Exam 2 Practice Test
Exam 2 Practice Test BIOL 104
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alison Notetaker on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 104 at George Mason University taught by Luther in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 353 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Biology 104 Midterm 2 March2015 1 Which types of cells in the nervous system convey information to effector cells A sensory neurons B interneurons C nononeurons D motor neurons Answer D 2 Antibodies attach to the surface of antigens which inactivates them This is called an effector mechanism How are inactivated antigens eliminated from the body A The inactive antigens are removed by the kidneys C Cytotoxic tcells wipe out the inactive antigens D Lysosyme is used to explode the inactive antigen Answer B 3 The functional unit of the nervous system is the A dendrite B cell body C neuron D eye E synapse Answer C Topic 282 Skill Conceptual Understanding 4 What part of a nerve cell carries signals toward the part of the cell body that houses the nucleus A node of Ranvier B axon C cell body D dendrite E neuron Answer D Topic 282 Skill Conceptual Understanding 5 Sensory receptors are part of the A central nervous system B peripheral nervous system C ovary D hypothalamus Answer B 6 This figure plots the membrane potential at a particular point of a nerve cell during an action potential or nerve signal What is happening at the membrane level of the cell during the time periods labeled 2 and 3 on the plot 50 Action potential C 939 o 35 0 g E 5 50 Threshold E E Resting potential 100 Time msec r A 1 Potassium ions are rushing out of the cell B 2 Potassium ions are rushing into the cell C 3 Sodium ions are rushing out of the cell D 4 Sodium ions are rushing in to the cell Answer D 7 Action potentials normally travel along an axon A toward the cell body B away from the cell body C in either direction depending on the needs of the animal D away from the synapse E into dendrites Answer B Topic 285 Skill Conceptual Understanding 8 The gap between the transmitting and receiving neurons in a chemical synapse is known as the A node B cambium C cell body D synaptic cleft Answer D Topic 286 Skill Factual Recall 9 The autonomic nervous system A carries signals to and from skeletal muscles B regulates the internal environment of the body C is mostly voluntary D is just in your feet Answer B Topic 2812 Skill Factual Recall 10 The sophisticated behavior of mammals and birds is directly related to A their relatively large cerebrum B the presence of a hindbrain C the presence of a midbrain D the presence of a notochord Answer A Topic 2814 Skill Conceptual Understanding 11 Which section accounts for 80 of the total human brain mass A Midbrain B Thalamus C Cerebral Cortex D Hypothalamus Answer C 12 Inside of a neuron cell in the axon What happens at resting potential 5 Actmn pmtew lal 51 runmama Mum Emma 51 ux en i ali ErI39MEI I Hearing pxummlallis i Time mane 1 A The sodium and potassium channels are closed B the potassium channels are open C the dopamine binds With neuroreceptors D the sodium and potassium channels are both open ANSWER A 13 Treatments for depression often include drugs that help correct imbalances in the levels of A serotonin B fungus C acetylcholine D nitric oxide E epinephrine Answer A Topic 2821 Skill Factual Recall 14 Which part of this diagram of a neuron depicts the axon A part A B part B C part C D part D Answer D Topic 282 Skill Factual Recall 15 Which part of this diagram of the human brain depicts the cerebellum A part A B part B C part C D part D E part E Answer E Topic 2815 Skill Factual Recall 16 The major result of the in ammatory response is to A initiate the production of antibodies B remove contaminating microorganisms and initiate repair of damaged tissues C initiate cellmediated immune responses D initiate humoralmediated immune responses E initiate the production of killer cells Answer B Topic 242 Skill Conceptual Understanding 17 Which of the following cell types is responsible for humoral immunity A C lymphocytes C neutrophils D natural killer cells E macrophages Answer B Topic 245 Skill Factual Recall 18 HIV is a Virus that is particularly difficult to eradicate A because of its DNA genome B since it is transmitted in water C because it rarely mutates D because it mutates to produce new drugresistant strains E due to its small size Answer D Topic 2414Evolution Connection Skill Conceptual Understanding 19 What type of immune response is always disadvantageous to a person A cellmediated B in ammatory C humoralmediated D autoimmune E complementmediated Answer D Topic 2416 Skill Conceptual