Study Guide for Midterm Spring 2016
Study Guide for Midterm Spring 2016 STCM 10800 04
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STCM 10300 02
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexis Liberatore on Friday February 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to STCM 10800 04 at Ithaca College taught by Professor Kristina Harrison in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 147 views. For similar materials see Communication in Organizations in Strategic Communication at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Study Guide Communication in Organizations Chapter 1&2 What is Organizational Communications Important communication and business skills: Creative Insight Are you asking the right questions? Sensitivity Try to understand people and have a heart. Vision Plan for the future. Shared Meaning Make sure everyone understands where you’re going. Integrity Have morals and do the right thing The bare bones of communication are exchanging messages to accomplish something The Interactive Communication Model: How does it fail? Inadequate Info Info Overload PoorQuality Info Poor Timing Problems with the Communication Channels Incompetent Communication Ineffective Goal Setting Communication Anxiety Cultural Barriers Strategic Communication has four key parts: 1. Situational Knowledge Info that you have/collect about the requirements for successful communication 2. Goal Setting Setting a goal is proven to enhance work performance a. Identify problem b. Map out strategy c. Set a performance goal d. Recognize Contingences e. Obtain Feedback 3. Communication CompetenceThe Ability to Communicate Appropriately and Effectively with others Competence 4. Anxiety Management Everyone gets anxiety, but for good communication one would need to learn how to manage it. Causes: a. Novelty b. Formality c. Subordinate status d. Conspicuousness e. Large groups f. Lack of Skill g. Past Experiences h. Evaluation Values The principles and the ideas that people/organizations strongly believe in and consider important: 1. Primacy of Customer 2. Honesty and Integrity 3. Respect for Other Workers 4. Innovative Thinking 5. Quality Service 6. Creativity 7. High Ethical Standards a. Ethics are guidelines and rules that a society/organization sets Guidelines for Making Ethical Standards for a Company: Maintain being open and honest Messages should be accurate Do not deceive people Keep customer confidences Ensure timelines of communication Do not let unethical behavior go unchecked Cultivate empathic listening Organization structure Virtual Organization When the employees are separated geographically and have to work together through technology Tall Organization Many chains of hierarchy, more regulation, but slower communication Flat Organization Not many chains of hierarchy, less regulation, faster communication Ideal Communication Climate: Supportiveness Participative Decision Making Trust, Confidence, and credibility Openness and honesty High Performance goals Communication Competence: The ability to communicate appropriately and effectively with others Good Messages Need to Be: Succinct Specific Deadline-oriented Accurate Relevant Honest Timely Feedback-oriented Logical Complete Internal Communication: Knowing how the Organization’s internal communication works and how messages are sent and received within the Organization. Downward Communication Job Instructions Job Rationale Procedures and Practices Feedback Indoctrination of Goal *Information is lost as a message travels down the chain* Upward Communication Employee Performance Information About Fellow Employees Attitudes and Understanding Activity Reports on Accomplishments Horizontal Communication Problem Solving Information Sharing Task Coordination Enhances Morale Resolving Conflicts Good External Communication: Messages are exchanged between the organization and its environment Organizations use newsletters, annual reports and events Organizations are using the web to inform the public What to Consider When Picking a Channel: Speed Accuracy Feedback Selectivity Appropriateness Accountability Acceptability The 3 E’s of succe : Encode messages carefully Explain each idea concisely Express each idea with an appropriate energy level Chapter 3 What is Diversity? One of many terms used to explain diversity: Gender Age Ethnicity Physical abilities Religious affiliation Sexual orientation Nationality Life Experiences Prejudice a preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience. Reasons people could have prejudice are: Family Upbringing Experiences Religion Relationships And many more How people are affected by diversity: Can be source of conflict There could be prejudice in the work place Stereotyping is a way that people process info and it could be either +or Ethnocentrism the belief that one’s culture is superior Ways people can be discriminated against: 1. Gender (Gender/Social Roles) 2. Age 3. Ethnicity 4. Physical