Unit 2 Chapters 6, 7, 9 Study Guide
Unit 2 Chapters 6, 7, 9 Study Guide SOCI 1101
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Unit 2 Study Guide: chapters 6, 7 , 9 Chapter 6- Groups and Organizations A. Groups like political parties provide a connection to the way we feel B. Different theories (functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist) affect the way we look at groups 6.1 Types of Groups Defining a Group A. Group-a collection of at least 2 people who interact and share a sense of identity B. Aggregate-just a crowd A. Ex: line at starbucks, crowd waiting for a bus C. Category-people who share similar characteristics but don't interact in any way A. Ex: Millennials, college students D. People within an aggregate or a category CAN BECOME A GROUP OVER TIME. A. Ex: during disasters, people who did not know each other before form together and unite Types of Groups A. Primary groups-play most critical role in our lives A. Small B. Made up of individuals who are important to us C. Long term D. Emotional connection E. Ex: Family, friend group B. Secondary groups-Larger and impersonal A. Goal oriented, time limited B. Instrumental function C. Ex: classroom, office C. People can move from one group to another. Neither group has strict boundaries A. Ex: People can form primary groups within an secondary group; a secondary group can transform itself into a primary group over time In Groups and Out Groups A. In-group-the group an individual identifies with, believes it is an integral part of who he/she is. B. Out-group- a group the individual doesn't belong to C. Examples: Sports teams, KKK, unions, frats D. In-groups can from within secondary groups A. Ex: senior executives that play golf together within an office setting Reference Groups A. Reference group-a group people compare themselves to B. Provides a standard of measurement A. Ex: Cultural center, workplace, family gathering, parents C. Convey competing messages D. Reference groups influence the way you act E. Important to surround yourself with positive reference groups 6.2 Group Size and Structure Dyads, Triads, and Large Groups A. Dyad-2 members A. If one person withdraws, the group can no longer exist B. Ex: Divorce B. Triad-3 members A. If one person withdraws, the group continues to live on B. 2-1 dynamics can develop C. Strong internal cohesivness D. Sense of connection E. Easier to ignore F. Find it harder to change things in society C. The larger the group becomes, the easier it is for the group to be divided and lack cohesion Group Leadership A. Require a clearly defined state of leadership B. Leadership function- main focus or goal of the leader C. Instrumental leader- one who is goal oriented and largely concerned with accomplishing set tasks A. Ex: army generals D. Expressive leaders-are more concerned with promoting emotional strength and health A. Ex: Social and religious leaders E. Democratic Leaders-encourage group participation in all decision making A. Slow progress because the decision making process involves everyone B. Well-liked C. Risk: group members may pick sides and band against each other on an issue rather than looking for a solution F. Laissez-Faire Leader-hands-off, allowing group members to self- manage and make their own decision A. Ex: art teacher who leaves materials out for kids to use B. Works with highly motivated and mature group members C. Risk: group dissolution and conflict=lack of progress G. Authoritarian Leaders-issue orders and assign tasks A. Instrumental leaders with clear goals B. Entrepernuers C. Risk: alienating the workers Conformity A. Conformity-the extent to which an individual complies with group norms or expectations B. Use reference groups to asses how to act and behave and think C. How strong is your drive to perform? 6.3 Formal Organizations A. Formal Organizations-large and impersonal secondary organizations B. Formal organizations become bureaucracies Types of Formal Organizations A. Normative/Voluntary Organizations-based on shared interests B. Coercive Organizations-groups that we must be forced to join A. Rehab/prison B. Most coercive organizations are total institutions- where the members live a controlled lifestyle C. Utilitarian Organization-groups we join because we want a specific material reward A. Ex: high school/college Bureaucracies A. Formal organization B. Has a hierarchy or authority, clear division of labor, explicit rules, impersonal C. Hierarchy of authority-places one individual in charge of another A. Ex; chain of command of Walmart employees D. Clear division of labor-each individual has a specific task to perform E. Explicit Rules -rules are outlined and standardized A. Ex: student handbook F. Impersonality-no personal feelings A. Protect from favoritism, nepotism, cheating B. customers complain that it lacks customer service G. Bureaucracies are meritocracies-hiring and promotion is based on proven and documented skills A. Can be curved; wealthy families hire tutors/college kids drop out and become famous on youtube, etc. H. Positive aspects of bureaucracies A. improve efficiency, ensure equal opportunities, ensure