SOCIOLOGY EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
SOCIOLOGY EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Sociology 113
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sharon Stambouli on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 113 at Suffolk University taught by Professor Wiltz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Social Science at Suffolk University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
SOCIOLOGY 113 EXAM #2 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTERS 4,5,6 CHAPTER 4 CULTURE: We rely on culture for almost everything we do. It shapes who we are and it is learned and transmitted through generations, which is the process of socialization (transmission of culture). Most people do not recognize how much they rely on their culture until they find themselves immersed in someone else’s. o Example from the book: SpongeBob Square Pants going into Sandy’s air-filled home for the first time. The three elements of culture are: norms, values, and artifacts. Norms and values are socially constructed (made by society) and artifacts are too, in some way, because we are the ones that place meaning on artifacts based on our values. ü Values: very important for our culture but not necessarily represent how we behave in it, they are not stagnant. They represent the ideal culture (how we should and should not act) o Example: Ch. 1’s Sociologists in Action – Sweatshops. o Example on Ch. 4: in America, being “Fit” is well seen and respected, while in a poor country, people that diet and refrain themselves from certain foods are not well-looked upon. o Examples of values in America: Achievement and success as major goals, activity and work over leisure and laziness and material comfort as the American Dream. CLIP: "MATERIAL AMERICA". Comparing Culture in Sweden and America: American families have their fridge filled with family photos, diplomas, awards, and they have packed shelves. Families in Sweden are very simplistic and have few photographs and nothing is stacked and looks full. Americans don’t get rid of things they don’t usually need; they like to collect stuff. ü Norms: established standards that guide the way we act in society. They change overtime (like rules). Values and norms may contradict. ü Artifacts (material culture): tangible objects that people from a culture create and use. o Example: in a certain culture in the world, canes represent loyalty. Language: how we learn our culture. Culturally determined and it influences how we think and perceive things. Non-verbal communications: facial expressions, signals and body language. All seen adopted differently depending on one’s culture. SOCIOLOGY 113 Types of Culture: ü Dominant Culture: group of people that has the most power. Determines and guides what the culture will be. Not necessarily the majority. ü Subcultures: distinguishable differences from dominant culture but still follow the main norms. Not threatening to dominant culture. ü Counterculture: opposition to the dominant culture. Some peaceful and some violent. o Examples from Book: KuKluxKlan, Neo Nazis, American Indian Movement, Al Qaeda. ü Micro Culture: smaller group of people who gather on a regular basis. o Example: a college campus “Campus Culture” (all students wearing school gear), group of friends, student body. Cultural Relativism: sometimes it is really difficult to understand and accept other cultures and we judge them out of context (Uncle Bob’s reasoning – we believe Uncle Bob about other cultures and judge them based on that). Cultural relativism understands other cultures’ beliefs, norms and values from their perspective and lens. SOCIOLOGISTS IN ACTION: DOUG McADAM: Researched what compelled students to aid black voters in Mississippi to register, and found that those willing to risk their lives (to help) were a part of a subculture with norms that supported social activism to promote civil rights. ARTICLE: ‘WHAT YOU LOOK LIKE IS SUCH A BIG FACTOR’: Girls’ own reflections about the appearance culture in an all-girls’ school: Scientific method: semi-structured interviews, qualitative research. They used a thematic analysis to analyze major patterns in the data. Ethical concerns: consent and confidentiality and approved by the IRB, parents had to give consent. Purpose: investigate the key venue for the development and expression of body image concerns in adolescent girls, high school. Literature review: other researchers found that school is a major socializing context for young people, that people equate beauty with extreme thinness, body image concerns rank above family issues, drugs, conflict, and suicide. Young women suffer from high levels of dissatisfaction and anxiety about their bodies. ‘Appearance cultures’ or cultures of weight consciousness, in which adolescent girls incorporate sociocultural standards for female beauty into their peer cultures, are widely present. th Procedure: interviewed 9 girls (all white Australians in the 10 grade of an all- girls school) in a private room (controlled setting). Findings: some groups had more weight concerns than others based on popularity. Girls related attractiveness with being skinny. They were not previously told so much about an existing appearance culture, but all seemed to include it in their answers. Fashion magazines were mentioned frequently. The SOCIOLOGY 113 main focus of girls is body size. Dieting sometimes is a way to maintain friendships and fit in. Groups and conversations are formed through a shared ideal of thinness. Concerns with eating disorders and media portrayal of women in general. Problems with the research: very specific group of girls, they should expand it to co-ed schools, people of other races and ages, and workplace. Role of socialization: school as a