Anthropology Exam 2 Study Guide
Anthropology Exam 2 Study Guide 2597
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melissa Metzgar on Friday February 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2597 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Professor Ehrensal in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Language and Communication Non-Human Communication -Other animals (including other primates) -call system ● each call has only one meaning, which is always in the present tense ● particular calls only occur in particular environmental circumstances (ex. mating, breeding, territory, food) ● cannot be combined with other calls Human Communication -Language: a sign system based upon symbols -Based upon arbitrary learned associations between words and the things for which they stand -Functions as a system of classification and mental representation of the world The Origin of Language -Capacity to remember and combine linguistic symbols may be latent in apes -wouldn’t learn without human intervention -evolved about 12 million years ago -Recent genetic studies put language in homo sapiens approx. 150,000 years ago (had recognizable sounds, just not as many as we have today) Language, Thought, and Culture 19th Century Anthropology -”Primitive” peoples were culturally and intellectually “primitive” “primitive mind” and “primitive thought” → don’t think like us -”Primitive” people were not logical, thought magically or like children The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (linguistic relativity) Sapir→ early Boas student Whorf→ industrial engineer -Boasian response to 19th century beliefs about how “primitives” thought Two Propositions: -Semantics and words (once we label something, it becomes that label) -Grammar (subject-verb-object language) The Structure of Language Descriptive Linguistics Phonology→ sounds that are used in a language, sound combinations, phonetics Morphology→ morpheme: a sound cluster that is a minimal unit of meaning ex) cats Syntax→ the study of the combination of morphemes into meaningful utterances (permissible and impermissible order) Beyond Just Sounds -Kinesics (body movement) -Paralanguage (variations in verbalization) Language in Use How to Do Things With Words -Performative speech acts -The speech act itself creates an outcome (ex. military commands) Sociolinguistics -Focus on linguistic performance (what people actually say) -how performance says something about the individual themselves (social stratification) Elements of Linguistic Performance -Bilingualism and code shifting -Style shifts -Dialects -Gendered speech contrasts -Social stratification/social class The Ethnography of Communication -examines the ways in which language is used in everyday interactions inside speech communities (pragmatics) -everyone belongs to multiple speech communities -who we have day to day interactions with -particular speech practices -Rules and Norms→ interactive rules (ex. school/classroom environment) -Language Socialization→ how people learn rules and norms -Performance and Poetics→ particular modes -Literacy and Literacy Practices→ how people use writing -Narratives and Storytelling→ how people tell a story -Language Ideology→ the beliefs about what kind of registers are appropriate → appropriate means of communication -Language and Identity→ how your speech reflects who you are -Language Policy (formal) → official decisions about appropriate means of communication -Language Revitalization→ efforts to keep a language in use *Language is the exemplar par excellence for the symbolic nature of culture. There are limited restraints from material culture. Language is the means by which we classify the world. The World of Goods: Exchange and Consumption Culture as a System of Classification -Culture usually operates at a less than conscious level (habitual) -shapes how we interact with the world -humans use symbolic meanings to communicate Goods Carry Social Meaning -Beyond utility → what does it do for me besides the cost -System of Social Communication → owning goods for display purpose ex) motorcycle noise levels differentiate by company and personality type of purchaser Reciprocity -occurs when exchange between relatively social equals Generalized Reciprocity -parental gift giving -giving something as a gift now in return for something in the unspecified future Balanced Reciprocity -when the giver gives something now and creates the obligation to receive something specific at some point in the specified or unspecified future ex) sharing of hunters and gatherers Negative Reciprocity -you are given something in attempt to disadvantage you/lower your social status -bettering the return gift you have to give Kula Ring -generalized and balanced reciprocity -system in the Trobriand Islands that occurs between island chiefs -Kula valuables: -red shell disc arm band -white shell armbands -can only be traded for other valuables -trade depends on the physical location of the islands to one another -anything you get you eventually trade -separate form of trade -creates a system of prestige and alliances Potlatching -regional exchange practice on the northwest coast of north america -high status accumulates goods to throw a potlatch (party) like food, elaborate blankets, and coppers -negative reciprocity -invite equal or higher status people -give away the goods you acquire, and the coppers are given away as pieces not wholes -get prestige in return for the potlatch Redistribution -one high status and lower status exchange -operates when goods, services or their equivalent (money) moves from the local level to the center money→ value marker -flow eventually reverses direction from the center to the periphery -the ability to demand tribute or taxes Unbalanced Exchange -one person benefits more than the other Markets and Profit Seeking -as much as the customer is willing to pay -selling for more than the cost to produce it Theft Exploitation -internships -servitude -slavery The Functions of Consumption -Sustenance/Utility -Symbolic -Identity/Branding -Solidarity→ alliance, part of a larger group -Distinction→ group clarification, knowing social value Arts and Expressive Culture Aesthetic Judgement→ judgement as to what is beautiful/pleasant vs. what is ugly/unpleasant Definitions Expressive Culture→ manifestations of human creativity Arts→ music, performance, visual, literature Art→ object, event or other expressive form that evokes an aesthetic response outside the realm of the practical Art Emerges with Modern Humans -Blombos Cave→ South Africa (70,000 years ago) -Figurines in central Europe→ (40,000-10,000 years ago) ex. Woman of Willendorf -Cave painting→ France and Spain (35,000-15,000 years ago) -Paleolithic art is linked to reflect hunting -The making of art spreads with the spread of modern humans (Australia) -Petroglyphs→ SouthWest USA, South Africa and India Functions of Art -aesthetic pleasure (non-utilitarian) -trade and social relations (kula rings) -symbols of power and status (religious paintings) -ethical education -social controls/links to the supernatural Body Arts Human Decoration -marks of identity -marks of status -aesthetic appeal The Body Decorated (removable/not permanent) -hairstyles/treatments -cosmetics -decorated clothing/accessories Body Modification/Mutilation (permanent) -scarification → cutting the skin and packing it with clay or ashes causing scars -piercing -binding, deformations of the skeleton (changing bone size, feet, head) -circumcision and subincision -tattooing
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