Understanding 20 The secondary immune response occurs when memory cells bind to A hormones B antibodies C antigens D plasma cells E clones Answer C Topic 247 Skill Factual Recall 21 Which of the following distinguishes the secondary immune response from the primary immune response A The primary response is specific the secondary one is not B The secondary response produces higher levels of antibodies C The primary response involves B cells the secondary one involves T cells D The secondary response only functions with the help of complement Answer B Topic 247 Skill Conceptual Understanding 22 Anaphylactic shock is an example of an A autoimmune disease B immunodeficiency disease C allergic response D acquired immunodeficiency disease E acquired autoimmune disease Answer C Topic 2417 Skill Factual Recall 23 Antibodies are a amino acids b carbohydrates c lipids 1 proteins d protein 24 Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for humoral immunity a T cells b cytotoxic T cells c B cells d neutrophils answer C 25 Which of the following triggers our nonspecific defense system a active immunity b cellmediated immunity c in ammation d passive immunity answer C 26 Most spinal cord damage is caused by a viral infections b slicing of the spinal cord c forces that pull the cord apart answer d 27 Hormones are chemicals produced by the endocrine system that A control the formation of urine B regulate a variety of body functions such as metabolism C are stimulated by the action of metabolic enzymes D play a role in digestion of fats E function to prevent a variety of diseases such as diabetes Answer B Topic Opening Essay Skill Factual Recall 28 Compared to the endocrine system the nervous system A has a faster response but the signal does not last as long B has a slower response and a signal that does not last as long 8 C has a faster response with a longerlasting signal D has a slower response with a longerlasting signal E has a slower response but a signal that lasts roughly the same amount of time Answer A Topic 26 Skill Conceptual Understanding 29 Neurosecretory cells A are local regulators B are restricted to the endocrine system D transmit electrical signals Answer C Topic 26 Skill Factual Recall 30 Which of the following options lists the sequence of events in the cellsignaling process in the correct order A reception cell response transduction B transduction reception cell response C transduction cell response reception D reception transduction cell response E cell response transduction reception Answer D Topic 262 Skill Factual Recall 31 A single steroid hormone can cause different effects in different cells by A sticking to different parts of the cellular membrane B binding to different receptors C acting on different organelles D activating different second messengers Answer B Topic 262 Skill Conceptual Understanding 32 Which of the following options correctly pairs an endocrine gland or hormone with an aspect of metabolism that it regulates A parathyroid stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids B pancreas stimulates growth of the uterine lining C insulin regulates blood glucose levels D prolactin manages blood potassium levels E thyroid stimulates T lymphocyte development Answer C Topic 263 Skill Factual Recall 33 Which of the following hormones affects the greatest variety of cell types A prolactin B endorphin C melatonin D growth hormone E calcitonin Answer D Topic 264 Skill Factual Recall 34 The brain is part of the A peripheral nervous system B pancreas C central nervous system D humoral response Answer C 35 Which gland exerts primary control over the concentration of sugar in the blood A liver B pituitary C pineal D pancreas E parathyroid 10 Answer D Topic 267 Skill Conceptual Understanding 36 What is the metabolic abnormality that underlies the characteristic symptoms of diabetes mellitus A a failure of the kidney tubules to reabsorb enough glucose from the urine B an inability of the body39s cells to absorb enough glucose from the blood C an inability of the body39s cells to switch from glucose metabolism to fat metabolism between meals D an inability of the body39s cells to retain glucose they have absorbed from the blood Answer B Topic 268 Skill Conceptual Understanding 37 Which of the following is associated with obesity often does not show up until after the age of 40 and occurs because cells of the body fail to respond adequately to insulin A type 1 diabetes B type 2 diabetes C type 3 diabetes D hyperglycemia E hypoglycemia Answer B Topic 268 Skill Factual Recall 38 Which of the following glands is located nearest the kidneys A ovaries B pancreas C pineal glands D parathyroid glands Answer