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GVSU / Biology / BIOL 120 / Name the types of chemical energy examples.

Name the types of chemical energy examples.

Name the types of chemical energy examples.

Description

School: Grand Valley State University
Department: Biology
Course: General Biology
Professor: Rybczynski
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Bio 120 - week 7
Description: Exam 2 material - Ch. 8
Uploaded: 02/26/2016
8 Pages 138 Views 1 Unlocks
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"}.lst-kix_uqkhlpd9laun-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_uqkhlpd9laun-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_iiw03srmuw8c-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5oxul1p1x6l6-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xeaim99vu4j0-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_uqkhlpd9laun-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-6 0}.lst-kix_5oxul1p1x6l6-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xeaim99vu4j0-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ak7kvmgpnfjo-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_uqkhlpd9laun-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_p4y3kcwur631-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xeaim99vu4j0-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_2dg2uqbh3eb4-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5oxul1p1x6l6-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xeaim99vu4j0-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_uqkhlpd9laun-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_bikujkjrgzi3-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2dg2uqbh3eb4-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_iiw03srmuw8c-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bikujkjrgzi3-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2dg2uqbh3eb4-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_iiw03srmuw8c-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_uunn7wn78tc-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_bikujkjrgzi3-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_iiw03srmuw8c-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2dg2uqbh3eb4-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_iiw03srmuw8c-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bikujkjrgzi3-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_385f7zby7ju-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_iiw03srmuw8c-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bikujkjrgzi3-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_385f7zby7ju-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_iiw03srmuw8c-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bikujkjrgzi3-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_iiw03srmuw8c-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bikujkjrgzi3-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_iiw03srmuw8c-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bikujkjrgzi3-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2dg2uqbh3eb4-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bikujkjrgzi3-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2dg2uqbh3eb4-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2dg2uqbh3eb4-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-6}ul.lst-kix_2dg2uqbh3eb4-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_uunn7wn78tc-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_2dg2uqbh3eb4-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_iiw03srmuw8c-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2dg2uqbh3eb4-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_iiw03srmuw8c-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_iiw03srmuw8c-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ra9kxadnlup3-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_uunn7wn78tc-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_uunn7wn78tc-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ra9kxadnlup3-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_u3bh17jvisrg-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ra9kxadnlup3-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_zakdvkz4n0tn-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_u3bh17jvisrg-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_zakdvkz4n0tn-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ra9kxadnlup3-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_zakdvkz4n0tn-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_zakdvkz4n0tn-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_zakdvkz4n0tn-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-1}ul.lst-kix_zakdvkz4n0tn-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_zakdvkz4n0tn-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_zakdvkz4n0tn-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_zakdvkz4n0tn-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uqkhlpd9laun-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-7}ul.lst-kix_uqkhlpd9laun-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uqkhlpd9laun-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uqkhlpd9laun-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uqkhlpd9laun-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uqkhlpd9laun-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uqkhlpd9laun-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-4 0}ul.lst-kix_uqkhlpd9laun-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_p4y3kcwur631-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_2dg2uqbh3eb4-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ak7kvmgpnfjo-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_2dg2uqbh3eb4-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5oxul1p1x6l6-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5oxul1p1x6l6-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_p4y3kcwur631-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ak7kvmgpnfjo-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_u3bh17jvisrg-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_u3bh17jvisrg-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_u3bh17jvisrg-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-4,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-5 0}.lst-kix_bikujkjrgzi3-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_bikujkjrgzi3-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_p4y3kcwur631-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ak7kvmgpnfjo-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_2dg2uqbh3eb4-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_2dg2uqbh3eb4-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_p4y3kcwur631-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ak7kvmgpnfjo-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_bikujkjrgzi3-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_b7rbc5a7gbyd-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b7rbc5a7gbyd-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b7rbc5a7gbyd-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b7rbc5a7gbyd-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b7rbc5a7gbyd-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b7rbc5a7gbyd-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b7rbc5a7gbyd-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b7rbc5a7gbyd-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b7rbc5a7gbyd-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-0}ul.lst-kix_u3bh17jvisrg-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u3bh17jvisrg-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u3bh17jvisrg-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u3bh17jvisrg-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uqkhlpd9laun-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u3bh17jvisrg-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u3bh17jvisrg-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u3bh17jvisrg-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u3bh17jvisrg-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u3bh17jvisrg-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xeaim99vu4j0-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xeaim99vu4j0-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xeaim99vu4j0-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ra9kxadnlup3-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xeaim99vu4j0-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ra9kxadnlup3-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xeaim99vu4j0-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ra9kxadnlup3-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xeaim99vu4j0-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ra9kxadnlup3-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xeaim99vu4j0-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ra9kxadnlup3-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xeaim99vu4j0-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ra9kxadnlup3-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xeaim99vu4j0-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ra9kxadnlup3-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ra9kxadnlup3-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ra9kxadnlup3-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uunn7wn78tc-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uunn7wn78tc-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uunn7wn78tc-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uunn7wn78tc-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uunn7wn78tc-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uunn7wn78tc-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uunn7wn78tc-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-2}.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-5}ul.lst-kix_uunn7wn78tc-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uunn7wn78tc-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_iiw03srmuw8c-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_uqkhlpd9laun-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_uqkhlpd9laun-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-4}ol.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_xeaim99vu4j0-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_iiw03srmuw8c-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_iiw03srmuw8c-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_uqkhlpd9laun-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_xeaim99vu4j0-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_5oxul1p1x6l6-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xeaim99vu4j0-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5oxul1p1x6l6-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_uqkhlpd9laun-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5oxul1p1x6l6-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xeaim99vu4j0-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-3}.lst-kix_uunn7wn78tc-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_uunn7wn78tc-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_uunn7wn78tc-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_uunn7wn78tc-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-0 0}.lst-kix_iiw03srmuw8c-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_iiw03srmuw8c-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ra9kxadnlup3-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_uunn7wn78tc-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ra9kxadnlup3-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_p4y3kcwur631-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p4y3kcwur631-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p4y3kcwur631-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p4y3kcwur631-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ra9kxadnlup3-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_p4y3kcwur631-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_u3bh17jvisrg-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_u3bh17jvisrg-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_p4y3kcwur631-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ra9kxadnlup3-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_p4y3kcwur631-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p4y3kcwur631-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p4y3kcwur631-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ra9kxadnlup3-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_p4y3kcwur631-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_2dg2uqbh3eb4-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ak7kvmgpnfjo-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_5oxul1p1x6l6-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_2dg2uqbh3eb4-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_5oxul1p1x6l6-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_p4y3kcwur631-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_p4y3kcwur631-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_2dg2uqbh3eb4-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_5oxul1p1x6l6-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5oxul1p1x6l6-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5oxul1p1x6l6-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5oxul1p1x6l6-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ak7kvmgpnfjo-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_5oxul1p1x6l6-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5oxul1p1x6l6-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5oxul1p1x6l6-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5oxul1p1x6l6-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ak7kvmgpnfjo-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_u3bh17jvisrg-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_u3bh17jvisrg-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_bikujkjrgzi3-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_2dg2uqbh3eb4-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_p4y3kcwur631-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_bikujkjrgzi3-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kkcrwy1wlyow-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_ak7kvmgpnfjo-3 > li:before{content:"- "}

