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Intro to Chemistry Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Molly DeKruger

Intro to Chemistry Exam 2 Study Guide CHEM 1021

Marketplace > University of Colorado > Chemistry > CHEM 1021 > Intro to Chemistry Exam 2 Study Guide
Molly DeKruger
GPA 2.5

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About this Document

In depth description about Avogadro's number and more information that will be covered on Exam 2. Also a list of things you will need to know from the professors notes about the Exam.
Intro to Chemistry
Lynn Geiger
Study Guide
Chemistry, Study Guide, intro to chem
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Molly DeKruger on Friday February 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1021 at University of Colorado taught by Lynn Geiger in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Intro to Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Colorado.


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Date Created: 02/26/16
EXAM 2 STUDY Covers chapter 2 (sections 2.2 through 2.5), Chapter 3 (all sections) and Chapter 4 (tentative) Things you will be given on Exam 2: • Avogadro’s number • Conversion between amu (atomic mass units) and grams Periodic table without element names • Things you need to have memorized for Exam 2: • Element symbols and names as from Exam 1. You should therefore be able to name and write formulas for ions associated with these elements. • Metric conversion factors as from Exam 1. • Polyatomic ions in in table 3.4 (all except hydrogen sulfate, dihydrogen phosphate and hydrogen phosphite). • Prefixes for naming molecular compounds as listed in Table 3.9 • Common strong acids: see Table 3.10 • Common strong bases, hydroxides with group 1 and 2 metals • All vocabulary as listed under key terms at the end of chapters 2 through 4. • All formulas or key relationships as listed at the end of chapters 2 through 4. Avogadro’s Number 6.022x10^23 molecules • This number is base on Carbon-12, since it is the most common element on Earth. • Avo’s number is an EXACT NUMEBR • Can be used to convert between atoms, moles, and molecules. • FUN FACT: Avogadro had nothing to do with naming this number. He didn't have much recognition when he was alive, so scientists named the number after him in apparition of all the work he accomplished in his lifetime. How to convert using Avogadro’s number. 23 *Avo’s Number = 6.022 x 10 —> (DIVIDE Molar Mass) —> (MULTIPLY Avo’s Number) —> Grams of Substance Moles of Substance Number of Atoms or Molecule <— (MULTIPLY Molar Mass) <— (DIVEDE Avo’s Number) <— This is something you should memorize. It will make your life so much easier. Lets go into a little more detail and I’ll explain how to use this chart. You have the amount of grams you need in a substance. Sweet, but you need to know how many moles there are. How the in the heck am I supposed to figure that out? It’s actually simpler than you'd think. Here is a sample problem. You have .450g of Fe, how many moles are in this sample? 1) First, you need to see what the mass of Fe is. So look at your handy-dandy periodic table. 2) Plug that baby in. Look at your chart above with the conversion information. Grams of substance = .450g. Molar mass = 55.845g. Then, according to the chart, we divide the substance by the molar mass of that substance. .450 g -2 55.845 g = .00806 mol or (8.06 x 10 ) 3) That is your answer in Moles. Lets keep going to find the molecules or atoms in this sample. 4) Take the value you just calculated, and multiply it by Avo’s Number. 23 21 .00806 x (6.022 x 10 ) = 4.854 x 10 Lets do a problem where we go in the other direction. We have the amount of molecules in a substance, but we really want to know how many moles it has, then we want to know how many grams are in the substance, just for fun. 8 1) Figure out the moles of gold if the1.000 x 10 atoms of Au. 8 -16 2) 1.000 x 10 atoms Au = 1.661 x 10 mol Au 23 6.022 x 10 atoms Au 3) Great, we are half way there. If you don't know where I got the information in step 2, take a look at the chart again. You have the amount of atoms that you were given, and then you divide by Avro’s Number. Now, lets find the grams of this sample of Gold. -16 -14 1.661 x 10 mol Au X 196.97 mol = 3.27 x 10 g That is a very small sample. These conversions will get easier with practice. Just keep doing them and you’ll be a pro in no time! COVALENT VS IONIC BONDS COVALENT IONIC STATE AT ROOM TEMP Liquid or gaseous Solid POLARITY Low (makes poor conductor) High (makes great conductors) FORMATION Between two non metals that Between a metal and a non have similar electronegativities. metal. Non metals can easily Neither atom is strong enough take a metals electrons to attract electrons from the because they have a lower other, so to stay stable, they valance electron cloud. The share their valence electrons two have opposite charges and with others attract each other. SHAPE Definite Shape No definite shape (Like water, the H’s on the O will always be angled like a V) MELTING POINT Low High BOILING POINT Low High EXAMPLES Methane ( CH4), Hydrochloric Sodium Chloride (NaCl), Acid (HCl) Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) OCCURS BETWEEN Two nonmetals A metal and a nonmetal. information from: Covalent_Bonds_vs_Ionic_Bonds Important tidbits - Ionization: Process of molecular compounds forming ions when dissolved in water. - Dissociation: when ionic compounds dissolve in water they break into ions. - Most molecular substances that dissolve into water do not break apart, they stay in tact - Solutions of molecular compounds will NOT form an electric current. - Solutions of ionic compounds WILL conduct an electric current WHEN dissolved in water. - Molecular compounds usually have lover melting points - MONOTOMIC ION: 1 element - CATIONS OR ANIONS: -ide suffix - POLYATOMIC ION: multiple elements - POLYATOMIC IONS: have 2+ elements bonded to each other; very stable, tend to stay together; charge is spread over anything - OXOANIONS: polyatomic ions containing oxygen POLYATOMIC IONS ION NAME ION NAME NH4+ Ammonium CO3 2- Carbonate NO2- Nitrite HCO3- Hydrogen carbonate NO3- Nitrate ClO- Hypochlorite SO3 ^2- Sulfite ClO2- Chlorite SO4 ^2- Sulfate ClO3- Chlorate HSO4- Hydrogen sulfate ClO4- Perchlorate OH- Hydroxide C2H6O2- Acetate CN- Cyanide MnO4- Permanganate PO4 3- Phosphate Cr2O7 2- Dichromate HPO4 2- Hydrogen phosphate CrO4 2- Chromate H2PO4- Dihydrogen phosphate O2 2- Peroxide Naming BINARY ACIDS Binary acids have the prefix “Hydro-“ + anion metal root + suffice “-ic (or -ric)” + the word acid. Like, Hydro+chlo+ric+acid. (Hydrochloric acid) • HF- Hydrofluoric acid • HI- Hydroiodic acid • H2S- Hydrosulfiric acid Naming OXOACIDS Oxoacid names are similar to those of the oxoanions, except for two suffix changes. - anion “-ate” suffix becomes “-ic or -ric” suffix in the acid. - anion “-ite” suffix becomes an “-ous or -rous” suffix in the acid. - the prefix, if one, will be “Hypo-“ • CO3 ^(2-)- Carbonate ion • H2CO3- Carbonic acid • SO4 ^(2-)- Sulfate ion • H2SO4- Sulfuric acid SO3 ^(2-)- Sulfite ion • • H2SO3- Sulfurous acid


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