Abilities 5. Religious Affiliations 6. Sexual Orientation How can a can a company/you improve Cultural Communication? Understand your own cultural perspectives Develop tolerance and appreciation for the cultural perspectives of others Try to achieve positive outcomes from conflicts caused by diversity Language Culture The means by which we represent ourselves and the means by which we interpret others. Includes: Spoken word, written word, and body movements Nonverbal Communication: Appearance (artifacts) Kinesics (body movements) Tactilics (touch) Proxemics (space) Chronemics (time) Paralanguage (nonword sounds, fillers, pitch, stress, tone) Personality Traits that one would need for effective intercultural communication: Flexibility Ability to Tolerate Ambiguity Nonjudgmental Attitudes Respect for Self and Others Analyzing your Perspectives Analyzing a Conflict: 1. Examine the topics of the conflict 2. Analyze your own contributions 3. Make notes in a permanent file 4. In some cases, you may wish to discuss the conflict with a trusted supervisor The Conflict Triangle: Legal Guidelines and Diversity: Discrimination is always harmful and illegal Most organizations have an Affirmative Action Officer to help ensure regulations are being met Affirmative Action Laws protect and safeguard the civic liberties and rights of many people Chapter 4 Listening Skills Hearing Listening Involuntary Voluntary Passive Active Physiological Psychological Requires no conscious effort Requires effort and concentration Listening: goes beyond reacting to sounds and includes understanding, analyzing, evaluating, and responding. It is active, voluntary, and requires concentration Ineffective Listening Can Cause: Poor listeners being perceived as less intelligent Wastes time Can result in financial losses Faking paying attention is harmful as important information is missed Limits an individual’s chances for success Listening Process: Stage 1: Receiving Avoid Distractions Focus on what the person is saying, not how you will respond Stage 2: Understanding This the stage when you learn what the speaker is trying to say intellectually and emotionally. Try to: o relate to the new information o See the speaker’s message from their viewpoint o Avoid judging o Give feedback, ask for clarification o Rephrase what the speaker has said in your own words Stage 3: Remembering What you remember is not what was actually said, but what you think was said. Try to: o Identify the main ideas o Summarize o Repeat the important stuff to yourself o Write it down if you can Stage 4: Evaluating Place judgment on the message. Try to: o Do not evaluate until you have all the info o Give the speaker and their message the benefit of the doubt o Distinguish facts from the inferences o Identify biases in the message Step 5: Responding Be honest and own your response Blaine Goss listening principles: 1. The number of stimuli to which a person can attend at one time is very limited. 2. Some stimuli go unnoticed or are attended to only in an unconscious way. 3. The amount of attention a person gives to a stimulus varies according to the difficulty of the task at hand. Perception Reception is the physical process of receiving stimuli Focused attention is impacted by stimuli and the number of stimuli to which a person can attend at one time Some stimuli are unnoticed or unconsciously received The difficulty of the task at hand may impact the attention given to a stimulus Perception and Listening Perceptions act as a category system to help us understand a message False impression/category systems distort one’s interpretations Prejudice and biases can inhibit effective listening Consider how emotionally charged words may effect a person’s perception of the message Empathy: Allows one to feel what the other person is feeling, to see the world from their point of view Listening without Judgement: View the speaker as an equal Seek to understand their thoughts and feelings on the matter Avoid Offensive Listening (attack what the speaker is saying) Be aware of your biases towards the speaker and the subject of the conversation NonJudgmental vs Critical Thinking: Always listen first before you make an evaluation Critical thinkers are open minded and intentional Intelligence ≠ knowing and deducing right and wrong Types of Listening: 1. Information 2. Enjoyment 3. Evaluation 4. Feeling Listening Styles: 1. Appreciative 2. Empathic 3. Discriminative 4. Analytical 5. Passive 6. Negative How to be an interactive listener: Talk less Ask questions Use nonverbal cues Avoid boredom Types of questions: 1. Closed Obtain a short and specific response 2. Open Allow freedom and choice in the answer 3. Probing Encourages the speaker to elaborate 4. Leading Imply expected response in question 5. Reflective Shows empathy with the speaker The 3 D’s Distraction o Focus on speaker and take notes Disorientation o Simplify info to its basic level and focus on the main points Defensiveness