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Midterm review!

by: Midhu Robin

Midterm review!

Midhu Robin
GPA 3.5

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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Midhu Robin on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Florida International University taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views.


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Date Created: 02/25/16
MIDTERM REVIEW  Documents:  Piaget (SPCF), ADHD current (not Saul), Spectrum disorders,Social readjustment rating scale  (in parent child) , Key terms,Parent child,Memory,Fine and gross motor skill (new)  90% of the exam:  Fine and gross motor skills   The initial efforts are the the forerunners of crawling, in which babies coordinate the  motions of their arms and legs and propel themselves forward. Crawling appaears  typically between 8 and 10 months.  Walking comes later. (Around 9 months)  As infants are perfecting their gross motor skills, such as siting upright and walking,  they are also making advances in their fine motor skills. For instance, by the age of  three months, infants show some ability to coordinate the movements of their limbs.   By the age of 11 months, infants are able to k up off the ground objects as small as  marbles, something caregivers need to be concerned about.  Attachment patterns­ Ainsworth (A=Attachment, know ambivalent, disorganized/  disoriented, avoidant, secure)  What is the greatest risk to the health and well being of preschool children?  Physical activity, with the lack of judgment and a lot of curiosity.    Gender constancy (What age do boys and girls understand this concept?)  The belief that people are permanently males or females, depending on fixed,  unchangeable biological factors.  The age where boys and girls understand the concept is four to five.   Term associated with male and female reproductive cells  Sperm and Egg cells?   Bonding  Close physical and emotional contact between parent and child during the period  immediately following birth, argued by some to affect later relationship strength.   Imprinting  Behavior that takes place during a critical period and involves attachment to the first  moving object that is observed.   Apgar scale  A standard measurement system that looks for a variety of indications of good health  in newborns.  Picture?   Area of the brain associated with attention and concentration   Reticular formation  Characteristics typical of both sexes   Androgyny  Obesity and how much percentage (20%)  Defined as weight greater than 20 percent about the average for a given height.   Piaget (SPCF◦Order◦What each means◦Ages associated with them ◦True and false) S: Object permanence   Skinner   Operant conditioning: Form of learning in which a voluntary and purposeful rather  than automatic. Formulated by psychologist B.F. Skinner.   Which theorist is associated with self actualization?   Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow  A state of self­fulfillment in which people achieve their highest potential in their own  unique way.  Assimilation  The process by which people understand an experience in terms of their current  stage of cognitive development and way of thinking.  Accommodation   Changes in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with  new stimuli or events.  Scheme   Piaget suggested that human thinking is arranged into schemes, that is, organized  mental patterns that represent behaviors and actions. (frameworks)  Empathy  An emotional response that corresponds to the feelings of another person.   At 24 months of age, infants sometimes comfort others or show concern for them. In  order to do this, they need to be aware of the emotional states of others. For example, one year olds are able to pick up emotional cues by observing the behavior of an actress on  television.  Gender identity   The perception of oneself as male or female.  Gender schema   A cognitive framework that organizes information relevant to gender.  For instance, preschoolers use their increasing cognitive abilities to develop “rules” about  what is right and what is inappropriate for males and females.  Resilience   The ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at high risk for psychological  or physical damage.   Attachment   The positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual.  In Bowlby’s views, attachment is needed for safety and security. The mothers attachment is different from fathers.  Preterm    Preterm refers to a baby born before 38 weeks of pregnancy have been  completed.   Genotype   The underlying combination of genetic material present (but not outwardly visible) in  an organism.  Phenotype   An observable trait, the trait that is actually seen.  Babies and facial expressions   Infants can imitate behavior and distinguish between facial expressions.  Important because social interactions with others is important.  Social referencing   When you look at others for approval for their actions.  The ages 5­9 how are they more likely to be killed??   Transportation accidents  Neonate  The term used for new borns.  Embryo   End of the germinal stage, just two weeks after conception, the organism is firmly  secured to the wall of the mother’s uterus.   