most people are served B. many bureaucracies grew during the industrial revolution McDonaldization of Society A. placelesseness B. common layout of same stores throughout the world C. promotes efficiency D. mass produced E. less quality Chapter 7-Deviance, Crime, and Social Control 7.1-Deviance and Control A. Deviance-violation of an established contextual, cultural, social norms (folkways, mores, or law) A. Minor deviance- picking your nose in public B. Major deviance- committing murder B. Deviance is not necessarily bad—positive deviance fosters social change A. ex: civil rights movement—Rosa Parks was deviant when she refused to stand up on the bus C. Whether an action is deviant or not depends on: A. Location B. Audience C. Individual conducting behavior D. Different actions are deviant in different situations A. Listening to your iPod on the way to class vs. during class Social Control A. Social Control-regulation and enforcement of norms B. Underlying goal of social control is to maintain social order— arrangement of practices and behaviors on which a society bases their daily lives C. Social order:employee handbook. Social control: manager D. Sanctions-means of enforcing rules A. Can be positive and negative E. Positive sanctions-rewards for conforming to norms A. Ex: promotion at work for working hard F. Negative sanctions-punishments for violating norms A. Ex: being arrested for shoplifting G. Informal sanctions-face to face interactions A. Ex: disapproving looks, verbal reprimands, smile/pat on back H. Formal sanctions- officially recognize and enforce norm violations A. Ex: expulsion, or commendation Informal Formal Positive Expression of thanks Promotion at work Negative Angry comment Parking ﬁne 7.2-Theoretical Perspectives on Deviance Functionalism A. Sociologists who view deviance as a functionalist perspective think that deviance is a key component of society B. Emelie Durkheim-The Essential Nature of Deviance A. Deviance is necessary in society B. It challenges people’s present views C. When deviance is punished, it reaffirms others’ views of social norms C. Robert Merton-Strain Theory A. Strain theory-access to socially acceptable goals plays a part in determining whether a person conforms or deviates B. A person may have a socially acceptable goal but lack a socially acceptable way to reach that goal C. 5 ways people bridge the gap between socially acceptable goals but lack a socially acceptable way to reach that goal: A. 1) Conformity: Those who conform choose not to deviate They pursue their goals to the extent that they can through socially accepted means. B. 2) Innovation: Those who innovate pursue goals they cannot reach through legitimate means by instead using criminal or deviant means. C. 3) Ritualism: People who ritualize lower their goals until they can reach them through socially acceptable ways. These members of society focus on conformity rather than attaining a distant dream. D. 4) Retreatism: Others retreat and reject society’s goals and means. Some beggars and street people have withdrawn from society’s goal of financial success. E. 5) Rebellion: A handful of people rebel and replace a society’s goals and means with their own. Terrorists or freedom fighters look to overthrow a society’s goals through socially unacceptable means. D. Social Disorganization Theory A. Social Disorganization theory-a crime is most likely to occur in communities with weak social ties and the absence of social control E. Cultural Deviance Theory A. Culture deviance theory-conformity to the prevailing cultural norms of lower class society causes crime B. Socioeconomic status —> racial/ethnicity —> crime rate Conflict Theory A. Conflict theory-looks to social and economic factors as causes of crime and deviance B. Don’t see causes as positive functions of society, but believe they contribute to inequality in the system C. Challenge the social disorganization theory D. Look for correlation of gender and race with crime E. Karl Marx: an Unequal System A. greatly influence conflict theory B. believed that society was divided in two groups C. Bourgeois- wealthy and controlled the business D. Proletariat- workers, depended on the bourgeois F. Wright Mills: The Power Elite A. Power elite- small group of wealthy and influential people at the top of society and who hold power and resources B. Rules of society are stacked in favor of a privileged few G. Crime and Social Class A. Crime is usually associated with the underprivileged B. Crime committed by upperclass citizens is overlooked and covered up Symbolic Interactionist A. Labeling theory-examines the ascribing of deviant behavior to another person by members of society A. What is considered deviant is determined not by the deviant behaviors themselves or the people who commit them but the society around them that labels them as deviant B. What is considered deviant varies among cultures and times C. Primary deviance-violation of norms that does not result in any long-term effects in the person’s life D. Secondary deviance-person’s self-concept and behavior begin to change after his or her actions are labeled as deviant