counterproductive. Their attempts to fix this problem made people want to diet more. They did not give them specific information about disorders, just told them to eat healthy and not pay attention to being so thin. Socializing agents: media, family, school and peers. Elements of appearance culture (3): Appearance conversations, peer appearance criticism and appearance-focus media exposure. CHAPTER 5 SOCIALIZATION: Process through which we learn culture. This process starts at birth and ends when we die. It even starts before birth because our parents socialize us by buying us pink clothes if we are girls, or blue if we are boys. Nature and nurture both have an effect on whom we become. Human contact and social interaction are crucial for proper human development. o Example from book: girl called Isabel who is locked until she was 6 years old, when she got out; she acted like an animal with no human-like behavior. We have agency= our own will and personality Socialization Theories: ü Looking Glass Self: (Charles Horton Cooley) It emerges from the perception we have on how others see us. (We perceive ourselves based on how we think others see us). ü The Generalized Other: (George Herbert Mead) Developed through interactions with others. The part of our personality that is a combination of self-image and self-awareness) we do this by interaction through symbols and seeing ourselves through perspectives of others. We move through these three phases through socialization: o The “I”: selfish, childish. o The “Me”: the way a person thinks others perceive him o The “Generalized Other”: final stage of our development. Internalized self of total expectations of others who support dominant norms and values. ü Freud’s theory of personality: (Sigmund Freud) There are three sections of the unconscious: SOCIOLOGY 113 o ID: wanting instant gratification (NOW) (If I want a car now and cannot afford it, I will steal it) o SUPEREGO: unconscious is aware of others and we internalize dominant norms (We decide not to steal the car, so not get it at all) o EGO: Balance between ID and Superego (plan to save money and in six months, purchase the car without having to steal it) Agents of Socialization: Vehicles through which socialization happens ü Family: First introduction to society. Where we learn socially defined roles such as mother, father and brother. What our parents constantly tell us about ourselves can largely determine how we view ourselves and how we behave) they determine our religion, public citizens, language, and culture. ü School/Education: “Hidden Curriculum”. We learn discipline (civic behavior), academics, we figure out who we are without our parents, we merge into a community. Schools give us tools that we need to operate in society. our dominant values determine what is taught in schools. ü Peers: neighborhood, school, sports teams, etc. since we want to “fit in” and impress our friends, we change and develop different personalities when we are with our peers. They attribute roles to people. Can have a positive or negative (drugs, self-esteem) impact on our socialization. ü Media: any instrument or medium that disseminates information in a large scale. Shows us how other societies work. o Examples: social media, websites, TV, magazines, music, etc. ü Religion: expose us to teachings about ways to view and act in the world, and it provides civic engagement opportunities. Morals, traditions, customs. Gives us a sense of right vs. wrong and it helps to reinforce society. ü Others: geographic, workplace, economic status, extracurricular, government, ethnic groups, etc. SOCIOLOGIST IN ACTION: Donna Yang, Christian Agurto, Michelle Benavides, Brianne Godowsky, Desiree Martinez and Michelle Van Hook: Used sociological tools in their colleges to educate about Kiva (a micro fine project to aid women and diminish poverty. Used the sociological eye and promoted social activism. Created informational pamphlets and presentations, which helped understand the importance of sociology. EXCERPTS FROM LORY (Diary of an anorexic girl): became extremely skinny that she had to live in a hospital and was contemplating to kill herself. Her mother was not supportive and she went from being fat and laughed at, to being skinny and not seeing herself as a “stick figure”. VIDEO: KILLING US SOFTLY 4: Advertising’s Image of Women (Jill Kilburn) Studied a lot of different ads and analyzed the role and portrayal of women in them. SOCIOLOGY 113 ü We like to believe we are not influenced by ads, but they really affect our subconscious minds and attract us to products and ideas. ü The environment surrounds us with unhealthy images and tells us who we should be. ü Ads tell us to spend all our money and energy into “looking perfect” which is unrealistic. The images we see of how we want to be are constructed and fake o Example: Lucky magazine put four women together into one by photoshopping all their good features into the “perfect woman” ü These ads affect men directly as they are told to love an unexisting woman. ü The action of editing a human being to make people want to change is an act of violence. ü The idea that breasts sell everything: jeans, colognes, etc. ü Turning a human body into a thing is an act of violence. o Example: Budweiser using a woman and turns her into a beer ü Women and men inhabit different worlds, boys are not subject to being ridiculed all the time about their bodies, women are. ü Models keep getting skinnier and people adopt these eating ways and develop disorders. ü Advertising has been turning everything into a sexual ad. Food is made sexual ü Men are portrayed with dignity and strength and women as innocent and childish in order to look “Sexy” and “attractive” ü Ads promote pornography and child pornography. There is no emphasis on relationships; only