Psychology Study Guide: Exam 1
Psychology Study Guide: Exam 1 PSYC 1101
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cheyenne prather on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1101 at East Georgia State College taught by Dr. Dacian Dolean in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at East Georgia State College.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Psychology Study Guide: Exam 1 Psychology Research Methods 1. How to know about ourselves and others a. Observe b. Ask c. Experiment 2. How to do it scientifically a. Question b. Hypothesis c. Gather data d. Conclusion Example: Question: How can we make work employees happier? Hypothesis: We can give raises to make employees happier. Gather Data: Divide workers in 2 groups. Give one group a raise, while keeping the other group’s pay the same. Conclusion: See which group is happier. 3. Common Research methods in psychology a. Systematic Observation i. Case Study ii. Naturalistic Observation b. Survey i. Interview 1. Structured 2. Semi-structured ii. Questionnaire c. Correlation d. Experiment i. Quasi-experiment ii. Randomized control trial 4. Advantages/Disadvantages of research methods used in Psychology a. Observation i. + Thorough, gather a lot of information ii. – Low reliability. Preferably more observers. Costly/Lengthy. b. Survey: Questionnaire i. + Many participants in a short time ii. – Low reliability c. Survey: Interview i. + Clarify questions ii. – Costly/lengthy d. Correlation i. + Shows the degree of relationship between two variables ii. – Does not show causal relationship Perspectives in Psychology Structuralism: focus on the structure of the mind, by breaking down mental processes into their component parts and raising awareness of them. Key concept: introspection Behavioral Perspective: focus on observable and measurable behavior Psychodynamic Perspective: focus on unconscious Humanistic Perspective: focus on conscious experience and free will Cognitive Perspective: focus on how people process, store, retrieve, and manipulate information Socio-cultural Perspective: focus on how human behavior can change in different social contexts Eclectic Perspective: derives ideas from a broad and diverse range of sources o Not an official perspective Biological foundations of the behavior Nervous System: the network of nerve cells and support cells for communicating and processing information from within and outside the body Central Nervous System: consists of the brain and spinal cord; covered with bone Peripheral Nervous System: connects the central nervous system with other parts of the body Nervous System - Neurons communicate with one another through neural impulses - These neural impulses are mediated by neurotransmitters - Neurotransmitters are chemical agents/messengers - Modifying the chemical reactions in the nervous system can change the way people behave Measuring the Activity in the Nervous System Electroencephalogram (EEG): recording of electrical activity in the brain Computer Tomography (CT): measures the reflection of a narrow x-ray beam from different angles (3D) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): uses magnetic field to produce a computerized image of internal bodily structure Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI): snapshots of the brain in action Endocrine System Endocrine System: grouping of glands that release secretions (hormones) into the bloodstream Adrenaline/Cortisol: speeds up bodily processes Melatonin: regulates sleep-wake cycle Testosterone: fosters male sexual maturation in puberty and is linked to higher level of dominance, competitiveness, and risk-taking Estrogen: fosters female sexual maturation and help regulate the menstrual cycle Sensation and Perception Sensation: the process by which we receive, transform, and process the stimuli from the outside world to create sensory experiences o Sensations are interconnected (We sometimes see with our ears) o Sensations can vary as a function of our past or present experience o Sensation of pain can be changed by: Placebo drugs Distraction Changing thoughts to be positive for pain relief or catastrophic for increased pain level Perception: the process by which the brain interprets sensory information to form meaningful representations of the external world o Dependent on the performance of selective attention o Attention Properties: Selective (ignore distractions) Sustained (focused for extended periods) Divided (texting while driving) Alternating (switching between tasks) Subliminal Perception: perception of stimuli that are below the threshold of conscious awareness Perceptual Set: the tendency for perception to be influenced by one’s expectations or preconceptions Visual Illusions: misperceptions of visual stimuli in which it seems that our eyes are playing tricks on us o Influenced by cultural factors o Explained by the way the brain works Parapsychology Parapsychology: the study of paranormal phenomena Telepathy: perceive/read one’s thoughts or feelings without using the known senses Clairvoyance: perception of events that are not available to all our senses Precognition: foretell the future Psycho kinesis: move objects without touching them Consciousness Consciousness: your awareness of the outside world and of your mental processes, thoughts, feelings, and perceptions Different States of Consciousness Focused awareness Drifting consciousness Divided consciousness (multitasking) Sleeping and Dreaming Circadian Rhythm: pattern of fluctuations in bodily processes that occur regularly each day 4 Stages of Sleep Stages of sleep o From light to deep sleep (stages 1-4) o To Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep Associated with dreaming Sleep-wake Disorders Insomnia: not able to sleep at night Narcolepsy: sudden, unexplained “sleep attacks” during the day Sleep apnea: momentarily stop breathing during sleep Nightmare disorder: happens during REM sleep Night terrors: during deep sleep; panic attacks Altering Consciousness with Drugs Psychoactive drugs: chemical substances that act on the brain to affect emotional or mental states Depressants o Produce relaxation, loss of muscle coordination, and lowered attention o Reduce/Depress the activity of the central nervous system and loosen the control of normally inhibited actions o Anger and aggressiveness are not caused by alcohol; it is a consequence of the intoxication based on personality Stimulants o Speed up the activity of the central nervous system and raise alertness, arousal, and appetite reduction o Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive drug Opiates o Comes from the Poppy plant o Feeling of well-being and dreamy relaxation o Pain relieving and sleep inducing properties Hallucinogens o Alter consciousness by temporary loss of contact with reality and changes in emotion, perception, and thought o People’s reactions can vary Issues Abuse often creates tolerance, dependency, and side effects o Can lead to anxiety, depression, insomnia, heart problems, and brain damage Varies amongst states/countries and times It depends on expectations, not just the biochemistry alone; hence, placebo effect
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