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Quiz Date: 2/15
Weather and Climate – GEOG 1300
Study Guide for Quiz #2
Be sure to review your study guide from quiz #1 because some questions will reappear.
1. What is insolation?
Incoming solar radiation that reaches Earth and the atmosphere
2. What controls insolation?
The angle of the sun controls insolation
More intense where sun angle is highest
less intense with lower sun angle
3. What is the shape of the Earth’s orbit around the sun?
4. What is the ecliptic?
The apparent path of the sun on the celestial sphere
5. What are the solstices? When do they occur?
Summer Solstice June 21 in Northern Hemisphere. Sun farthest North & length between sunrise and sunset is the longest Don't forget about the age old question of What is metmyoglobin and what color is it associated with?
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Winter Solstice June 21 in Northern Hemisphere. Sun farthest South & length between sunrise and sunset is shortest.
6. What are the equinoxes? When do they occur?
Time or date in which the sun crosses the celestial equator, which happens 2 times a year when night and day are the same length.
Spring (Vernal) Equinox: March 20 in Northern Hemisphere; September 22 in Southern Hemisphere; beginning of long period of sunlight at the poles
Autumn Equinox: Sept 22 in Northern Hemisphere; March 20 in Southern Hemisphere; beginning of long period of darkness at poles.
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7. What is the length of daylight at the North Pole on each of the equinoxes and solstices? June (summer solstice) – 24 hours of daylight, December (winter solstice – 24 hours of darkness
8. What is the length of daylight at 40°N at each of the equinoxes and solstices? June (summer solstice)–15 hours of daylight, equinoxes about 12 hours, December (winter solstice) about 9 hours of daylight
9. What is the length of daylight at the Equator on each of the equinoxes and solstices? 12 hours of daylight all yearIf you want to learn more check out What was the role of a prophet in old testament times?
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10. At which of the latitudes above does the length of daylight vary most over the course of a year? Above 40 degrees north and below 40 degrees south How does that affect the temperature of that location in terms of its annual range of temperature? Wider range of temperatures
11. At which of the latitudes above does the length of daylight vary least over the course of a year? In tropics near equator amount of daylight varies least about 12 hours per day all the time How does that affect the temperature of that location in terms of its annual range of temperature? Temperatures do not vary as much, consistently hot
The tilt of the Earth’s axis with respect to the ecliptic controls the intensity and duration of sunlight received at any given latitude on Earth causing the Earth’s seasons.
12. In July when it is ______summer___ (summer/ fall/ winter/ spring) in the Northern Hemisphere, the North Pole is pointing ____toward____ (toward/away from) the Sun and everywhere in the Northern Hemisphere days are ____longer than__ (longer than / shorter than) 12 hours.
13. In January when it is _____winter____ (summer/ fall/ winter/ spring) in the Northern Hemisphere, the North Pole is pointing ___away from_____ (toward/away from) the Sun and everywhere in the Northern Hemisphere days are ___shorter than___ (longer than / shorter than) 12 hours.
14. In July when it is ____winter_____ (summer/ fall/ winter/ spring) in the Southern Hemisphere, the North Pole is pointing ____away from____ (toward/away from) the Sun and everywhere in the Southern Hemisphere days are ____shorter than__ (longer than / shorter than) 12 hours.
15. What regions of the earth receive a surplus of energy over the course of a year? (think in terms of tropics/subtropics/midlatitudes/polar latitudes) tropic & subtropic
16. What regions of the earth receive a deficit of energy over the course of a year? (tropics/subtropics/midlatitudes/polar latitudes) midlatitude & poar laitudes
17. How is the excess of energy at lower latitudes moved poleward? It’s carried by warm moist air, warm sea water, and Tropical Cyclones
18. What is albedo? The extent to which a surface reflects solar radiation
What are the albedos of water, ice, snow, forest and desert? Sea water (0.1), ice (0.4), snow (0.8), forest (0.08), desert (0.4)
Which of those surfaces has the highest albedo? Snow
Which of those surfaces has the lowest albedo? Forest
19. What is the average albedo of the Earth as a whole? 0.3 or 30%
Quiz Date: 2/15
20. The five factors that affect the local surface air temperature (climate controls) are latitude, surface type, coastal versus interior location, elevation, and atmospheric and oceanic circulations. Explain how each of these factors affects local surface air temperature.