young sex to sell things such as clothes and cars. This makes “not hot” women feel undesirable. ü All feminine things are seen as bad and devaluated, and men repress these qualities due to the media. ü Solution: to become aware and educated and take action by protesting, speaking up and thinking as citizens as opposed to consumers. CHAPTER 6 DEVIANCE: Any behavior that violates the standards of society. Not always negative (like the Civil Rights Movement) ü Folkways: norms that are enforced through informal sanctions (Someone giving us dirty looks for not holding the door for them) and rewards (a smile). ü Mores: society’s norms that reflect the values that we hold most dearly. Violations are more strictly punished. SOCIOLOGY 113 ü Taboos: violations of our most powerful mores o Examples: incest, cannibalism ü Laws: governmental social control enforced through formal sanctions. Some affect everyone and some affect only smaller groups (fishing laws) Theories of Deviance: ü Functionalism: by Emile Durkheim. Maintained that deviant acts and those who commit them actually are useful for society. This can help make the norms more clear to the population and unite the non-deviants to promote social change. ü Social Capital: network of people who rely on one another and work together to accomplish a goal. They punish and root out deviant members of society. They are reciprocal (give and receive) and can have positive effects (eg. successful internships) or negative effects (coming together for the wrong reasons). o Bridging Social Capital: making connections BETWEEN social groups to address the same issues such as crime. o Bonding Social Capital: connections within a social group. ü Rational Choice Theory: people decide to either commit or not commit crimes based on their costs and benefits of such behavior (weighing the pros and the cons) o Example: In New Orleans, there are few rewards for good behaviors so crime rates are very high. ü Conflict Theory: Marxist theories maintain that society is made of groups of competing powers, those who have the power to create the norms that will benefit them (dominant) and those with lower statuses. The actions of the poor are most likely to be labeled as deviant and criminal than those committed by rich individuals (“The Rich get Richer and the Poor get Prison” by Jeffrey Reiman) White-collar crime and corporate crime are seen as less impactful to society, but in reality they are much more detrimental for the people because they ruin lives and families. They are way more important than a person doing drugs. o White-Collar Crime: crimes for a person’s own benefits (fraud) o Corporate Crimes: committed by executives to benefit a whole corporation. ü Symbolic Interactionism and Deviance: people learn to commit deviant actions through their interactions with others. o Differential Association Theory: by Edwin Sutherland. Deviance is a learned behavior that people learn by associating themselves with people who commit deviant acts. § Example: someone raised by parents who do drugs o Labeling Theory: by Howard Becker. Actions are seen as deviant if the dominant group labels them as deviant. SOCIOLOGY 113 § Racial Profiling: law enforcement that involves subjecting people to greater scrutiny or treating someone as potentially dangerous based on stereotypes of race. • “Driving While Black” in New Jersey ü Strain theory: by Robert Merton. There are cultural goals and then there are institutionalized means: o Cultural Goals: like the American Dream o Institutionalized Means: good ways to achieve cultural goals. (College education) o When there is discrepancy for the goals and no access for society’s institutionalized means, rates of deviants increase. o Modes of Adaptation: § Conformity: accept cultural goals, accept institutionalized means § Innovation: accept cultural goals, reject institutionalized means § Ritualism: reject cultural goals, accept institutionalized means § Retreatism: reject cultural goals, reject institutionalized means § Rebellion: reject cultural goals; reject institutionalized means, by going against all of these and rebelling. SOCIOLOGIST IN ACTION: ELLIS JONES: She went to a fair called ‘Earth Day’ and realized their new approach was perfect: they opened up a realm of action for people to help society- their own everyday lives. This is by engaging in micro activism (easy access). If enough people apply this, it can work. She came together with two friends and made a handbook: ‘The Better World Handbook: Small Changes that make a big difference’. Sociology provided them with the necessary tools to uncover, understand, and translate the world’s problems and turn them into contributions. VIDEO: STANFORD PRISON EXPERIMENT: Zimbardo (psychologist) was interested in finding out whether the brutality reported among guards in American prisons was due to the sadistic personalities of the guards (i.e. dispositional) or had more to do with the prison environment (i.e. situational) Zimbardo converted a basement of the Stanford University psychology building into a mock prison. He advertised for students to play the roles of prisoners and guards for a fortnight. Prisoners were treated like every other criminal, being arrested at their own homes, without warning, and taken to the local police station. Guards were instructed to do whatever they thought was necessary to maintain law and order in the prison and to command the respect of the prisoners. No physical violence was permitted. This experiment showed a loss of identity through prisoner rebellions, hunger strikes, and how every individual went into character so deeply. Even the psychologist, who played superintendent, lost himself with his role, which jeopardized the accuracy of the experiment.
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