PSYC 10213 Exam Study Guide
PSYC 10213 Exam Study Guide PSYC 10213
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maycie Tidwell on Friday February 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 10213 at Texas Christian University taught by Wehlburg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Science at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
General Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide: (Chapter 5-8) Chapter 5: Developing Through The Life Span Developmental Psychology: Nature/Nurture (how do each influence our behavior) Continuity/ Stages (Is development gradual and continuous or is it a sequence of separate stages?) Stability/Change (do early personality traits persist through life or do we become different people as we age? it’s not an either or thing, there are different theories. Some things are stable, and some things change.) Teratogens are chemical or viruses or alcohol or medication that act as poison to the fetus. (which can affect the development of the fetus) Ex: if the woman drinks alcohol and it enters the fetus and if brain development is happening at that time then their brain growth may be stunted. Damage may be less if the fetus is much more fully developed. The process of maturation is genetically determined, all babies do this. Maturation sets the type of development, but our environment adjusts how we do things. Ex: learning to crawl on carpet vs. hardwood floor. Most of us cannot actually remember things until about 3-4 years of age. Organization of memory changes as we get older. Piaget’s different stages of cognitive development: Babies: do not have object permanence, i.e., objects that are out of sight are also out of mind.(that’s why peek a boo is so fun for them) By 2 years: Sensorimotor: they have object permanence and stranger anxiety. 2-6 yrs: Preoperational: They are starting to understand meanings of words. (they know what time out mean)s and (they also pretend play) (egocentrism: they only see themselves and they don’t think about how what they do will impact others/cant put themselves in someone else’s shoes) 7-11 yrs: Concrete Operational: Learning conservation skills, and mathematical transformations. (ex: knowing when you have 2 equal sized balls of clay, and you roll one ball out, they’re still the same size) 12-adulthood: Formal operational: We can do abstract thinking and hypothetical logic. Schemas: Mental molds into which we pour our experiences. Ex: when you walk into a classroom for the first time, you know not to sit in the teacher’s chair. Assimilation: incorporate new experiences into our current understanding (schema) Accommodation: the process of changes/adjusting the schema. Ex: child is used to sippy cups and tilting them up and sucking on them. When she is given a regular cup she tilts is up and it spills all over her. (she must change her schema) Imprinting: the cause of attachment for some animals (goslings) Origins of Attachment: they bond with mothers because of bodily contact, and not because of nourishment. (because of warmth not food) Ex: experiment shows that when a baby monkey is startled it runs to the soft and warm mom, not the mom who gives him food. Secure vs. Insecure Attachment Secure: 60% feel safe with mom, and happy when they reunite with mom. Insecure: 30% These children cling to their mothers or caregivers and are less likely to explore the environment. Separation anxiety: peaks at 13 mo. They do not want to be separated from their mothers whatsoever. Fluid intelligence: Ability to reason speedily. Declines with age. Crystalline Intelligence: accumulated knowledge and skills, does not decline with age. Parenting Styles: Authoritarian: parents impose rules & expect obedience Permissive: submit to child’s demands Authoritative: parents are demanding but responsive to their kids. Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development: Infancy- trust vs. mistrust Toddlerhood- Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Preschooler- Initiative vs. Guilt Elementary school- Competence vs. Inferiority Adolescence- Identity vs. Role Confusion Young adulthood- Intimacy vs. Isolation Middle adulthood- Generativity vs. Stagnation Late adulthood- Integrity vs. Despair Kohlberg’s 3 basic levels of moral thinking: 1) Preconventional morality: Before age 9, children show morality to avoid punishment or gain reward. 2) Conventional morality: By early adolescence, social rules and laws are upheld for their own sake. 3) Postconventional morality: Affirms people’s agreed-upon rights or follows personally perceived ethical principles. Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception Sensation: what we get in through our senses. Detection of physical energy of the world. Our body converts these things into a neural impulse. Perception: the understanding that we make out of it. Taking that neural impulse and making sense of it. Bottom Up Processing: turning parts into a whole. Ex: 3 part to the letter “A.” (not as efficient as top down) Top-Down Processing: taking the context of something into consideration to make sense of it. Absolute Threshold: Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time. *Half the time you get it right, and half the time you get it wrong. Subliminal Threshold: stimuli are below our absolute threshold for conscious awareness. Sensory Adaptation: when you get used to things. Ex: when we put a band aid on and forget that it is there. Parts of the Eye: 1. Cornea: Transparent tissue where light enters the eye. 2. Iris: Muscle that expands and contracts to change the size of the opening (pupil) for light. 3. Lens: Focuses the light rays on the retina. 4. Retina: Contains sensory receptors that process visual information and sends it to the brain. Blind Spot: Point where the optic nerve leaves the eye because there are no receptor cells located there. Lens: Transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to focus images on the retina. (allows us to focus on distant or close up images). We have rods and cones. Rods: sees B&W Cones: sees color Gestalt’s Connectedness: we perceive things as a single unit Proximity: group nearby figures together Interposition: if one object blocks the view of another, it is generally farther away Closure: we fill in gaps to create a picture as a whole Continuity: we perceive continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones We perceive light in 2 ways: Wavelength (hue/color) Intensity (brightness) Hue (color) is the dimension of color determined by the wavelength of the light. Wavelength is the distance from the peak of one wave to the peak of the next. * Different wavelengths result in different colors. Intensity: Amount of energy in a wave, determined by amplitude. (ex: different shades of blue have different intensities.) Perceptual Set: What we expect to see is often what we do see. Perceptual Adaptation: Visual ability to adjust to an artificially displaced visual field, e.g., prism