21. When do you expect to experience the lowest temperature of the day? Explain. Right before sunrise because the Earth has been cooling all night while it has been turned away from the sun.
22. What are isotherms?
A line connecting points of equal temperature
23. What is the annual range of temperature?
The difference between the warmest and coolest months at any given location
24. On average, is the annual range of temperature larger over the tropics or extratropics? Why? Extratropics because the amount of sunlight varies more
25. On average, is the annual range of temperature larger in a coastal town or in a town located thousands of miles away from the coast? coast Why? Land temperatures vary more than water temperatures
26. Define ‘cooling degree days’ Day above 65 degrees when people tend to turn on AC Is this concept related to the ‘climate’ or the ‘weather’ of a location? Weather In practice, what can this concept be used for? Utility companies use it to know how much electricity will be needed
27. Define ‘heating degree days’. Day when temperature is below 65 degree and people tend to turn on heat. In practice, what can this concept be used for? Builders use it to figure out how large a furnace to install
28. Define ‘growing season’. Temperature above or below base temperature for specific crop In practice, what can this concept be used for? Farmers use it to know what crops to plant
29. What is a greenhouse gas?
Gases in the earth’s atmosphere that allow most of the sunlight to pass through but are strong absorbers of infrared energy emitted by the Earth and the atmosphere.
30. What are the two most important greenhouse gases in the atmosphere? Water vapor and Carbon Dioxide
31. What is the greenhouse effect? The warming of an atmosphere by its absorbing and emitting infrared radiation while allowing shortwave radiation to pass on through Does it make the Earth warmer or cooler? Warmer.
Quiz Date: 2/15
32. What is the specific humidity? Ratio of mass of water vapor in a given parcel to the total mass of air in the parcel Does it measure the water vapor capacity or the water vapor content of the air? content
33. What is the saturation specific humidity? The amount of water vapor needed for saturation controlled by air temperature Does it measure the water vapor capacity or the water vapor content of the air? capacity
34. How does the saturation specific humidity of air change with temperature? Saturation specific humidity is directly proportional to temperature
35. What is relative humidity? The ratio of the amount of water vapor in the air compared to the amount required for saturation. The ratio of the airs actual vapor pressure to its saturation vapor pressure.
36. What is the relative humidity of saturated air? 100%
37. Define ‘heat index’.
An index that combines air temperature and relative humidity to determine an apparent temperaturehow hot it actually feels.
38. What is the dewpoint temperature?
The temperature to which air must be cooled for saturation to occur
39. What are condensation nuclei?
Aerosols: Tiny airborne liquid or solid particles
40. What are the two ‘ingredients’ needed to make a cloud? Saturated Air & Condensation Nuclei (aerosols)
41. What is fog? A cloud with its base at the earth’s surface
42. How does fog form? Saturation reached condensation forms a cloud near the ground
43. What is precipitation? Any form of water particles (liquids or solid) that fall from the atmosphere and reach the ground.
44. List two possible ways to make air rise. Convection & Orography
45. What is orographic precipitation? Rain that falls on one side of a mountain but not the other. Which side of a mountain is rainiest? Windward Which side of a mountain is driest? The leeward side Why? As the air rises to go over the mountain it is less able to hold water because temperature is colder in higher elevations, so by the time it reaches the air near the top of the mountain the moisture in the air has all condensed and fallen as precipitation on the windward side
46. What is convective precipitation? Precipitation caused when a warm air bubble rises and then condenses into a cumulus cloud
Quiz Date: 2/15
47. What are isohyets?
A line on a map where connecting points having the same amount of rainfall in a given period.