HY 104 Exam 1 Study Guide
Key terms and central questions
1. Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan- southern state could be readmitted into the Union once 10 percent of its voters swore an oath of allegiance to the Union.
2. Thaddeus Stevens & Charles Sumner- leaders of the Radical Republican faction of the Republican Party during the 1860s.
3. Wade-Davis Bill- 1864 was a bill proposed for the Reconstruction of the South written by two Radical Republicans, Senator Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Representative Henry Winter Davis of Maryland.
4. Copperheads Republicans & Democrats in 1865- a vocal faction of Democrats in the Northern United States of the Union who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. We also discuss several other topics like What are the current trends in physical activity in the United States?
5. 13th Amendment- abolished slavery in the United States 6. Corwin Amendment- No amendment shall be made to the Constitution which will authorize or give to Congress the power to abolish or interfere, within any State, with the domestic institutions thereof, including that of persons held to labor or service by the laws of said State.
7. Andrew Johnson- 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869.
8. Johnson’s reconstruction plan- voided or repealed their ordinances of secession, abolished slavery, and (except South Carolina) repudiated Confederate debts.
9. Black Codes- laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866, after the Civil War. These laws had the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt.
10. Freedman’s Bureau- established in 1865 by Congress to help former black slaves and poor whites in the South in the aftermath of the U.S. Civil War
11. 14th Amendment- defining national citizenship and forbidding the states to restrict the basic rights of citizens or other persons. 12. Reconstruction Act of 1867- applied to all the ex-Confederate states in the South, except Tennessee who had already ratified the Fourteenth Amendment.
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13. Tenure of Office Act of 1867- intended to restrict the power of the President of the United States to remove certain office-holders without the approval of the Senate
January 21, 2016
1. Andrew Jonson’s impeachment trial- House of Representatives votes to impeach him Senate vote impeach: 35/not impeach: 19 (hangs onto job by one vote)
2. Election of 1868- the first presidential election to take place after the American Civil War, during the period referred to as Reconstruction (Andrew Johnson won)
3. 15th amendment- prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
4. Hiram Revels & Blanche K. Bruce- he was the first elected black senator to serve a full term, Hiram was the first African American to serve in the U.S. Senate, but did not serve a full term
5. KKK & White League- opposed social change and black emancipation by violence and terrorism.
6. Colfax- The Colfax massacre, or Colfax riot as the events are termed on the 1950 state historic marker, occurred on Easter Sunday, April 13, 1873, in Colfax, Louisiana, the seat of Grant Parish, during confrontation between opposing political forces of the Republicans and Democrats.
7. Enforcement Acts- protected African-Americans' right to vote, to hold office, to serve on juries, and receive equal protection of laws. 8. Liberal republicans- political party of dissident Republicans formed in opposition to the first Grant administration If you want to learn more check out What are three casual dining restaurants?
9. Whiskey ring- scandal, exposed in 1875, involving diversion of tax revenues in a conspiracy among government agents, politicians, whiskey distillers, and distributors.
10. Panic of 1873- financial crisis that triggered a depression in Europe and North America that lasted from 1873 until 1879 11. Redemption- Southern Democratic term for the end of Reconstruction and the return of white southern Democratic rule to the South.
12. Compromise of 1877- unwritten deal that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election, pulled federal troops out of state politics in the South, and ended the Reconstruction Era. Central Question: why did reconstruction end when it did?
January 26, 2016
1. Golden age- A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government. If you want to learn more check out What is the History of Disabilities?
2. Union Pacific- The Union Pacific Railroad (reporting mark UP) is a Class I line haul freight railroad that operates nearly 8,500 locomotives over
32,000 route-miles in 23 states west of Chicago, Illinois and New Orleans, Louisiana.
3. Transcontinental telegraph- a line that connected an existing network in the eastern United States to a small network in California by a link between Omaha and Carson City via Salt Lake City.
4. Andrew Carnegie- led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century.
5. Vertical integration- the combination in one company of two or more stages of production normally operated by separate companies. 6. Johnson D Rockefeller and standard oil- co-founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust.
7. Horizontal integration- strategy where a company creates or acquires production units for outputs which are alike - either complementary or competitive. One example would be when a company acquires competitors in the same industry doing the same stage of production for the creation of a monopoly.
8. state incorporation laws (NJ & DE)-
9. immigrant labor- cheap labor, taking advantage of unskilled laborers in the golden age Don't forget about the age old question of What do you call the ranking of foods based on their nutrient composition?