The embryonic stage is the period from two to eight weeks following fertilization.  (significant growth occurs)  Fetus   A developing child, from eight weeks after conception until birth.  Lead poisoning   Some 14 million children are at risk for lead poisoning due to exposure to potentially  toxic levels of lead.  Exposure to lead has been linked to lower intelligence, problems in verbal and auditory  processing, hyperactivity and distractibility.  Racial dissonance   The phenomenon in which minority children indicate preferences for majority values  or people.    Cognitive development   Development involving the ways that growth and change in intellectual capabilities  influence a person’s behavior.  Cognition  How we think, thinking patterns, thoughts  Social development   The way in which individual’s interactions with others and their social relationships  grow, change and remain stable over the course of life.  Personality development   Study of stability and change in the enduring characteristics that differentiate one  person from another over the life span.  Monozygotic twins   Twins who are genetically identical.  Dizygotic twins  Twins who are produced when two separate ova are fertilized by to separate ova are  fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time.  Hippocampus   The forerunner of explicit memory.   Cerebral cortex  Cerebral Cortex the upper layer of the brain.  Cerebral cortex is responsible for higher­order processes such as thinking and  reasoning, become more developed and interconnected.   Cerebellum   Balance   Difference between sex and gender   Sex: Typically refers sexual anatomy and sexual behavior.  Gender: Refers to the perception of maleness or femaleness related to membership in  a given society.  Stranger anxiety   The caution and wariness displayed by infants when encountering an unfamiliar  person.  Is common after the age of six months.   Skinner    Operant conditioning: Form of learning in which a voluntary and purposeful rather  than automatic. Formulated by psychologist B.F. Skinner.   Vygotsky   In Vygotsky’s view, then children’s cognitive development is dependent on  interaction with others.  According to Vygotsky, zone of proximal development is the level at which a child  can almost but not fully perform a task independently but can do so with the  assistance of someone more competent.  Vygotsky argued that pretend play, particularly if it involves social play, is an  important means for expanding preschool­age children’s cognitive skills. Through  make­believe play, children are able to “practice” activities.   Anoxia   A restriction of oxygen to the baby, lasting a few minutes during the birth process,  that can produce brain damage.  Reflexes  Unlearned, organized involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence  of a certain stimuli.   Sickle cell anemia   Down syndrome:  A disorder produced by the presence of an extra chromosome on the  twenty­first; once referred to as mongolism. (Frequent cause of mental retardation)  Fragile X syndrome  A disorder produced by injury to a gene on the X chromosome, producing mild to  moderate mental retardation. (Mild to moderate mental retardation)  Rhythms  Repetitive, cyclical patterns of behavior.  SIDS­ Sudden infant death syndrome   A disorder in which seemingly healthy infants die in their sleep.  SIDS strikes about 2,500 infants in the United States each year. Although it seems to  occur when the normal patterns of breathing during sleep are interrupted, scientists  have been unable to discover why that might happen.  For instance, boys and African American are at greater risk. In addition, low birth­ weight and low Apgar scores found at birth are associated with SIDS, as is having a  mother who smokes during pregnancy. Some evidence also suggests that a brain  defect that affects breathing may produce SIDS.  Race  Biological  Cohort   People born at around the same time, in the same place. Such major social events as  wars, economic upturns and depressions, famines and epidemics work similar  influences on members of a particular cohort.  The past is the best predictor for future behavior  Ethnic group   Autism and spectrum disorders   Extreme male brain, produces language deficits, and great difficulties interacting with others.  Gene   Sperm   Which of the following is the only time when girls on the average are taller than boys?   10­12  Erikson(vs.)  Erikson’s theory of psychological development: The theory that considers how  individuals come to understand themselves and the meaning of others and their own  behavior.  Trust Vs. Mistrust stage: According to Erikson, the period during which infants  develop a sense of trust or mistrust depending largely on how well their caregivers  meet their needs.  Autonomy Vs. Shame and doubt stage: The Period during which according to  Erikson, to toddlers (age 18 months to 3 years) develop independence and autonomy  if they are allowed the freedom to explore or shame and self­doubt if they are  restricted and over protected.  Warning signs for child abuse?  Isolate themselves  Long shirts  Burns  Injuries  Feelings of pain for no reason  Extreme behavior, bad behavior


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