o Understand that it is not always about “you” How to fight boredom: Set goals for obtaining certain information Remember what could happen when one is misinformed Focus on the content of the message Relate this information to what you currently know Identify the main points and memorize them How to tell if your listener gets bored: 1. They get easily distracted 2. Need to have information repeated 3. Watch the clock 4. Grooming/fidgeting/preening 5. Less and less eye contact Chapter 5 Verbal and Nonverbal Skills Verbal Communication messages that are made up of words (Written or Spoken) Nonverbal Messages without words, this can include the pitch and volume of your voice, your body language, expressions, proximity, hand gestures, and clothing choices are just a few examples. Goal setting for messages: Task: have the intent to make others accomplish specific goals Maintenance: keep the Organization in working order so that tasks can be preformed Human Relations: help employees fully recognize their potential in the organization Situational knowledge of messages (Personal and Environmental) 2 parts 1. Content element: What are you trying to say? 2. Relationship element: How do you feel about the person with whom you’re communicating with? Does that change the message? Hall’s Personal Space Zones (For Americans) 1. Intimate Zone: 018 Inches 2. Personal zone: 18 Inches 4 Feet 3. Social Zone: 4 12 Feet 4. Public Zone: 12+ Feet Personal Space and Touch: Different cultures interpret touch and space differently The context of the relationship should definitely be considered Choosing the setting for communicating: What is the likelihood that bystanders will receive the message unintentionally? What are the physical characteristics of the setting? (Noise level, temp, etc.) Is the formality of the situation dictated by social or company norms? Is the timing of the message important? Vocab you should know: Jargon specialized language professionals use to communicate efficiently. For example, lawyers may have specific legal terms they would use to communicate their message. Euphemisms agreeable, neutral, or indirect phrases used to describe unpleasant events in a more palatable format. Tag Questions reduce the certainty of a statement and undercut the effectiveness of the messages, so adding phrases like “right?” or “Isn’t that correct?” decreases the effectiveness of a message. Interpreting Nonverbal Cues Paralanguage voice qualities/ characteristics of speech such as: Pitch (how high/low a voice is) Tempo (speed) Volume (loudness) Rhythm (timing and emphasis on words) Articulation (how words are pronounced) Facial and Eye Expressions Different kinds of gestures and body movements: Emblems movements that substitute for words (Thumbs up/down, Middle finger, etc.) Illustrations body movements that amplify, accent, or supplement what is being said (smiling) Regulators nonverbal, usually automatic acts, that help maintain the flow of the conversation Message strategies Conversational Turns o Nonverbal Cues o Interruptions Intercultural Conventions o Openmindedness, equal treatment, avoidance, interaction management, other orientation Conversation Ethics o Include background information n, honesty, and clarity There ar combinations of understanding and agreement 1. Mutual understanding with agreement 2. Mutual understanding with disagreement 3. Mutual misunderstanding with agreement 4. Mutual misunderstanding with disagreement Chapter 6 Leadership and Management Skills Managers vs Leaders Managers: Leaders: Vision Courage Plan Integrity Humility Budget Strategic Planning Control Organize Performance Leadership skills Coordinate Inspire Utilize Resources effectively Drive Time Manage Values Make Decisions Listen Problem Solve Learn from/Manage failure Admit mistakes Positive Attitude Confident Intuition Commitment 4 Functions of Management: 1. Planning: setting goals and outline steps to reach goals 2. Organizing: accumulate and coordinate resources 3. Motivating: generate commitment and support 4. Controlling: use authority and power to ensure the plan Skills Managers & Leaders should have: Technical Skills: Ability to use data, information, technology, and other innovations Human Skills: Ability to work with other people to accomplish goals Conceptual Skills: Ability to see your job in its relationship to the entire organization FutureOriented Skills: Ability to obtain, assimilate, analyze, handle, and communicate information Listening Skills: Ability to listen and remember what employees and customers say Likert’s Management Continuum: As a system becomes more nurturing it becomes less authoritarian System 1. Authoritarian (Theory X) System 2. Controlling System 3. Collaborative System 4. Nurturing (Theory Y) Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid: Kuhnert and Lewis’ Leadership Theories: 1. Transactional Leadership Theory Based on exchanges for mutual gain. Only works when both parties have something