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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Madeline Wilson

Exam 2 Study Guide GEOL 101 001

Madeline Wilson

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study guide for exam 2
Introduction to the Earth
Dr. Knapp
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madeline Wilson on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 101 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Knapp in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Introduction to the Earth in Geology at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 02/25/16
Exam 2 Review Metasomatism – a change in the bulk composition of a rock during metamorphism Contact metamorphism is caused by igneous intrusions Gneiss is a high grade metamorphic rock An increase in pressure and temperature and interaction with hydrothermal fluids cause metamorphism Shearing forces occur at transform boundaries Temperature, rate of deformation, and rock type determine whether a rock deforms in a brittle fashion versus a ductile fashion Cross-cutting relations, fossils, and stratigraphy are used by geologists to determine relative ages in a rock sequence Limestone is the most likely parent rock of marble Purely tensional stresses associated with a divergent plate boundary will generate a normal fault the intrusion is older X-X is an angular unconformity A B X X' C D E F G Principle of Superposition is used to identify the oldest rock unit When considering the effects of faulting on the lithosphere, it is clear that normal faults serve to effectively thin and extend the crust The Mesozoic era began 250 million years ago Venus is closest in size to the earth Current evidence indicates that the moon was produced by the collision of a mars-sized body with earth Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars is the order of increasing distance from the sun Cratons are made up of platforms and shields The study of geobiology is defined as the study of how organisms influence and are influenced by earth’s environment The radiation of life at the beginning of the Phanerozoic era is known as the Cambrian explosion Organisms that gain energy from feeding directly or indirectly on “producers” are referred to as heterotrophs The pathway though which a chemical element or molecule moves between the biologic and environmental components of an ecosystem is called the biogeochemical cycle You would expect to find thermophiles at mid-ocean ridges Sedimentary features that form from the interaction of microbes with their environment are called stromatolites Photosynthesis arose in a group of bacteria known as cyanobacteria Garnet is commonly used to determine a metamorphic Pressure – Temperature path Stable continental lithosphere will be coolest at 30km deep Shock metamorphism – high pressure, low temperature, meteorite impacts Phylite is a low grade metamorphic rock Dip is the angle of steepest descent of the bed from the horizontal Ductile – permanent change in shape or size of a body that is not recovered when the stress is removed Deep crustal rocks are more likely to deform ductilely than shallow crustal rocks Hotter rocks are more likely to deform ductilely than cooler rocks Most sedimentary rocks are more deformable than igneous rocks Upfolds or arches of layered rocks are called anticlines (a sequence of folded rocks with the oldest rocks in the inside of a fold), downfolds or throughs are called synclines (a sequence of folded rocks with the youngest rocks on the inside of the fold) Joints are fractures in rocks along which there has been no appreciated displacement Reverse faults form in response to compressive forces The study of the layers in sedimentary rocks is known as stratigraphy Principle of Superposition: in a sequence of undisturbed layered rocks, the oldest rocks are on the bottom Radiometric dating is possible if a rock consists of a measurable amount of both daughter and parent atoms The rate of radioactive decay is measured by the isotope’s half-life (the time required for one half of the original number of parent atoms to be transformed into daughter atoms) Eons are the largest division of geologic time Nuclear fusion is the process in which hydrogen atoms combine to form helium under intense pressure and high temperature The Nebular Hypothesis is the hypothesis on how the Solar System formed by gravity and collisions The inner planets are hot, mostly formed of rocks and metals The Appalachian mountains run along the eastern margin of North America Tectonic age is measured by the youngest major deformation event in the region The Wilson Cycle is continental rifting, continent-continent collision, subduction, and continental rifting Cratonic keels are thicker under continents than oceans


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