E Topic 269 Skill Factual Recall 39 Which of the following glands secretes hormones that enable the body to respond to stress A pancreas B adrenal C pineal D salivary E parathyroid ll Answer B Topic 269 Skill Factual Recall 40 Which of the following is a function of epinephrine A release of glucose from the liver B decreased heart rate C increase in urine output D increased absorption of glucose by the digestive tract E increased sensitivity to light Answer A Topic 269 Skill Factual Recall 41 Which of the following is one of the three major categories of sex hormones A glucocorticoids B estrogens C glucagons D prolactins Answer B Topic 2610 Skill Factual Recall 42 The hormone prolactin found in distantly related vertebrates exerts different effects in different species From an evolutionary standpoint this is an indication that hormonal regulation A is not critical to all animals B is required only of nonsteroid hormones C is an ancient process whose function diversi ed through evolution D was a recent evolutionary adaptation E was not required in fish and amphibians Answer C Topic 2611Evolution Connection Skill Conceptual Understanding 43 Prolactin is a hormone whose molecular structure has remained stable over evolutionary time but whose hormonal role has changed dramatically in different animal species This is an excellent example of how 12 evolution A is responsible for mutation in vertebrates B occurs rapidly at the molecular level to keep up with changing environmental in uences C is governed by the molecular biology of cells D has stayed within narrow boundaries in regard to regulation of homeostasis E can both preserve unity and promote diversity Answer E Topic 2611Evolution Connection Skill Conceptual Understanding Scenario Questions After reading the following paragraph answer the questions below Recent studies have shown that the onset of puberty in American girls has decreased from an average of 1213 years of age to as young as 810 Many scientists that study premature puberty suggest that steroids in our food and in the environment may be contributing factors since steroids are known to cross cell membranes and bind to receptors inside cells Why are hormones present in our foods Synthetic testosterone compounds similar to those used by some athletes make young animals gain weight faster so they are ready for market sooner Female animals receive synthetic estrogen to inhibit the reproductive cycle and divert all energy into weight gain In the United States up to twothirds of meat animals are raised using hormones In addition hormones are used to increase milk production in dairy cattle Scientific investigation of the exact effects of environmental steroids on humans is extremely difficult since there are multiple sources of hormones in the environment A valid study would require a control group who hasn39t been exposed to the chemicals being studied Since everyone has had some exposure to environmental hormones no control group is available to use as a reference 44 When environmental estrogens trigger premature puberty the main organs affected are the A ovaries and uterus B thymus C thyroid gland and pituitary gland D adrenal cortex E pituitary gland and parathyroid glands Answer A Topic 263 264 Skill Factual Recall 13 For questions 4547 refer to the following picture brain 1f l A quoty h i 45 The letter a represents which of the following A sensory receptor B synapse C spinal cord D CNS E effector cell Answer A 46 The letter e represents A an effector cell B an interneuron C a motor neuron D sensory neuron Answer B 47 The letter g represents A an interneuron B an effector cell 14 C a sensory neuron D a synaps E spinal chord Answer B For questions 48 to 50 refer to the following picture Second exposure to antigen X Secondary immune first exposure response to to antigen Y antigen X A 6 o El 9 quot rst enpnsureD no antien X 0 Q Primary immune response to antigen X Primary immune response to antigen Y Antibody can centratioin Antibodies to X Antibodies 7 N 7 7 7 7 7 7 i 0 T M 211 28 35 42 49 56 Time clays 48 How long until the primary immune response to antigen X begins A 28 days B 7 days C 35 days D 42 days E 20 days Answer B 49 Does the primary or secondary immune response to antigen X have a higher concentration of antibodies A primary B secondary C tertiary D none at all Answer B 50 How is the response to the Y antigen affected by the primary response to the X antigen A The rst exposure X does not affect the response to Y B The first exposure to X promotes a quicker response to Y C The second exposure to X inhibits the immune response to antigen Y 15 Answer A 16
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