to gain. 2. Transformational Leadership Theory Reaching goals though appeals to deepseated values Goal setting for leadership: 1. Shared Values Higher levels of company loyalty. Organizations with strong common values have: a. Higher levels of loyalty b. Strong norms about hard work and caring c. Strong feelings of personal effectiveness d. Everyone agrees about key organizational goals e. Reduced levels of stress and tension 2. Clarity Establish clear organized values 3. Consensus Seek agreement with stated values Developing vision: Leaders identify new goals and ways to achieve those goals Leaders clearly articulate the vison and show behavior that reflects it Leaders create a vision that as a guide and inspiration for followers Managing Change in 4 steps: 1. Anticipate problems that are likely to occur 2. Focus the Organization on the vision 3. Look for the results rather that the process 4. Build a strong, supportive, network of people committed to the change Situational Knowledge: The Foundation of Strategic Leadership Knowledge About Self know your strengths and weaknesses. Avoid excessive pride (Hubris) Organizational Knowledge Continual learning, learn from past mistakes. If failure occurs there are four steps to take: o Review o Assess o Predict o Resolve Necessary Communication Skills for a Leader 1. Effective Listening 2. Verbal/ Nonverbal Skills 3. Building Trust 4. Promoting Understanding 5. Empowering Others a. Entrusting people with authority to act independently b. Promote creativity, cooperation, and inspiration c. Make everyone feel like they made a difference d. Reduce the difference between statuses e. Reward people for creativity and team building Leadership Ethics: Always be truthful Obey the Law Demonstrate trust in others Be consistent when dealing with others Always look for the good in other people Often review the Organization’s code of ethics Openly celebrate the Organization’s values Be empathic when listening to others Do not let unethical behavior slide, call attention to it Do not take credit for something you did not do, give credit where it is due Publicize instances of high ethical behavior Sustain trust Address any problems of mistrust Attend to what employees understand Include coworkers in problem solving discussions Encourage individual thinking Encourage subordinates to communicate upwards Follow through on ideas Give rewards to those who offer advice Anxiety Management for Leaders: Optimism remain optimistic in the face of adversity Persistence be persistent in your actions and behaviors in spite of pessimism Passions it reduces anxiety Accepting Responsibility for Failures – You must take risks and there will be times you will fail. Own up to your mistakes Chapter 7 Work Relationships Different Types of Workplace Relationships: 1. Manager Employee 2. Coworker Coworker 3. Mentor Protégés 4. Friends 5. Lovers 6. Employees Customers Manager Employee Relationship Affected by: 1. The communication climate either encourages/ discourages communication 2. Communication patterns 3. The personalities of the two parties involved 4. Diversity 5. The degree of mutual influence and power sharing in the relationship. Power is distributed in 4 ways: Managers have all the power. Neither Managers or Employees have much power. Subordinates hold the most power. Managers and Employees share the power. Effective Managers are: Effective Employees are: Approachable Have a good job performance Sensitive Handle pressure Credible Supportive Cooperate Honest Confident Supportive Honest Rosabeth Moss Kanter’s methods of sharing: 1. Give people important work 2. Give people discretion and autonomy 3. Give people visibility and recognition 4. Build relationships among different levels of employees Coworker Relationships Develop Because of : Proximity (closeness of physical space) Common Shared Interests Shared Tasks Satisfaction of Needs *Technology has changed modern work relationships and decreased the amount of faceto face time that coworkers spend together* How to Deal with Difficult Coworkers in Steps 1. Make sure that you’re not the difficult person a. Be openminded when listening b. Be friendly, approachable, and open 2. Ensure that you are doing your job 3. Ascertain the goals of the difficult coworker 4. Assess perception levels a. Consider that they might have a different background b. Ask them to explain t you how they perceive the situation 5. Accept the person for who they are, not what you want them to be a. Do not fixate on the past. Focus on the future b. Do not obsess over the little things 6. Confront the coworker a. Take the imitative toward forming good relations b. Ask questions c. Ask for suggestions and input d. Be a good listener e. Focus on job related issues 7. State how you feel a. Express your goals b. Do not apologize for being uncertain c. Demonstrate political sensitivity 8. Give recognition when it is deserved 9. Maintain a professional demeanor 10. If all else