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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Claude Notetaker

Exam 1 Study Guide PSYCH 2103

Claude Notetaker
GPA 3.92

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Covers chapters 1-6 of class notes and book readings
Introduction to Human Development
Study Guide
Human Development
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Claude Notetaker on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 2103 at Georgia State University taught by Clarkson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views.


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Date Created: 02/25/16
Exam 1 study guide  Chapter 1 What is the difference between normative and non­normative life events?  Normative (can also be cultural specific) age­graded influences: are life events that  are typical and based on chronological age. These are things that everybody in your  culture kind of expects. People start driving around 16, graduating high school  around 18, getting married in their 20s and having babies.  Non­normative life  events: unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual's life.  Examples =death of a parent when child is young, pregnancy in adolescence, home  burned down, winning the lottery, unexpected career opportunity What do we mean by average life expectancy? The number of years the average  newborn in a population group is likely to live What is the difference between a correlational and an experimental study?  Experiments (strict):­must have at least one manipulated variable (IV). Cause and effect  determined Correlational study (relationship between two variables):­all of the variables are  measured­one is treated as the "predicted" variable­the others are treated as the  "predictor" variables What is the difference between a cross­sectional and a longitudinal study? Cross  sectional study is form a class of research methods that involve observation of all of a population, or a representative subset, at a defined time. Longitudinal study is a  correlation research study that involves repeated observations of the same items over  long periods of time — often many decades. It is a type of observational study.  Chapter 2 What is natural selection? Darwin's theory which says that organisms best adapted to  their environment are more likely to survive and pass on their traits to their offspring (not survival of fittest) What is Down syndrome? Typically, the nucleus of each cell contains 23 pairs of  chromosomes, half of which are inherited from each parent. Down syndrome occurs  when an individual has a full or partial extra copy of chromosome 21 What is an ultrasound and how does it differ from amniocentesis? Ultrasound is  done prior in order to: locate fetal and placental position and Determine fetal and  placental position is important prior to amniocentesis in order to prevent damage by the  needle. Amniocentesis (also referred to as amniotic fluid test or AFT) is a medical  procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections,  and also used for sex determination in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which  contains fetal tissues, is sampled from the amniotic sac What do we mean by infertility? The failure to achieve pregnancy after 1 year of  unprotected intercourse. (6mos for women over 30 yrs of age or men over 40). What does the epigenetic view emphasize as an explanation of development? that  development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity  and environment Chapter 3 What is the amnion? One of the four extraembryonic membranes found in amniotic  eggs. This membrane encloses the embryo in fluid, cushioning the embryo and providing  an aqueous medium for growth. How long does prenatal development typically last in humans? Conception­Sperm  enters egg, about 13 days What are the three stages in the birth process? 1. Germinal Stage (first 2 weeks) 2. Embryonic Stage (2 weeks­ 2 months) 3. Fetal Stage (2 months to birth) What is the Apgar scale and what does it measure? most important indicator of a  neonate's survival and health in the first month of life. neonatal assessment scale with five subtests: Appearance (Color), Pulse (heart rate), Grimace (reflex irritability),  Activity (muscle tone), and Respiration (breathing) What is the difference between preterm infants and low birth weight infants?  Preterm infants are born before 37 weeks gestation. Late preterm infants are born  between 34 and 36 weeks gestation. They have a better outlook than infants born before  32 weeks gestation, known as early preterm births. An infant is described as having a low birth weight if she weighs less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces at birth. Chapter 4 What advantages are normally associated with breast feeding? Appropriate  composition and balance of nutrients, hormones that promote physiological dev.,  cognitive development, protects against infections, protects against some diseases such as type 1 diabetes, protects against food allergies How much do newborn infants typically sleep? Generally, newborns sleep about 8 to  9 hours in the daytime and about 8 hours at night. Most babies do not  begin sleeping through the night (6 to 8 hours) without waking until at least 3 months of  age What do we mean by a cephalocaudal pattern of motor development? The  cephalocaudal trend is the prenatal growth from conception to 5 months when the head  grows more than the body. It is also the trend of infants learning to use their upper limbs  before their lower limbs What is the proximodistal pattern of motor development? proximodistal trend, on  the other hand, is the prenatal growth from 5 months to birth when the fetus grows from  the inside of the body outwards. What is the difference between gross motor skills and fine motor skills? Fine motor  skills are small movements — such as picking up small objects and holding a spoon —  that use the small muscles of the fingers, toes, wrists, lips, and tongue. Gross motor  skills are the bigger movements — such as rolling over and sitting — that use the large  muscles in the arms, legs, torso, and feet Chapter 5 What is the difference among primary, secondary, and tertiary circular reactions?  Primary= 1­4 months of age. Is a scheme based on the infant’s attempt to reproduce an  interesting or pleasurable event that initially occurred by chance. Secondary­ 4­8 months of age. The infant imitates some simple actions and physical gestures of others, but only  those he can already produce. Tertiary= 12­18 months of age. Are schemes in which the infant purposely explores new possibilities with objects, continually changing what is  done to them and exploring the results. Piaget believed this marks the developmental  starting point for curiosity and interest in novelty What is child­directed speech? What is its function in language development? This  "infant­directed speech," or IDS, is recognizable for its higher pitch and more melodic,  emotionally­charged tone. These features capture a baby's attention. Gives them the  ability to discriminate between different speech sounds, detect the boundaries between  words in a stream of speech, and recognize distinct clauses in a stream of speech  What does the core knowledge to the nature versus nurture issue state? Core  knowledge approach­ states that infants are born with domain­specific innate knowledge  systems, such as those involving space, number sense, object permanence, and language What do we mean by joint attention?  When does it first emerge and when is it  frequently observed? Joint attention is an early­developing social­communicative skill  in which two people (usually a young child and an adult) use gestures and gaze to  share attention With respect to interesting objects or events. This skill plays a critical  role in social and language development.  Chapter 6 What three types of cries have been identified by psychologists? The angry cry, the  pain cry, the basic cry What is temperament? Unique, inborn pattern of responding, includes body rhythms  and mood. Consistent across development What styles of temperament do Chess and Thomas describe? 1. The Easy Child The easy child adapts easily to regular routine regarding eating and sleeping, etc. 2. The  Difficult Child The difficult child falls on the other end of the scale of an Easy child. These children are  challenging and feisty. 3. The Slow­to­Warm­Up Child The slow­to­warm­up child  tends to show negative response of lesser intensity when exposed to new situations, when compare to the difficult child. Is a shy temperament stable throughout life? Timid remain timid at 5.5 and 7.5 years  of age What is goodness of fit? Way personality and expectations of parent mesh with infant.  Key to development is interaction What “mother” monkey did infant monkeys prefer – the cloth­covered one or the  wire mesh one that provided food? Even when the wire mother was the source of  nourishment, the infant monkey spent a greater amount of time clinging to the cloth  surrogate What do we mean by social referencing?  Process where the infant takes cues from  other people in the environment, about which emotions and actions are appropriate in a  certain context or situation. Infants observe the behavior of others and emulate their  actions and behaviors What factors contribute to high­quality day care? Quality day care from infancy  clearly has positive effects on children’s intellectual, verbal, and cognitive development,  especially when children would otherwise experience impoverished and relatively  unstimulating home environments. Care of unknown quality may have deleterious effects


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