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Episodes in Western Art: Study Guide 1

by: ChristopherMetallo

Episodes in Western Art: Study Guide 1 ARTH 11100

Marketplace > Ithaca College > Art History > ARTH 11100 > Episodes in Western Art Study Guide 1
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About this Document

Covers the traditions of Egyptian, Assyrian, Archaic, Classical Greek, and Roman art.
Episodes in Western Art
Frances Gallart-Marques
Study Guide
Art, history, Western Art
50 ?




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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by ChristopherMetallo on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARTH 11100 at Ithaca College taught by Frances Gallart-Marques in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Episodes in Western Art in Art History at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 02/25/16
EPISODES IN WESTERN ART STUDY GUIDE: TEST 1 - EGYPTIAN • Karnak Temple Complex, Thebes, Egyptian (New Kingdom) - 2nd largest religious complex in the world - main temple is facing the Nile - Series of pylons - Into the Complex • Entrance gateway or pylon into open court - Pylons - Large stone or brick entrance into Egyptian temples. Formed by 2 trapezoidal towers split by a gateway • into columned hypostyle hall - Hypostyle Hall - A flat roofed room supported by a series of columns. Usually stand perpendicular to the central axis line. Karnak is the largest in Egypt. Covering 5500 sq meters its side halls are supported by 122 columns standing 12 meters high. - Exterior south walls • into obelisks • reach the rear sanctuary with side rooms, which is dark and small • Nanos (central shrine) • more intimate and dark as you go closer to the center • Frontality Biological symmetry • • Same body proportions for all sculptures • Almond eyes • Beautiful sculpted chest, somewhat muscular 1 • Thutmosis III - son of Hatshepsut (not by blood but by marriage) - very similar representation • Meant to view from the front • Headless with cobra at the top • Not soft, somewhat defined muscular features Fairly symmetrical • • Hard stone and visual similarity creates the illusion of stability and immortality - THE ASSYRIAN EMPIRE • Genies - Fontality - Poses all have one hand up and one hand down - All holding something in the hand, a bucket filled with pollen and a branch. Together they are gong to fertilize the tree of life - Put inscriptions right across the reliefs - Wings, signifier of a genie - Stylized, unrealistic muscles. Patterned and ornate - Extremely detailed in an artistic stylized way • Relief of the king - no horns - similar to genies • Lamassu - human headed winged lion - has 5 legs for the illusion of 4 legs from all sides - large - head done on the round, body done from the front 2 - Always come in pairs • Sculpture of Ashurnasirpal II, Neo-Assyrian, 883-859BC, made with Magnesite, 40” height - Forcefully moved people from their homeland and mixed everyone he conquered together. Saw value in creating a diverse empire. - Magnesite isn’t hard like Egyptians, but it is difficult to ind. Assert power by using stone that is difficult to find - Holding a mace and a scythe. Represents military power and divine power, respectively. - Similarities/ Differences to Thutmosis III • stiff, arms close to the body • similar beard, slightly wider Both presenting masculinity, broad shoulders, muscular • • Not as defined as Thutmosis. • Assyrians use decoration on clothing to show power while Egyptians used the quality of the material - ARCHAIC • Kouros - A type of sculpture - A standing nude male figure - New York Kouros • 600BC • Separation between the limbs • Hair is more detailed than Egyptian, but similar to the assyrians • Muscles are drawn on, almost ornate and drawn in patterns, similar to the assyrians • Frontally, bilateral symmetry, arms straight • Same proportions as the Egyptians 3 • Not wearing any clothes - Greeks differentiate themselves from others by allowing public nudity in the gyms and games - A civilize man can be nude and show you his perfection - Youth, beauty, perfection, athletic success, military virtue, civic virtue, immortality, sexual desirability - Analysis Kouros (530 BC) • War hero, shown in the virtue of the body • Hand are detached from the body fully • Proportions are slightly more natural • More curvy • Ear is less stylized, hair is still very stylized • muscles are less drawn on and more sculpted • Sculpted with an archaic smile - indicates that he is alive, doesn't have to do with happiness Functions of Kouros • - given to sanctuary as gift to the gods - commissioned as a tombstone • represents what he person was, not what they look like - very expensive - Kore: a standing draped female figure • Peplos Kore (530BC) - Pose is different • both feet are together • has an offering in her hand, usually a bowl of fruit - Brightly painted 4 - Little body definition - Slight definition in the great • Korai From Athens (520BC) - Tight clothing the brings in the definition of the body - Women wear hair on the front - Very detail and stylized fabric, created using a more advanced technique - Pediment • triangular space at the top of either end of a temple - Pedimental sculpture • sculpture that gets within the pediment, can be relief or in the round - Temple of Aphasia at Aegina, Fallen Warrior, West Pediment, 500BC • Has a smile • not standing, more relaxed position • not wearing armor like the others • ornate hair with the regular archaic face - Temple of Aphasia at Aegina, Fallen Warrior, West Pediment, 520BC • Much more natural position, gives weight to the figure • muscles are very defined and realistic, age to the body • Wearing a beard, makes him loo older • Wearing a helmet • More tension in the face • Feet are coming out of the frame - Kritios Boy, marble original, 480BC • Contrapposto - Weight on one leg and the other is relaxed - Shifts the rest of the body with it 5 • Archaic - frontally - nude male - generally symmetric - Rounded eyes, slightly less stylized - Differences muscles aren't just drawn on they seem more realistic • • More realistic and less stylized hair. Hair is also shorter • no archaic smile • More individuality - CLASSICAL GREEK • Reashi Warriors, bronze, - bronze reflects light while marble doesn't - Bronze is creative in an additive way - utilizes more space, using a more realistic and relaxed pose - More realistic muscle definition - Can see veins underneath the skin - Hair is still stylized but turns in space, making it more realistic - Individualized, one looks much older than the other. Exploration of each individual, not as idealized • Doriphoros, Roman Marble copy, Bronze original by Polikleitos in 440BC - Archaic Similarities • - Idealized, perfect human body • Differences - entirely realistic hair 6 - Blank emotion, idealized face - Adult body with a boyish head - Contraposto - Folds and veins throughout the body, hands, and feet - Comfortable walking, more relaxed pose • Greek Temples - Temple is meant to house the gods, not place of worship - Most had alter outside in front of them - Interior was usually only open to the priest - 3 steps going all the way around - Doric Order • based on wooden temple architecture • No base of the column and simple capitol • Has metope and triglyph in the Frieze • Pediment - Ionic Order • Entablature is simple, can have nothing or sculptures in the frieze • more decorated top and bottom column - Parthenon • Located at the very top of the acropolis, approach the Parthenon from behind • Iktinoos & Kalikrates • Doric columns all the way around • Ionic columns in the storeroom • Doric Frieze on the outside • Ionic frieze on the inside • Considered a perfect example of architecture 7 • Two pediments are dedicated to Athena - Competition between poseidon and athena - Birth of Athena • West pediment (back) - battle between Poseidon and Athena - Doesn't survive cry well, but with drawings and text it has been reconstructed - Opposing in direction and crossing each others paths • creates and opposing dynamic - Exiting the Pediment, coming into the viewers space - Athena is clothed because she is a woman and Poseidon is fully new as a male • West Metopes - Amazonomachy • war between Amazons and Greeks - high dynamic poses going in opposing directions and crossing each other - Present their opponents as capable, aren't always winning the fights • South Metopes - Centauromachy • battle between centaurs and Lapiths - Levels of interlocking legs - Strong arm with veins • given level of details despite the fact that it would be viewed from far away - Plain greek expression while the centaur are given unique personality - Greeks have short groomed hair while barbarians have wild crazy hair • Inside Frieze 8 - Precession - West • Horsemen riding to the gate • Very complex, lots of overlapping creates the illusion of more people - North/ South • bringing oil, goods, sheep as sacrifices and offerings Very similar and repetitive figures • - East • Presenting the gift of clothing the god • First time that regular people and gods are together - East Pediment (front) • Gods witness the birth of athena • some aren't even looking in the right direction, don't notice what is happening • Even