Anth 120 Midterm Study Guide
Anth 120 Midterm Study Guide Anth 120
Minnesota State University, Mankato
Popular in Forensic Science: An Anthropological Approach
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hallie Notetaker on Friday February 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anth 120 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Dr. Kathleen Blue in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Forensic Science: An Anthropological Approach in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Midterm Study Guide Chapter One The contributions of early forensic scientists Sir Arthur Conan Doyle – created an early interest in forensic science with the publication of Sherlock Holmes Alphonse Bertillon – anthropometry: first system employed for the identification of individuals Francis Galton – first study and implementation of fingerprints for identification Mathieu Orfila – poison Leone Lattes – blood-typing Calvin Goddard – bullet/firearm comparison Albert Osborn – document examination Walter McCrone – microscopy Hans Gross – scientific application Edmond Locard – crime laboratory o Locard’s exchange principle – when an individual comes into contact with another individual or object, a cross-transference of materials occurs Thomas Dwight – forensic anthropology o Parkman 1849 Cambridge, Massachusetts Victime – Dr. George Parkman Perpetrator – Dr. John Webster ID of bones led to ID of age, sex and stature o Leutgert 1897 Chicago, IL Victim – Louisa Leutgert Perpetrator – Adolph Leutgert ID of bone fragments The five units found in a typical crime lab Toxicology unit Latent fingerprint unit Polygraph unit Voiceprint analysis unit Crime scene investigation unit Functions of a forensic scientist Analysis of physical evidence Provision of expert testimony Furnishing training in recognition, collection and preservation of physical evidence Scientific method 1. Observe some aspect of the universe 2. Invent a tentative description, hypothesis, that is consistent with what you have observed 3. Use the hypothesis to make predictions 4. Test those predictions by experiments or further observations and modify the hypothesis in the light of your results 5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until there are no discrepancies between theory and experiment and/or observation When consistency is obtained the hypothesis becomes a theory and provides a coherent set of propositions which explain a class of phenomena o A theory is then a framework within which observations are explained and predictions are made Admissibility of evidence Frye – procedure or technique must be “generally accepted” by scientific community Daubert – trial judge has ultimate responsibility for determining the reliability of evidence Kumho and Coppolino – all testimony, not just “scientific” knowledge o New techniques, if based on sound accepted scientific principles, are admissible Chapter Two Securing and processing crime scenes Securing – tape, rope, barriers, cones o Should include scene itself, adjacent area and points of entry/exit o Log of all personnel and their times of arrival/departure on the scene o Do not contaminate the scene Processing – secure and isolate scene, record evidence, conduct a systematic search, collect evidence, maintain chain of custody, obtain reference samples, submit evidence, maintain safety of personnel o Recognition – be able to recognize what the crime scene is o Preservation – preserve the scene so evidence does not get tampered with o Selectivity – know what is considered evidence and worth processing Burial indications Primary or burial depression – original depression from primary decomposition Secondary depression – occurs due to the abdomen decomposing Perimeter cracks as the soil slumps down due to the decomposing body Disturbed soil; soil admixture Lack of soil compaction Vegetation – recent graves have sparse, trampled or disturbed vegetation; older graves have lush and abundant vegetation due to the nutrients given off by the body Collection procedures Collect carriers of trace evidence such as clothing, vacuum sweepings and fingernail scrapings because evidence may be invisible at the scene Collect and package correctly – biological samples could easily be destroyed (must go in paper or cardboard containers to prevent spoilage); do not cross contaminate items o Use disposable gloves and forceps to avoid cross contamination Arson scene evidence should be placed in airtight metal or glass containers Other materials can be placed in sealable plastic bags, pill bottles, manila envelopes, etc. All containers must be properly identified Chapter Three Common types of physical evidence Blood, semen, saliva, documents, drugs, explosives, fibers, fingerprints, firearms, ammunition, glass, hair, impressions, organs, physiological fluids, paint, petroleum products, plastic bags, plastic, rubber, other polymers, powder residues, serial numbers, soil and minerals, tool marks, vehicle lights, wood, other vegetative matter, insects, bones Significance of physical evidence Identification – process of determining a substance’s physical or chemical identity o Establishment of standardized test results o To the exclusion of other substances or materials – multiple tests may be required Class vs individual characteristics Class – properties of evidence that can only be associated with a group and never with a single source o Examples include paint chips, blood, fiber, hair, etc. Individual – properties of evidence that can be attributed to a common source with a high degree of probability Items with individual characteristics Ridge characteristics of fingerprints Random striations on bullets or tool marks Irregular and random wear patterns on shoe and tire prints Handwriting characteristics Irregular edges of broken or torn objects Sequentially made plastic bags DNA Physical evidence databases AFIS/IAFIS (Automated Fingerprint Identification