Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PSYCH 2103
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Claude Notetaker on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 2103 at Georgia State University taught by Clarkson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Exam 1 study guide Chapter 1 What is the difference between normative and nonnormative life events? Normative (can also be cultural specific) agegraded influences: are life events that are typical and based on chronological age. These are things that everybody in your culture kind of expects. People start driving around 16, graduating high school around 18, getting married in their 20s and having babies. Nonnormative life events: unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual's life. Examples =death of a parent when child is young, pregnancy in adolescence, home burned down, winning the lottery, unexpected career opportunity What do we mean by average life expectancy? The number of years the average newborn in a population group is likely to live What is the difference between a correlational and an experimental study? Experiments (strict):must have at least one manipulated variable (IV). Cause and effect determined Correlational study (relationship between two variables):all of the variables are measuredone is treated as the "predicted" variablethe others are treated as the "predictor" variables What is the difference between a crosssectional and a longitudinal study? Cross sectional study is form a class of research methods that involve observation of all of a population, or a representative subset, at a defined time. Longitudinal study is a correlation research study that involves repeated observations of the same items over long periods of time — often many decades. It is a type of observational study. Chapter 2 What is natural selection? Darwin's theory which says that organisms best adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and pass on their traits to their offspring (not survival of fittest) What is Down syndrome? Typically, the nucleus of each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, half of which are inherited from each parent. Down syndrome occurs when an individual has a full or partial extra copy of chromosome 21 What is an ultrasound and how does it differ from amniocentesis? Ultrasound is done prior in order to: locate fetal and placental position and Determine fetal and placental position is important prior to amniocentesis in order to prevent damage by the needle. Amniocentesis (also referred to as amniotic fluid test or AFT) is a medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections, and also used for sex determination in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is sampled from the amniotic sac What do we mean by infertility? The failure to achieve pregnancy after 1 year of unprotected intercourse. (6mos for women over 30 yrs of age or men over 40). What does the epigenetic view emphasize as an explanation of development? that development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and environment Chapter 3 What is the amnion? One of the four extraembryonic membranes found in amniotic eggs. This membrane encloses the embryo in fluid, cushioning the embryo and providing an aqueous medium for growth. How long does prenatal development typically last in humans? ConceptionSperm enters egg, about 13 days What are the three stages in the birth process? 1. Germinal Stage (first 2 weeks) 2. Embryonic Stage (2 weeks 2 months) 3. Fetal Stage (2 months to birth) What is the Apgar scale and what does it measure? most important indicator of a neonate's survival and health in the first month of life. neonatal assessment scale with five subtests: Appearance (Color), Pulse (heart rate), Grimace (reflex irritability), Activity (muscle tone), and Respiration (breathing) What is the difference between preterm infants and low birth weight infants? Preterm infants are born before 37 weeks gestation. Late preterm infants are born between 34 and 36 weeks gestation. They have a better outlook than infants born before 32 weeks gestation, known as early preterm births. An infant is described as having a low birth weight if she weighs less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces at birth. Chapter 4 What advantages are normally associated with breast feeding? Appropriate composition and balance of nutrients, hormones that promote physiological dev., cognitive development, protects against infections, protects against some diseases such as type 1 diabetes, protects against food allergies How much do newborn infants typically sleep? Generally, newborns sleep about 8 to 9 hours in the daytime and about 8 hours at night. Most babies do not begin sleeping through the night (6 to 8 hours) without waking until at least 3 months of age What do we mean by a cephalocaudal pattern of motor development? The cephalocaudal trend is the prenatal growth from conception to 5 months when the head grows more than the body. It is also the trend of infants learning to use their upper limbs before their lower limbs What is the proximodistal pattern of motor development? proximodistal trend, on the other hand, is the prenatal growth from 5 months to birth when the fetus grows from the inside of the body outwards. What is the difference between gross motor skills and fine motor skills? Fine motor skills are small movements — such as picking up small objects and holding a spoon — that use the small muscles of the fingers, toes, wrists, lips, and tongue. Gross motor skills are the bigger movements — such as rolling over and sitting — that use the large muscles in the arms, legs, torso, and feet Chapter 5 What is the difference among primary, secondary, and tertiary circular reactions? Primary= 14 months of age. Is a scheme based on the infant’s attempt to reproduce an interesting or pleasurable event that initially occurred by chance. Secondary 48 months of age. The infant imitates some simple actions and physical gestures of others, but only those he can already produce. Tertiary= 1218 months of age. Are schemes in which the infant purposely explores new possibilities with objects, continually changing what is done to them and exploring the results. Piaget believed this marks the developmental starting point for curiosity and interest in novelty What is childdirected speech? What is its function in language development? This "infantdirected speech," or IDS, is recognizable for its higher pitch and more melodic, emotionallycharged tone. These features capture a baby's attention. Gives them the ability to discriminate between different speech sounds, detect the boundaries between words in a stream of speech, and recognize distinct clauses in a stream of speech What does the core knowledge to the nature versus nurture issue state? Core knowledge approach states that infants are born with domainspecific innate knowledge systems, such as those involving space, number sense, object permanence, and language What do we mean by joint attention? When does it first emerge and when is it frequently observed? Joint attention is an earlydeveloping socialcommunicative skill in which two people (usually a young child and an adult) use gestures and gaze to share attention With respect to interesting objects or events. This skill plays a critical role in social and language development. Chapter 6 What three types of cries have been identified by psychologists? The angry cry, the pain cry, the basic cry What is temperament? Unique, inborn pattern of responding, includes body rhythms and mood. Consistent across development What styles of temperament do Chess and Thomas describe? 1. The Easy Child The easy child adapts easily to regular routine regarding eating and sleeping, etc. 2. The Difficult Child The difficult child falls on the other end of the scale of an Easy child. These children are challenging and feisty. 3. The SlowtoWarmUp Child The slowtowarmup child tends to show negative response of lesser intensity when exposed to new situations, when compare to the difficult child. Is a shy temperament stable throughout life? Timid remain timid at 5.5 and 7.5 years of age What is goodness of fit? Way personality and expectations of parent mesh with infant. Key to development is interaction What “mother” monkey did infant monkeys prefer – the clothcovered one or the wire mesh one that provided food? Even when the wire mother was the source of nourishment, the infant monkey spent a greater amount of time clinging to the cloth surrogate What do we mean by social referencing? Process where the infant takes cues from other people in the environment, about which emotions and actions are appropriate in a certain context or situation. Infants observe the behavior of others and emulate their actions and behaviors What factors contribute to highquality day care? Quality day care from infancy clearly has positive effects on children’s intellectual, verbal, and cognitive development, especially when children would otherwise experience impoverished and relatively unstimulating home environments. Care of unknown quality may have deleterious effects
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