PSY 247: Exam 2 Study Guide
PSY 247: Exam 2 Study Guide PSY 247
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joy Mizrahi on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 247 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Robert McNamara in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see abnormal psychology in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
PSY 247—EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Mood Disorders and Suicide, Chapter 6 Depression and Mania Major depressive episode o Most commonly diagnosed and most severe depression o An extremely depressed mood state that lasts at least two weeks and includes cognitive symptoms and disturbed physical functions o Often accompanied by loss of interest in things and inability to experience any pleasure from life o Lasting at least two weeks Mania o Abnormally exaggerated elation, joy, or euphoria o People with mania become hyperactive, require little sleep, and may develop grandiose plans, believing that they can accomplish anything they desire o Lasting at least one week Hypomanic episode o Less severe version of a manic episode o Does not cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning Depressive Disorders Clinical Descriptions o Major depressive disorder At least one major depressive episode with the absence of mania or hypomania Two or more episode separated by at least two month are noted as recurrent o Persistent depressive disorder Fewer symptoms than MDD, but depression remains relatively unchanged for long periods Includes dysthymia and chronic major depression from previous versions of the DSM o Double depression Combination of major depressive episodes and persistent depression Other depressive disorders o Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder o Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Bipolar Disorders Bipolar II Disorder o Major depressive episodes alternate with hypomanic episodes rather than full manic episodes Bipolar I Disorder o Full manic episodes alternate with major depressive episodes Cyclothymic disorder o Chronic alteration of mood elevation and depression that does not reach the severity of manic or major depressive episodes o Must last at least two years Psychological Treatments Depression o Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) o Interpersonal psychotherapy o Medication Antidepressants (SSRIs, mixed reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors o Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Used in severe cases for medication- resistant depression o Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Less effective than ECT Bipolar disorder o Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy o Medication Lithium Suicide Important indices of suicidal behavior o Suicidal ideation (thinking seriously about suicide) o Suicidal plans (the formulation of a specific method of killing oneself) o Suicidal attempts (the person survives) Risk factors o Family history o Neurobiology o Existing psychological disorders o Stressful life events Treatment o Therapy/social support o Hospitalization o Treatment of associated mental health problems Eating and Sleep-Wake Disorders, Chapter 8 Major Types of Eating Disorders Bulimia nervosa o Binges (out of control eating episodes) are followed by attempts to purge (get rid of) the food Anorexia nervosa o The person eats nothing beyond minimal amounts of food, so body weight sometimes drops dangerously Binge-eating disorder o Individuals may binge repeatedly and find it distressing, but they do not attempt to purge the food Bulimia nervosa Clinical description o Hallmark is out of control eating of excessive amount of food o Also includes the use of purging techniques Self-induced vomiting Use of laxatives and diuretics Excessive exercise (Although usually found in anorexia) Medical consequences o Due to frequent vomiting Salivary gland enlargement Eroded dental enamel Tear in the esophagus o Electrolyte imbalance Can result in serious complications, including cardiac arrhythmias, seizures and renal failure Associated psychological disorders o Often presents with anxiety and mood disorders Anorexia nervosa Clinical description o Decrease body weight is the most noticeable feature Body weight at least 15% below expected o Intense fear of obesity and relentless pursuit of thinness o Marked disturbance in body image Medical complications o Cessation of menstruation (amenorrhea) o Dry skin and brittle hair or nails o Intolerance to cold temperature o Lanugo (downy hair on the limbs and cheeks) o Electrolyte imbalance Binge eating disorder Individuals experience marked distress because of binge eating, but do not engage in extreme compensatory behaviors Obesity is a symptom, but not a disorder by itself Individuals often have some of the same concerns about shape and weight as people with anorexia and bulimia Many use a BED binge to alleviate bad moods or negative affect Causes of Eating Disorders Social dimensions o Cultural pressures to be thin can trigger eating disorders Ballet dancers, athletes, gymnasts o Differences in family interactions Biological dimensions o Relatives of eating disorder patients are 4 to 5 time more likely to develop eating disorders themselves Psychological dimensions o Diminished sense of personal control and confidence o Low self esteem o Artificially raised perfectionist standards o Distorted perception of body shape Treatment of Eating Disorders Drug treatments o No effective drug treatment found for anorexia o Antidepressant medications can be used in the treatment of bulimia Psychological treatments o Cognitive-behavioral therapy o Hospitalization and weight restoration if needed o Interpersonal therapy Sleep-Wake Disorders Dyssomnias: Problems in the amount, timing or quality of sleep o Insomnia disorder Trouble falling asleep or waking up frequently or too early Can cause anxiety and depression o Hypersomnolence disorders Involves sleeping too much o Breathing-related sleep disorders Sleep apnea: short periods (10-30 seconds without breathing Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea: Airflow stops despite continued activity by the respiratory system o Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders Disturbed sleep brought on by the brain’s inability to synchronize sleep patterns with patterns of day and night Parasomnias: Abnormal events that occur during sleep or just upon waking o Disorders of arousal Sleep walking or sleep terrors o Nightmare disorder Frequently being awakened by frightening dreams that cause distress and impairment o Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder Episodes of arousal during REM sleep that result in behaviors that can cause harm to the individual or others o Restless legs syndrome Irresistible urges to move the legs as a result of unpleasant sensations o Substance induced sleep disorder Sever sleep disturbances that is the result of substance intoxication or withdrawal Treatment of Sleep Disorders Medical treatments o Benzodiazepines and related drugs for insomnia o Stimulants for hypersomnolence or narcolepsy, such as Ritalin o CPAP for breathing-related sleep disorders Environmental treatments o Phase delays (moving bedtime later) for circadian rhythm disorders Psychological treatments o Relax and sleep hygiene techniques Substance-Related, Addictive, and Impulse-Control Disorders, Chapter 10 Levels of Involvement Substance use o Ingestion of psychoactive substances in moderate amounts Intoxication o Physiological reaction to ingested substances (i.e., getting high or drunkenness) Substance abuse o Defined by how much of a substance is ingested is problematic o Disrupts education, job, or relationships Five categories of substances Depressants o Behavioral sedation and induce relaxation o Alcohol, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines Stimulants o Cause alertness and elevate mood o Amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine and caffeine Opiates o Temporarily produce analgesia and euphoria o Heroin, opium, codeine and morphine Hallucinogens o Alter sensory perception and can produce delusions, paranoia, and hallucinations o Cannabis and LSD Other drugs of abuse o Inhalants, anabolic steroids, and other over-the- counter and prescription medications Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders Biological treatments o Agonist substitution: providing the individual with a safe drug that has the chemical makeup of the additive drug o Antagonist drugs: block or counteract the effects of the psychoactive drug o Aversive treatment: drugs that make ingesting the abused substance extremely unpleasant Psychosocial treatments o Impatient facilities o Alcoholics Anonymous and variations o Controlled use Abusers may be capable of becoming social users without resuming their abuse of these drugs Impulse-Control Disorders Intermittent Explosive Disorder o Episodes of aggressive impulses that result in serious assaults or destruction of property Kleptomania o A recurrent failure to resist urges to steal things that are not needed for personal use or their monetary value o High comorbidity with mood disorders Pyromania o An irresistible urge to set fires
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