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Gene Interactions

by: Kainath Merchant

Gene Interactions Bio142

Marketplace > Emory University > Biology > Bio142 > Gene Interactions
Kainath Merchant
Emory University

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About this Document

Notes on gene interactions, including epistasis, multiple allelism, etc.
Bio 142 - Abreu
Study Guide
Biology, genes, epistasis
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kainath Merchant on Friday February 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio142 at Emory University taught by Abreu in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Bio 142 - Abreu in Biology at Emory University.

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Date Created: 02/26/16
Gene Interactions Most traits are inherited in a more complicated way than Mendelian inheritance.    Incomplete dominance   •  heterozygotes have intermediate phenotype.  •Complete dominance  : instead of blending both alleles, express both at the same time • blood type: A and B can coexist (heterozygotes) • polymorphic: when more than two different phenotypes are present in a population (white +  pink could produce purple.; could have A, B, AB, or O blood type • multiple allelism: when there are more than two alleles for a given trait (contributes to  polymorphism ex:  two different genes produce a completely new trait. •Epistasis  (how one gene affects another gene) • expression of many genes depends on presence/ansence of other genes • When these types of gene­by­gene interactions occur: • the phenotype produced by an allele depends on actions of other alleles Some genes alter affects of other genes 9:4:3  (phenotypic ratio) ­Pleiotropy: ­ Alleles Mendel analyzed affected only a single trait ­ one genes influence many traits —> called pleiotropic (alternative to multple allelesim which  controls a single trait) ­ one mutation —> leads to many disease states ­ Quantitative Traits ­ many genes that control many traits ­ ex. human height (quantitative in humans, but not in pea plant. metabolism, bone formation,  development, nutrition, environment, behavior —> all of these control height in humans.)  unlike pea plants, which have intermediate states ­ quantitative traits: traits that aren’t discrete but fall into a continuum ­ discrete traits: specific phenotype, no intermediate ­ ­ polygenic inheritance/quantitative trais ­ each gene adds a small amount to the value of the genotype. ­ Nilsson­Ehle proposed:: ­ many genes each contribute to a small amount to the value of a quantitative trait ­ usually exhibits bell­shaped curve  ­ polygenic inheritance These are extensions of Mendel principles, not exceptions ­ Physical environment also affects phenotype: ­ most phenotypes are influenced by the physical  environment ­ combined effects of genes and environment Gene by Environment Interactions: ­ human disease PKU is an example of gene­by­environment interactions ­ untreated, this disease ­ causes phenylalanine to build up in the body of affected individuals ­ people placed on low phenylalanine develop normally Complementations  (one phenotype affected.. if lose one gene, affects the whole pathway ­ mutations in different genes lead to the same phenotype and how to sort them ­ 2 genes —> 9:3:3:1 ratio ­ A  + B = trait C ­ If remove only A, then cant get C. if remove only B, still cant make C ­ Two strains of an organis, with different homozygous recessive mutations make same mutant  produce offspring: ­ when crossed together, make kids with wildtype trait —> complementation ­ When both traits are mutants, together they are rescued and make a wildtype  ­ Ex. if have AAbb crossed with aaBB, together they will complement each other and give  normal phenotype AaBb ­ AaBb converts X —> Y —> Z ­ BUT if both aren’t heterozygous, then either stops X —> Y or Y—> Z ­  Complementation   must have mutations in different genes, so can rescue each other ­  Non Complementation  ­ parents have mutations on same genes, so CANT rescue each  other. ­ ex. both deaf parents make child who CAN hear ­ If no complementation, then can’t produce wildtype


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