within members of a society A. Person may begin to take on the role of being deviant as an act of rebellion B. Ex: troublemaker E. Secondary deviance can endow a master status on the individual A. master status-main characteristic as what people see themselves as (doctor, lawyer, beggar, convict, addict) B. Edwin Sutherland: Differential Association A. Differential Association Theory- individuals learn deviant behavior from those close to them who serve as examples/ opportunities B. Deviance is a result of a differential socialization process C. Travis Hirschi: Control Theory A. Control theory—social control is directly affected by the strength of social bonds and that deviance results from a feeling of disconnection from society B. Individuals who feel they belong to society are less likely to commit crimes against it C. 4 types of social bonds that connect us to society and lessen probability of deviance A. 1) Attachment-connection to others B. 2) Commitment-investments in community C. 3) Involvement-participation in social activities D. 4) Belief-agreement on common values in society Functionalism Associated Theorist Deviance arises from: Strain theory Robert Merton A lack of ways to reach socially accepted goals by accepted methods Social Disorganization theory U Chicago Weak social ties and a lack of social control; society has lost the ability to enforce norms with some groups Cultural Deviance theory Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay Conformity to the cultural norms of lower-class society Conﬂict Theory Associated Theorist Deviance arises from: Unequal system Karl Marx Inequalities in wealth and power that arise from the economic system Power Elite C. Wright Mills Ability of those in power to deﬁne deviance in ways that maintain the status quo Symbolic Interactionist Associated Theorist Deviance arises from: Labeling Theory Edwin Lemert The reactions of others, particularly those in power who are able to determine labels Control theory Travis Hirachi Learning and modeling deviant behavior seen in other people close to the individual Differential Association Theory Edwin Sutherlin Feelings of disconnection from society 7.3 Crime and the Law A. Crime- behavior that violates official law and is punishable through formal sanctions B. difference between deviance and crime: deviance is ambiguous and crime is formal C. Legal codes-maintain formal control through laws A. receive negative formal sanctions Types of Crimes A. violent crimes-use of force B. nonviolent crimes - no use of force, destruction of property C. Street Crime- offenses committed by ordinary people against other people or organizations, in public spaces D. Corporate crime- crime committed by white-collar workers in a business environment A. Embezzlement, identity theft, insider trading E. victimless crime- perpetrator is not explicitly harming another person A. Ex: underage drinking Crime Statistics A. self report study-collection of data gathered using voluntary-response methods (questionnaires or telephone interviews) B. quality of information may be inaccurate Public Perception of Crime A. crime rates have been declining B. adults believe crime is worse now than years ago C. people who follow crime on news believe crime rate is higher than it really is US Criminal Justice System A. Criminal Justice system- organization that exists to enforce a legal code B. 3 branches: police, courts, and corrections system C. Police A. Police- civil force in charge of enforcing laws and public order at federal, state, and community level B. FBI, ATF, DHS- deal with power of federal govt C. State police- enforce statewide laws, regulating traffic on highways D. Courts A. Court—system that has the authority to make decisions based on law B. divided into federal and state courts C. federal courts-deal with trade disputes, military justice, and govt lawsuits D. State courts- 3 levels: trail courts, appellate courts, and state supreme courts A. decided by a judge without a jury present B. trial courts—criminal cases. judge and jury present. E. Corrections A. AKA prison system B. supervising individuals who have been arrested, convicted and sentenced for a criminal offense C. incarceration rate has grown D. rates of violent crimes and nonviolent crimes are decreasing Chapter 9: Social Stratification in the United States 9.1: What is Social Stratification? A. Social Stratification- society’s categorization of its people into rankings of socioeconomic tiers based on factors like wealth, race, education, and power. B. society’s resources are distributed unevenly through layers C. Makes inequalities apparent D. Stratification is about the whole society, not individuals E. Most of the times it’s based on wealth and income F. Other factors that influence social standing (varies between culture the intensity of how high each is regarded) A. wisdom B. charisma C. age G. Social standing influenced on standing of our parents H. Kids inherit their parents’ work ethic, lifestyle, norms, based on what community they grew up in I. Social standing becomes a comfort zone, an identity A. Why 1st gen college students