System) – fingerprints CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) – DNA IBIS (Integrated Ballistic Identification System) – ballistics PDQ (International Forensic Automotive Paint Data Query) – automotive paint SICAR (private database) – shoeprints Treadmate (private database) – tire prints Chapter Seven Microscope types and uses Magnifying glass – earliest and simplest type Compound microscope – most common form; numerical aperture, field of view and depth of focus Comparison microscope – basically two compound microscopes put together; used to compare bullets, cartridges, hair or fibers Stereoscopic microscope – used in anthropology a lot; image is inverted; most frequently used in crime labs Polarizing microscope – used to look at birefringent substances; takes out the glare given off by crystalline substances Microspectrophotometer – attached to computerized spectrophotometer; used to examine colors, fibers and paint; absorbs spectrum Scanning Electron microscope – stereoscopic picture; x-ray analysis Forensic palynology Study of plants o Pollen – male reproductive cells of seed-bearing plants; usually dispersed by wind o Spores – male and female reproductive cells of algae, fungi, ferns and mosses o Phytoliths – silica bodies found in plants Chapter Nine Physical and chemical properties Physical – properties that can be measured without alteration of the material’s substance (weight, color, volume, boiling or melting point) Chemical – behavior of a substance when it reacts or combines with another (wood/oxygen when burned, heroin/marquis reagent) Physical properties of glass Measurement – metric system Density – mass per unit volume of a substance o Intensive property – not dependent on the size of the object o Water displacement can be used to determine density of a solid o Temperature must be controlled when measuring liquids and gases Volume expands as temperature increases Refractive index – ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to its speed in a given substance o Refraction – bending of a light wave as it passes from one medium to another due to a change in velocity o Crystalline solids – regular arrangement of atoms and two refractive indices o Amorphous solids – random atom arrangement and single refractive index Class and individual characteristics of glass Class – density, refractive index, trace elements Individual – piecing together of irregular edges of broken glass; irregularities and striations on the broken surfaces Types of glass Tempered glass – stress introduced though rapid heating and cooling o “Dices” on breaking; little splintering o Side windows of car Laminated glass – two sheets of ordinary glass bonded together with a layer of plastic o Car windshield Glass and skull fracture characteristics Bends then breaks if sufficient external force is applied Can tell the force and direction Projectile trauma results in radiating and concentric fractures A high velocity projectile such as a bullet often leaves a hole that is wider at the exit side Radiating fractures do not cross – the second blow’s radiating fractures will carry on with the first blow’s radiating fractures Chapters Ten and Thirteen Hair properties and comparison Properties o Follicle – skin organ that produces hair o Cuticle – scale structure covering the exterior of the hair (three types: coronal, spinous, imbricate); can be used to determine human or non- human hair o Cortex – main body of the hair shaft that contains the pigment o Medulla – cellular column in the center of hair (not in all hair); medullary index in animals >0.5, <0.33 in humans Can be continuous, interrupted, fragmented or absent Animals usually have continuous or interrupted; humans usually have fragmented or absent o Root – produces hair and contuse its growth Anagen phase – hair actively produced; best chance for DNA Catagen phase – hair grows at a decreasing rate; possibility for DNA near the beginning Telogen phase – growth ends; no DNA Comparison o Human vs. animal – scale structure, medullary index and shape o Human vs. human – color, length, diameter, presence or absence of medulla, distribution, shape and color of pigment granules Fiber types, comparison and collection Types o Natural – animal fibers (wool, mohair, cashmere, camelid, fur, etc.) and plant fibers (cotton, linen) o Man-made – regenerated fibers (rayon, acetate) and synthetic fibers (nylon, polyester, acrylic) Comparison o Color and diameter; surface features; cross-sectional shape; dye composition; chemical composition Collection o Potential carriers – clothes, carpets, rugs, bedding, car seats, knife blades o Do not remove fibers o Place in separate paper bags o Adhesive tape lifts of body Paint evidence Most often found in hit-and-run and burglary cases Comparison between paints to establish common origin Identification as to color, make and model Composed of binder, pigments and additives Soil evidence Any disintegrated material, natural and/or artificial, that lies on or near the earth’s surface (rocks, minerals, vegetation, animal matter, glass, paint chips, asphalt, brick fragments, cinders, concrete, etc.) Can be found on any physical evidence especially shoes, clothes or a car Chapter Five Contributions of forensic anthropologists to forensic/crime scene analysis Age, sex, ancestry and stature, as well as other characteristics of individuation Cause and manner of death Postmortem interval Locating and recovering remains and with the collection of all relevant forensic evidence Methods of age determination Juvenile – dental eruption, dental development, long bone length, epiphyseal union Adult – pubic symphysis morphology, auricular surface morphology, basilar suture fusion, ectocranial suture closure, medial clavicle fusion, sternal rib end morphology, osteoarthritis, attrition, bone density Assessing contemporary vs. noncontemporary remains State of preservation Body modifications – cranial deformation, dental