tough no one would see the back these are sculpted in the round • Some of them would be coming gout into he viewers space - Gold/ Ivory (chryselephantine) Statue • Much more stiff, clothing is less form fitting • dressed in full armor, offering victory to Athenians - ROMAN • Bust of Augustus - Looks very young, not interested in showing his age in sculpture - Idealized perfect face - Breaks with the pictorial tradition of rome and goes back to idealism like the Greeks - Recapturing the glory of the past, making himself immortal 9 • Flavians - Vespasian • not representing himself like the Julio-Claudians • more realistic - Destroys the Golden House and returns the land to the people. He builds the Colosseum in its place - re-carved the face of the Colossus to represent the sun god - Amphitheater • Two theaters put together and presented in the round • Possible because of concrete and the arch - Concrete: Rubble and mortar composed of lime - Arch: Curved structural member spanning an opening and serving as a support - Flavian Amphitheater (Colosseum) • Capacity of 50K-75K people Seated and separated by class • • Adorned with sculptures in every arch • Series of trapdoors for animals to travel underground and surprise fighters • Forum of Trajan (112AD) - Large open area with building used for public business - Took down a large hill and built the largest forum in Rome - Large equestrian statue of Trajan - Large Basilica - Latin and Greek Library - Temple - Columns shaped lie defeated men 10 - Trajan’s Column • Not much space around the column to view it • Top of the column has a statue of Trajan represented as a Greek hero • Hollow on the inside with a spiral staircase • Exterior of the columns is carved as a continuous spiral relief • Base - Low relief carved with trophies which are tree trunks dressed as soldier • Spiral Relief - Roman crossing the daneeu • Slightly more depth than the Egyptian or Assyrian relief • Similar idea of frontality, but somewhat broken with a few individuals • Boats are on top of each other, allows them to show more things in great detail - Leading ox to sacrifice • Not full frontality, bull is looking backwards • A lot of overlapping • Men are still idealized - Romans Attacking • Barbarians are clueless, disorganized, and have wild hair and beards • Romans are very organized - Romans Constructing • Shown building so that they are seen in a positive light Commemoration • - Only commemorated victories - Would only get commemorated if a soldier died in a time of peace - Tombstones 11 • shows what they did in the military, how many victories, what legion he served under, how long he lived • Was important to be remembered - Remembrance depended on the type of marker you had • The crazier and bigger the monument you made for yourself the more it will be noticed. • If you had the money yo would want to have a portrait made - Roman Mummy • painted portrait on the face - Large eyes - More realistic representation of the people, may have been painted while they were alive - Women are painted with lots of jewelry - Palmyra (in Syria) • The original city was Romanized adding a temple, bath, theater, etc. • Zenobia - Ruled Palmyra - Revolted against the Roman empire and conquered a large amount of land. Was later destroyed by the Roman empire who destroyed all of Palmyra. • Temple of Baalshamin, Palmyra (115AD) - Temple resembles a Roman temple - One main entrance with real columns in the front and then fake columns presenting the illusion that columns wrap around the entire temple - Made out of the Local stone • Temple of Bel, Palmyra (Dedicated on 32AD) - Entrance is on the long side instead of a short side and the entrance is not centered - Crenelations are babylonian and or assyrians, more local 12 - One large room instead of two but maintains similar dimensions - No columns inside the temple - Exterior has columns all the way around - Emulates greek temple plans - It has windows which is different than Greek - Monumental entrance (possible a call back to the Egyptian temples) - Skinny, tall columns give the impression of a grander and larger temple • Large towers were built to house the dead - they had many floors with compartments for bodies - There was a place for portrait to be held, their call to be Roman - Portraits • Similar gestures to show that they are Roman and wearing toga properly • Not as realistic, calling back to the stylized portraits of the Assyrian empire • woman are wearing headdresses and are adorned with lots of jewelry • Inscribed in the local language • Mixture of Roman and Local 13


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