don’t do as well as others J. Occupational structure influences social standing A. Ex: teachers: high education, but low pay. Most teachers do it for the rewarding career and don't care that much about salary. B. On the other hand, this attitude is neglected in the business world, where profits are seen as most important K. Recent economic changes A. Great Recession in US: made people lose their jobs and struggle to survive Systems of Stratification A. 2 types of stratification: A. closed systems- very little change in social position B. open systems- based on achievement, allow movement and interaction between layers and classes B. Caste System A. Caste system- people are born into their social standing and will remain in it their whole lives B. People are assigned occupations regardless of talent and potential C. Hindu tradition- people were supposed to marry into their caste only D. Person who lived in caste society was socialized to accept his or her social standing C. Class System A. Class system- based on social factors and individual achievement B. Class- set people who share similar status C. Class systems are open systems—allows social mobility D. Option to have exogamous marriages-marriage from 2 diff social categories A. love B. compatibility E. Endogamous union- marriage from same social class D. Meritocracy A. Meritocracy- ideal system based on belief that social strat. is result of personal effort that determines social standing B. High effort—> high social standing and vice versa C. IDEAL CONCEPT— A SOCIETY LIKE THIS HAS NEVER EXISTED BEFORE —take bias into account D. rewarding achievement E. academic achievement leads to success Status Consistency A. Status consistency- describe consistency, or lack thereof, of an individual’s rank across factors like income, education, and occupation B. In a class system, a person can work hard and have little education and still be in middle or upper class, whereas in a caste system that would not be possible. C. In a class system, low status consistency correlates with having more choices and opportunities. A. ex: inconsistencies between education and social class=hard work + luck + external factors can still land you in the middle class or upper middle class category 9.2: Social Stratification and Mobility in the US Standard of Living A. Standard of Living- level of wealth available to a certain socioeconomic class in order to maintain lifestyle A. Factors like employment, income, education, class, poverty rate, affordability B. 1% of population holds 1/3 of nation’s wealth C. Wealthy people A. better schooling B. better health C. consume most goods and services D. decision making power D. Women make up majority of poor individuals — “feminization of poverty” E. standards of living are based on occupation A. also influence social standing B. Ex: teachers and police officers are respected, but not considered prestigious jobs because of the income F. in united states: we have relative poverty G. relative poverty: not having the means to live the lifestyle of the average person in your country. H. absolute poverty: deprivation so severe that it puts survival in jeopardy I. USA has basic resources to provide welfare through social and federal programs Social Classes in US A. 3 levels: upper, middle, lower class A. Wealth is most common way to measure classes B. 20% US highest earners —> upper income C. 20% US lowest earners D. 60% US middle class earners ($25,000-$100,000) E. Upper class have power and control over theirs and other people’s lives F. middle class have power over their own lives G. lower class don't have power over anyone, not even themselves B. Upper Class A. in US: 1% of population B. Access to material goods + power C. Influence on nation D. Run major media of country—run the major network television stations, radio broadcasts, newspapers, magazines, publishing houses, and sports franchises. E. Board members of colleges and universities—enforce cultural attitudes and values F. Philanthropists—establish foundations to help social causes G. Old money—money inherited A. people in this category are taught the expectations of their kind, and learn to manage their money B. Paris Hilton/ Kim Kardashian H. New money—money achieved through work A. people in this category still exhibit middle class behaviors C. The middle class A. Upper-middle class: bachelor’s/postgraduate degrees A. Business, law, medicine B. Lower-middle class: bachelor’s degrees or technical degrees C. Comfort is key A. Upper middle class don't have to work as hard and take more vacations B. lower middle class work harder to provide the same level of comfort D. The lower class A. aka working class B. subsets: working class, working poor, and underclass C. lower education, smaller incomes, low skill jobs, routine tasks D. working class: custodial or food service. hands on work and physically demanding A. landscaping B. cooking C. cleaning D. building E. working poor: unskilled, low income, no retirement benefits, little health care, seasonal/ temporary positions A. migrant farm workers B. housecleaners C. day laborers D. high school drop-outs, illiterate