modifications, dental wear, prosthetics, etc. (deliberate or unintentional) Personal belongings Conditions of interment – body treatment, arrangement, pretreatment, burial enclosure Sexing of adult individuals Cranium o Forehead – vertical in females, angled backwards in males o Supraorbital ridges – males have more raised bone, females are smoother or fainter o Orbital margin – sharper in females, blunt in males o Mastoid process – larger in males, smaller in females o Muscle markings – more pronounced in males than females o Mandible angle – 90 degree angle in males, angled back in females o Chin shape – females are more pointed, males more blunt Pelvis o Sciatic notch – wider in females, narrower in males o Ventral arc o Sub-pubic angle – rounded U-shape in females, V-shaped in males o Superior inlet – what a baby goes through o Auricular surface o Pre-auricular sulcus o Scars of parturition Post-cranial measurements o Humerus – maximum head diameter, transverse head diameter, septal aperture o Femur – maximum head diameter, bicondylar width, midshaft circumference Ancestry affiliation European, Asian or African Nose – width and length; lower border of nose Face – root, bridge and spine; lower eye border Jaws/teeth – palatal shape, presence/absence of shovel-shaped incisors; angle of jaw, pointed or rounded Vault – sutures Trauma Types of trauma Blunt – caused by a force with a wide impact area (i.e. clubs, baseball bats, shovels, etc. or falling or vehicular injuries) Sharp – can be caused by knives, axes or any sharp/pointed instrument o Puncture – vertical direction; focus cone-shaped (i.e. ice pick) o Incision – longer than wide; applied across bone by instrument with edge (i.e. knife) o Cleft – vertical direction; dynamic force; long sharp edge (i.e. axe, cleaver, machete) o May also produce fracture lines, hinge fractures or wastage Projectile – caused by bullets, pellets, arrows, spears, shrapnel or other flying objects Miscellaneous – strangulation, explosion, sawing, chemicals or heat Cause and manner of death Cause of death – bullet, wound, strangulation, stabbing, blunt force trauma, etc. Manner of death – homicide, suicide, accident, natural, unknown Differences in antemortem, perimortem and postmortem injuries in bone Antemortem – before death; evidence of healing includes porosity, rounding and calluses Perimortem – occurring around the time of death; no healing observable o Green bone response (bend and snap) – sharp, irregular edges, hinging, fracture lines, ends are angled with a jagged surface Postmortem – breakage, etc. that occurs after death o No radiating fracture lines, no hinging or greenstick fractures, right angle breaks with flat edges, differences in coloration Estimating Time since Death Decomposition – autolysis, putrefaction, insect activity, scavenging, plant involvement, physical factors o Factors that affect rate of decomposition – temperature, humidity and accessibility Surface finds (one week) > submerged remains (two weeks) > buried remains (eight weeks) Fracture types Simple – a fracture of the bone only, without damage to the surrounding tissues or breaking the skin Comminuted – fracture of the bone into more than two fragments; occur in high- impact traumas Infraction – incomplete fracture, hinge fracture, green stick fracture Fracture lines – radiating, hoop (heaving concentric) Pathological, stress and fatigue fractures Odontology (unfinished because we have not yet covered the topic in class) Uses of forensic odontology Identify human remains that cannot be identified using face recognition, fingerprints or other means Identify bodies in mass fatalities, such as plane crashes and natural disasters Determine the source of bite mark injuries, in cases of assault or suspected abuse Estimate the age of skeletal remains Testify in cases of dental malpractice Bite mark analysis Identify as human Swab for DNA Determine if bite was self-inflicted Take measurements and pictures Types of bite marks: o Abrasion – a scrape on the skin o Artifact – when a piece of the body is removed through biting o Avulsion – a bite resulting in the removal of skin o Contusion – a bruise o Hemorrhage – a profusely bleeding bite o Incision – a clean, neat wound o Laceration – a puncture wound Types of bite mark impressions: o Clear – significant pressure o Obvious – medium pressure o Noticeable – violent pressure Dental age estimation Dental identification The crime scene component will ask you to answer in paragraph form (i.e. similar to an essay question) several questions based on a mock crime scene and/or evidence that will test your knowledge of the following: Steps in processing a crime scene Secure and isolate scene Record evidence o Photography o Sketches o Notes Conduct a systematic search Collect evidence Maintain chain of custody Obtain reference samples Submit evidence Maintain safety of personnel Types of evidence Transient evidence – temporary; lost or changed; best observed by first responders o Odor, temperature, imprints, indentations Pattern evidence – direct contact between objects or object/person o Tire prints, fire burn pattern, tool marks, gunpowder residue, body position Conditional evidence – produced by specific events/actions and used to determine sequence o Light, smoke, fire, location Transfer evidence – contact between people, objects or people and objects o Fibers, hair, soil Associative evidence – associates victim or suspect with the scene o Personal belongings, wallet, car, identification Reconstruction of a crime scene Layout of scene Relationship in space of significant items and features Measurement Suspected entry, exit and movement Outside scenes need measurement and topography (larger distances compared to inside) Rough sketch at scene, followed by finished sketch use of CAD at later date (computer aided) Include title block, legend, north arrow and points of reference
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