Most system is universe want to become more stable; less potential energy, more entropy

  • Process from less stable - more stable = spontaneous, no energy required (rocks rolling down cliff)
  • Process from more stable - less stable = not spontaneous, require energy (pushing rock uphill)

Entropy = StabilityDon't forget about the age old question of What are the elements of a landing page?

Energy laws and electron

  • E- have greatest potential energy in outermost electron shells

Don't forget about the age old question of Why did the French revolution start?

Thermodynamics and plants

        CO2 + H2O + sunlight  - carbohydrates + Oz

  • 1rst law - energy of sun converts the chemical energy into food
  • 2nd law - part of sun energy is used to do work (making sugars) and part wasted as heat

CO2 + H2O → GluIf you want to learn more check out What are examples of past participles?

[stable        → less stable] energyIf you want to learn more check out nonverbal communication is best defined as “messages expressed by nonlinguistic means.”

Cellular Respiration (Animals)If you want to learn more check out What is the basque language?

        Glucose + O2 → CO2 + H2O + ATP

  • Lots of heat released

Cellular respiration - energy use - energy transformationIf you want to learn more check out ∙ Question is: if contract is breached, who is liable?

Chemical Energy

  • Basic of cellular respiration and photosynthesis
  • The potential energy stored in the high - energy chemical bonds of high energy materials

  • The more energetic, less restrained e-, the less stable and more potential energy
  • The less energetic, more restrained; the more stable and less potential energy

Types of Chemical Energy Examples

  1. Molecules with like charges attached together (ATP - 3 phosphate)
  2. Non - polar C - H bonds of organic molecules with high energy shared e-
  3. Ions that have been transferred actively against their electrochemical gradient to the inside or outside of the cell (H+ outside the cell)

Metabolism

  • The totality of an organism’s chemical reactions
  • An organism’s metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to laws of thermodynamics
  • A cell without any chemical reactions is dead
  • A + B → C                 building
  • E → D + F                breaking
  • A + B → C + D        reacting
  • Chemical reactions occur in a series of chemical reactions, a metabolic pathway (MP)
  • Each MP begins with a specific molecule and ends with a product
  • Each step catalyzed by a specific enzyme
  • The product of each reaction is the reactant of the next reaction

Metabolic Pathways - 2 types

  • Catabolic Pathway

High energy molecules → low energy molecules

Glucose +O2 → H2O + CO2 + energy

Polysaccharide → Monosaccharide + energy

Release energy

  • Anabolic Pathway - uses energy

Energy + low energy molecule → high energy molecules

CO2 + H2O + energy → Glucose + O2

Free - energy change, G

  • Change in free energy from reactants to products during a chemical reaction

G (change in free energy) = final status - initial status

  • Catabolic pathways are exergonic: negative G
  • Negative G = energy was released
  • Initial free energy > final free energy
  • Spontaneous

  • Anabolic pathways are endergonic, positive G
  • Initial free energy < final free energy
  • Not spontaneous, USES ENERGY

  • Both exergonic and endergonic can be used for chemical and non chemical reactions, but catabolic and “anabolic” are strictly for chemical reactions

ATP ~7.3 kilocalories of energy

  • Powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions

A cell does 3 main kinds of works that need energy

  • Chemical ( all endergonic chemical reactions through which low energy molecules gain energy to make high energy molecules)
  • Transport (active)
  • Mechanical (cell / organelle movement)

Energy coupling - use of exergonic process to drive an endergonic one

        Example: Co - transport

Structure and Hydrolysis

ATP - adenosine triphosphate - cells energy shuttle

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