F. Underclass: lowest tier. mainly unemployed and homeless Social Mobility A. Social mobility- ability to change positions within a social stratification system B. upward mobility- upward shift A. rags-to-riches: Oprah Winfrey C. downward mobility- lowering of one’s social class A. unemployment B. sickness C. dropping out school D. intragenerational mobility- difference in social class between different members of the same generation A. Ex: difference in income and status between siblings E. Structural mobility- societal changes enable a whole group of people to move up or down the social class ladder A. changes in society as a whole, not individual changes B. industrialization C. raising standard of living Class Traits A. Class traits, also called class markers, are the typical behaviors, customs, and norms that define each class. B. indicate the level of exposure a person has to a wide range of cultures. C. indicate amount of resources a person has to spend on hobbies, vacations, and leisure D. expensive clothing, cars, vacations E. lower class-community leisure activities like camping fishing and hunting What is a disadvantage of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)? —>The NCVS may be unable to reach important groups, such as those without phones. 9.3 Global Stratification and Inequality A. Global Stratification- compares the wealth, economic stability, status, and power of countries across the world. B. highlights world patterns of social inequality C. Industrial revolution= wealth= raised st of living D. some nations embraced the new technology and goods= wealth, some nations did not E. disparity between nations was a power disparity F. industrialized nations became richer G. global stratification= income + purchasing power + wealth H. compares the quality of life a country’s population can have Modes of Global Stratification A. models rank countries based on economic status, GNP B. 1st, 2nd, 3rd world countries C. comparing GDP rates of countries = economic health Unlike Davis and Moore, Melvin Tumin believed that, because of social stratiﬁcation, some qualiﬁed people were _______ higher-level job positions. —>denied the opportunity to obtain Studies of global stratiﬁcation measure inequalities by comparing the _______________________ of countries. —> relative economic status When a high school student gets teased by her basketball team for receiving an academic award, she is dealing with competing ______________. —> reference groups 9.4: Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification A. Functionalism A. examines how society’s parts operate B. diff aspects of society exist because they serve a needed purpose C. Davis-Moore thesis- greater functional importance of social role, the greater the reward A. The theory posits that social stratification represents the unequal value of different work. B. certain tasks > others, and reward for those tasks follows C. Ex: firefighter’s job > cashier’s D. higher pay for more important job= encourages people to work harder and longer E. degree and skill required for the job determines its importance F. the more skills required for a job, the fewer people there are to do that job G. does not explain how why a media personality with little education, skill, or talent becomes famous and rich on a reality show or a campaign trail. H. does not explain inequalities in the education system or inequalities due to race or gender. A. ex: poor kid has less chance of success no matter how smart he/she is I. does not explain why a basketball player earns millions of dollars a year when a doctor who saves lives, a soldier who fights for others’ rights, and a teacher who helps form the minds of tomorrow will likely not make millions over the course of their careers. J. The thesis states that social stratification is necessary to promote excellence, productivity, and efficiency, thus giving people something to strive for. B. Conflict Theory A. stratification perpetuates inequality B. draw on work of Karl Marx C. strained working relationship between employers and employees D. class conflict C. Symbolic interactionism A. everyday interactions of individuals to explain society as a whole B. examines stratification from a micro-level perspective C. social standing==everyday interactions D. people interact with same social standing mostly E. people associate with people from the same level of society as them A. share income level, interests, racial/educational background B. ex: rare for a prince to marry a commoner F. appearance reflects perceived social standing A. housing B. clothing C. transportation G. Conspicuous consumption- purchase and use of certain products to make a social statement about status A. ex: expensive sneakers, expensive water bottles When Karl Marx said workers experience alienation, he meant that workers: —> dont feel connected to their work Which part of the United States criminal justice system is charged with supervising individuals who have been arrested, convicted, and sentenced for committing a criminal oﬀense? —> corrections
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