: we like people that we’re closer to in space than those we’re more distant from; in order to form a relationship with somebody, you have to have contact with someone; liking and disliking comes from knowing someone even exists to begin with; if you’re to keep seeing and being around some person, you’re more likely to like them
E.g., Festinger, Schacter, & Back (1950) MIT Housing:
Married student housing; randomly assigned to apartments; asked to write down “friends”; the majority of the friends written down lived in close proximity; people who live in high traffic areas were listed by more people as a friend than people who live in low traffic areas
C. Similarity: research suggests that we like similar others; people who share our attitudes; people who are attitudinally similar we like them more
C.1. Attitudinal Similarity and Attraction
E.g., Newcomb (1961):
Free housing if they agreed to be in the studies; could not know anyone else in the house; they fill out attitudes towards different things at the beginning of the semester; those who were more attitudinally similar were more likely to be friends; what we don’t know about this is the causality If you want to learn more check out What is defined as the satisfaction derived by a consumer from the consumption of a good?
E.g., Donald Byrne:
You’re told that you’re going to interact with the other participant; first, fill out your attitudes towards a number of issues; experimenter comes back and gives you the other person’s attitudes; this is manipulated; they’re asked to fill out a rating of how they think the other person is; what the find is a positive linear relationship between attraction and similarity; bogusother paradigm
C.2. Similarity to Actual vs. Ideal self?
E.g., LaPrelle, Hoyle, Insko, & Bernthal, (1990)
rate actual self, ideal self, liked peers, and not liked peers on trait scales
We are threatened by but also admire those who are what we want to become.
Selfesteem doesn’t seem to play a role in this.
D. Physical Attractiveness
E.g., Walster, Aronson, Abrams, & Rottman (1966) “computer dance” If you want to learn more check out What controls insolation?
College students were randomly assigned a partner to go to a dance together; when you get there, you fill out lots of measures and rate how physically attractive the other person is; half way through the dance they must rate how attracted they are to the other person; this is driven more by physical attractiveness than anything else
D.1. Why? The attractive stereotype: we assume that physically attractive people are good people;
D.2. Why? Basking In Reflected Beauty
E.g., Kernis & Wheeler (1981):
Participants are seated in a waiting room; two people come in and are seated; one of those people (peer) and the other (target); same sex people; rated whether the peer was attractive looking or not; manipulate whether or not the two people appear to be friends;
D.3. Why? Cue to Reproductive FitnessIf you want to learn more check out What is oxymyoglobin and what color is it associated with?
If you want to learn more check out How do we hear?
February 25, 2016
A. Sternberg’s Love Triangle (Robert Sternberg, 1986)
Love is multidimensional
There are eight types of love; they come together on the three building
∙Sternberg suggests that love has three components:
(1) Intimacy – feelings of closeness
(2) Passion – physical attraction and sexual arousal
(3) Commitment – a desire/decision to maintain a relationship
Combine to produce 7 forms of love:
C. Passionate Love: Arousal & Attributions
Berschied and Walster (1974)
must have some type of sexual arousal; they must fit your schema
feeling arousal and you attribute it to why you’re feeling this arousal Don't forget about the age old question of What is the main idea of classical liberalism?
you could be aroused for another reason; this is a building block of passionate love
E.g., Dutton and Aron (1974)
studied men hiking in the mountains; approached by male or female assistant; either on a suspension or sturdy bridge; research assistant gave them their phone number if interested in the study; found high sexual stories in
men talking to women research assistant on the shaky bridge; misinterpretation and misattribution of fear for arousal for the woman