10. mass marketing- market (a product) on a large scale 11. Coca-Cola- John Pemberton’s wine of coca
January 28, 2016
1. Sugar trust- a United States Supreme Court case that limited the government's power to control monopolies
2. Battle of little bighorn- A battle in which General George Custer and his forces were defeated by Sioux warriors on 25 June 1876, popularly known as Custer's Last Stand.
3. Dawes act- A federal law intended to turn Native Americans into farmers and landowners by providing cooperating families with 160 acres of reservation land for farming or 320 acres for grazing.
4. Wounded knee- located on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in southwestern South Dakota, was the site of two conflicts between North American Indians and representatives of the U.S. government. An 1890 massacre left some 15 0Native Americans dead, in what was the final clash between federal troops and the Sioux.
5. Presidential politics (1880s)-
6. Populist movement- a revolt by farmers in the South and Midwest against the Democratic and Republican Parties for ignoring their interests and difficulties. For over a decade, farmers were suffering from crop failures, falling prices, poor marketing, and lack of credit facilities. We also discuss several other topics like Why are goals important?
7. Farmers alliance- an informal name for various regional political organizations that farmers established in the 1880s and that led to the formation of the Peoples' party in 1891–92
8. Anne L. Diggs- a Populist orator and editor from Kansas who supported women's rights and the Populist movement. she toured the nation to promote her causes in 1892. She allied herself with the Farmer's Alliance, and aided in the creation of the Populist Party.
9. Omaha platform- the party program adopted at the formative convention of the Populist (or People's) Party held in Omaha, Nebraska on July 4, 1892.
10. Peoples parties- a political party (1891–1904), advocating expansion of currency, state control of railroads, the placing of restrictions upon ownership of land
Central question: what caused the populist movement and what did the populist want?
February 2, 2016
1. Omaha platform and the peoples party
2. Jacob Riis- Early 1900's muckraker who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How The Other Half Lives"; exposed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in NYC
3. Knights of labor and the AFL- was a national federation of labor unions in the United States. It was founded in Columbus, Ohio, in May 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor association
4. Haymarket uprising- the aftermath of a bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square in Chicago.
5. Pullman strike- a nationwide railroad strike in the United States on May 11, 1894. It pitted the American Railway Union (ARU) against the Pullman Company,
6. Election of 1896- Republican candidate William McKinley (a former Governor of Ohio) defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan (a former Representative from Nebraska) in one of the most dramatic and complex races in American history.
7. Jim crow- a practice or policy of segregating or discriminating against blacks, as in public places, public vehicles, or employment. 8. Poll taxes, grandfather clauses and literary tests- designed to keep blacks and some poor whites from voting
9. Plessy V. Ferguson- upheld the rights of states to pass laws allowing or even requiring racial segregation in public and private institutions such as schools, public transportation, restrooms, and restaurants (separate but equal)
10. Lynchings- kill someone, especially by hanging, for an alleged offense with or without a legal trial.
11. Booker T. Washington and WEB DuBois- A former slave. Encouraged blacks to keep to themselves and focus on the daily tasks of survival, rather than leading a grand uprising. WEB- One of
Washington's harshest critics, believing that Washington's pacifist plan would only perpetuate the second-class-citizen mindset
Central question: how did Jim crow segregation undermine American democracy in the late nineteenth century?
February 4, 2016
1. Berlin conference- divides up colonial America and regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period 2. Alaska- United States Secretary of State William Henry Seward purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867
3. Monroe doctrine- (1823) said that any intervention by external powers in the politics of the Americas is a potentially hostile act against the US 4. Panic of 1893- financial crisis that triggered a depression in Europe and North America
5. Frederick Jackson Turner- writes “Significance of the Frontier in American Society”, says that US is going to become weak once we do not have any more frontier to discover, says we must go oversees
6. Manifest destiny- belief that the expansion of the US throughout the American continents was both justified and inevitable
7. Dwight Moody- creates missionary programs to spread Christianity oversees
8. The influence of sea upon history- book written in 1890 by Alfred Thayer, discussed the necessity of sea power during the 17th and 18th century
9. Spanish American war- A war between Spain and the United States, fought in 1898, only lasting 4 months. An intervention by the United States on Cuba’s behalf
10. Insular cases- denied the Filipinos constitutional rights because they look different than us
11. African American soldiers in 1898- African Americans soldiers, called Buffalo Soldiers, fought in the Spanish American war. Some people questioned whether African Americans should be able to fight for the US
Central question: why did America seek imperial expansion overseas in the 1800s?