fails seek mediation (usually from a higher authority) Mentoring Relationships Effective mentoring relationships benefit everyone involved: the protégé, the mentor, and the Organization o The protégé has access to new opportunities and experiences that they might not have had the chance to be a part of otherwise o The mentor gains the satisfaction of helping a new employee o The organization benefits by getting a new employee to develop faster Mentoring relationships require both parties to agree on their respective roles and to understand each other For a successful and productive mentorship: mentors should possess the requisite knowledge and skills and the protégé should be willing to learn Romantic Relationships 1/3 of employees will end up romantically involved with other employees in the same company. They have the potential to be a source of controversy in the workplace. Both positive and negative consequences have been reported. Sexual Harassment Unwelcomed sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal and physical conduct of the sexual nature if: Submission to the conduct is made a condition of employment Submission to/ rejection of the conduct is made on the basis for an employment decision The conduct seriously affects the employee’s work performance/ creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment 2 Different (but overlapping) types of sexual harassment: Quid Pro Quo Hostile environment Reasons Why Sexual Harassment Occurs: 1. Attraction 2. People 3. Communication styles differ between people a. Men can also be victims b. It does not have to involve two people of opposite genders Verbal Forms: Nonverbal Forms: Unwelcome remarks Pinching Embarrassing jokes Taunts Patting Hugging Displays of pornographic Leering materials Touchin g Employee Customer Relationship Know your customers and their needs Communicate with customers effectively When a customer is satisfied/ unsatisfied take responsibility Avoid unresponsive behavior such as: Apathy lack of emotion Coldness condescending comments/ negative facial expressions Robotism rigid/ inflexible behavior Ways to Work with Difficult Customers 1. Let them talk. Listen with an openmind. 2. Reassure them that their concerns will be heard and addressed. 3. Do not personalize the issue. 4. Acknowledge instances in which they are correct. 5. Apologize and provide immediate satisfaction if you can determine that the company was in the wrong. 6. Ask the customer to suggest how problems could be solved in the future. Anxiety Management To reduce anxiety, concentrate on your goals Remember that you’re are representative for your Organization. Your goal is to provide satisfaction for a customers’ needs Listen openmindedly to the customer’s suggestions/complaint TED TALKS I recommend that you watch these videos for yourself along with these notes Chapter 1&2: None Chapter 3: Why diversity is upside down: Andres Tapia at TEDxIndianapolis: Diversity (the mix) vs inclusion (making the mix work) Address diversity in a multidimensional way: we have more than one identity Inclusion a skill, not an attitude Chapter 4: Active Listening: Katie Owens at TEDxYouth@Conejo Be here now Use face and body to show they are interested Get rid of distractions Summarize what they say Provide feedback Julian Treasure: 5 ways to listen better 1. Silence (about 3 minutes a day) 2. Count the different channels of noise, identify where sound comes from (he calls it the mixer) 3. The savoring, find the beauty in every day noises 4. Listening positions 5. RASA: Receive, Appreciate, Summarize, Ask Chapter 5: No TED Talks Chapter 6: Simon Sinek: Start with why The golden circle. Profit is a result People don’t buy what you do they buy why you do it The law of diffusion of innovation Those who lead inspire us, we follow them not for them but for oursleves Simon Sinek: Why Good Leaders Make You Feel Safe Head counts vs Heart Counts Employees should not feel afraid of their companies Being a good leader is like being a good parent Sacrifice the numbers to save the people When people feel safe in a corporation the natural reaction is to trust and cooperate Leaders do not equal authorities Why We Have Too Few Women Leaders: Sheryl Sandberg Sit at the table Make your partner a real partner Don’t leave before you leave Lollipop Leadership: Drew Dudley A lollipop moment is when someone said something/did something that has made your life better We matter a lot to other people, you hold a lot of power Redefine leadership to be about lollipop leadership Chapter 7: Dan Pink: The Puzzle of Motivation The candle problem For complex problems and thinking rewards hurt progress Intrinsic motivators vs extrinsic motivators There is a mismatch between what science knows and business does For 21 century tasks, the reward and punishment system does not usually work Simple set of rules and a clear destination= rewards (Narrowed Focus)
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