February 9, 2016
1. Progressive era- period of social activism and political reform in the United States that flourished from the 1890s to the 1920s
2. Jane Addams- pioneered the settlement house movement which meant that middle class people lived with lower class people to teach them values and ethics
3. Theodore Roosevelt- became president after William McKinley was assassinated, grew up tough, led the rough riders in the Spanish American War
4. Square deal & the 3 C’s-
a. Corporate control- Breaks up monopolies to bring prices down b. Consumer protection- Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 (FDA) c. Conservation- Wanted to preserve parks and resources
5. Pure food & drug act- (1906) removed harmful and misrepresented foods/drugs from the market and regulated the manufacture and sale of them
6. Conservation and The gospel of efficiency- we need to “efficiently” use resources if we want to prosper in the years ahead
7. US forest service- Roosevelt created this so we can preserve trees so we don’t use them up
8. Gifford Pinchot- American forester, first chief of the US forest service 9. John Muir- believed that we should be protecting nature, not just conserving it. Founded the Sierra Club to help preserve wildlands, esp. in California
Central question: what did progressive reformers hope to accomplish?
February 16, 2016
1. Northern securities case- Northern Securities Company V. United States (1904)- wanted to control most of railroads in US to form monopoly. US argued that they violated Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. US won and company had to be broken up
2. William H. Taft- wins election of 1908 by a landslide. He supports the passing of the 16th amendment (1913) which gave the federal government the right to impose income taxes in the US
3. Pinchot Ballinger Affair- Ballinger, who was the Secretary of Interior, opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska against Roosevelt's conservation policies. Pinchot supported former President Roosevelt and demanded that Taft dismiss Ballinger. Taft dismissed Pinchot on the basis of insubordination. This divided the Republican Party.
4. Election of 1912- new nationalism (Roosevelt) v. new freedom (Wilson). Woodrow Wilson wins election and democrats have the white house back. This is due to republicans being split into two parties and the southern states vote primarily democratic
5. Socialist party and the bull moose party- when the republicans were badly split in the 1912 election and Roosevelt broke away from the republican party, forming his own Party called the Bull Moose Party
6. Woodrow Wilson- wins 1912 election, he was a leading progressive, arguing for a stronger central government and fighting for anti-trust legislation and labor rights
7. American foreign policy 1900-1917- dollar diplomacy, using a country's financial and business power to extend its influence internationally 8. World war 1- assignation of Franz Ferdinand sets of WW1, America wants to stay neutral at first, American joins war after the Zimmerman telegram was intercepted from Germany
9. Lusitania- A British passenger ship sunk by a German submarine in 1915, hundreds of Americans on board, Germany then goes to war with Britain
10. Sussex pledge- Germans said they would stop unrestricted submarine warfare
11. Zimmerman telegram- meant for Mexico, US intercept, encourages Mexico to enter war on central powers side and take military action against US, if they do this Germany will acquire Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas for Mexico
Central question: what caused the US to enter World War 1?
February 23, 2016
1. 18th amendment- also called prohibition, banned the sale of alcohol in the United States
2. red scare- the fear of communism taking hold in the United States, especially by immigrants coming into the country
3. palmer raids- root out communist within the United States, led by J. Edgar Hoover who was head of the Radical Division of Justice Dept. 4. Warren G. Harding- president from 1921-1923 when he died of heart attack; “return to normalcy” very pro business, reduced taxes on wealthy, involved in lots of scandals
5. Calvin Coolidge- becomes president after Harding dies (1923-1929), Revenue Act of 1924 and 1926- reduced tax burden on wealthy; doesn’t help farmers
6. Herbert Hoover- wins election of 1828 president from 1929-1933; Hoovervilles, hoover ball; “we in America today are near to the final triumph of poverty than ever before in the history of the land”
7. Great depression- the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. beginning with the stock-market crash on October 29, 1929 and continued through most of the 1930s
8. Hoover ball- throwing medicine ball over volleyball net and trying to knock over other team
Central question: what caused the great depression?
1. League of nations- international organization established after World War I under the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles; brought about international cooperation on health, labor problems, etc.
2. 19th amendment- gives women the right to vote
3. Marcus Garvey- black nationalist who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (1914), advocated for nationalism and black separatism