glasses. The phi phenomenon: a perceptual illusion in which a disembodied perception of motion is produced by a succession of still images. Chapter 7: Learning Learning: a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience. (not genetically programmed, it is more flexible than this) Ivan Pavlov: Classical Conditioning NS: Neutral Stimulus: the tone US: Unconditioned Stimulus: the food UR: Unconditioned Response: producing salivation CS: Conditioned Stimulus: Tone CR: Conditioned Response: salivation from tone * Pavlov did the experiment with the tone and the dogs to see if he could condition them to salivate just from hearing the ringing of the tone. It worked. The neutral stimulus has become a conditioned stimulus. *Pavlov’s greatest contribution to psychology is isolating elementary behaviors from more complex ones through objective scientific procedures. Extinction: When the US (food) does not follow the CS (tone), CR (salivation) begins to decrease and eventually causes extinction. Spontaneous Recovery: After a rest period, an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneously recovers, but if the CS (tone) persists alone, the CR becomes extinct again. Stimulus Generalization: If you change the bell sound a little, the dog will still salivate. When you generate a stimulus to a similar stimulus, to get the same reaction. Ex: no matter what test you’re about to take, you may still get test anxiety. Stimulus Discrimination: The learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus. Ex: maybe you only get nervous for math tests but not English tests. Instinctive Drift: the tendency of an animal to revert to instinctive behaviors that interfere with a conditioned response. The Little Albert Study: the baby being given pleasant objects but hearing a loud noise directly behind him, causing him to cry. Then bringing out the same objects and crying without hearing the loud noise. Watson showed how you can make emotions result from seeing objects. Shaping: the operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through successive approximations. Ex: learning how to tie your shoe. Reinforcement: Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. A heat lamp positively reinforces a meerkat’s behavior in the cold. 1. Primary Reinforcer: An innately reinforcing stimulus like food or drink. 2. Conditioned Reinforcer: A learned reinforcer that gets its reinforcing power through association with the primary reinforcer. Ex: getting a paycheck. 3. Immediate Reinforcer: A reinforcer that occurs instantly after a behavior. A rat gets a food pellet for a bar press. 4. Delayed Reinforcer: A reinforcer that is delayed in time for a certain behavior. A paycheck that comes at the end of a week. *When you’re trying to teach a new behavior, you should use immediate reinforcement. Ex: getting that extra sleep, or getting up to go workout. Reinforcement Schedules 1. Continuous Reinforcement: Reinforces the desired response each time it occurs. 2. Partial Reinforcement: Reinforces a response only part of the time. Though this results in slower acquisition in the beginning, it shows greater resistance to extinction later on. Punishment Positive Punishment (+): when doing something you stop them from doing it again. Adding something to the environment. (ex: spanking) Negative Punishment (-): Withdrawing a desirable stimulus (ex: putting a child in time out). **Sometimes punishment causes negative effects. ** Reinforcement does not have these negative effects. (works better) Operant Conditioning: involves operant behavior, a behavior that operates on the environment. producing rewarding or punishing stimuli. Voluntary behaviors. Ex: the mazes that Skinner made for rats to find food. Operant conditioning chamber: AKA Skinner box. Every time the rat pushes the lever, there will be food dispensed. Thorndike’s Law of Effect: states that rewarded behavior is likely to occur again. Negative reinforcement: when you remove an aversive stimulus. An example of this would be how you fasten your seatbelt in the car because you don’t want to have to listen to the loud beeping that the car makes if you do not. Positive reinforcement: just the opposite, it is when you add a desirable stimulus to draw out behavior. An example of this would how you pay people to continue working for you; chances are if you don’t pay them, they wont continue to work for you. Learning by Observation: Ex: when we see someone getting rewarded for something then we are much more likely to do it. Also when you see someone get pulled over by cop, you slow down. Modeling: if a child grows up watching violent things, they tend to act that way themselves. Chapter 8: Memory Information Processing Models: Encode Store Retrieve Memory Effects: 1. Spacing Effect: We retain information better when we rehearse over time. 2. Serial Position Effect: When your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items. (We forget more stuff in the middle. The order you memorize things really matters.) Proactive interference: when you memorize a list of information, and when remembering a later part of the list, an earlier memorized part of the list gets in the way. Retroactive interference: Sleep prevents retroactive interference. Therefore, it leads to better recall. Visual Encoding: Mental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding. (this is why ads are usually pictures) Effortful Processing: Rehearsal or conscious repetition *Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables: TUV YOF GEK XOZ (the more times he practiced it on day 1, the less he needed to practice it on day 2) Retrieval: Getting Information Out Retrieval Cues: Memories are held in storage by a web of associations. These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory. Retrieval failure: (TOT: tip of the tongue phenomenon) Priming: To retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations, you must first activate one of the strands that leads to it. Ex: if you think it going to rain, then you feel water you think it’s raining; even if it was just the sprinkler. Storage decay: Poor durability of stored memories leads to their decay. Ebbinghaus showed this with his forgetting curve. Organizing Information for Encoding: Break down complex information into broad concepts and further subdivide them into categories and subcategories. 1. Chunking 2. Hierarchies *Mnemonics: ways to remember things by making up words or phrases. (techniques use vivid imagery and organizational devices in aiding memory.) ex: ROYGBIV *lokai method: using location to remember things. 3 stores of memory: 1. Sensory memory (Short) (see, hear, feel) 2. Working memory (Small aka short term) 20 sec. long. Between 5- 9 pieces of info. (7+-2) magic number. 3. Long-term memory (essentially unlimited capacity store) *We use techniques to enhance our short-term memory Stress Hormones & Memory: -Heightened emotions makes for stronger memories. -Flashbulb memories are very clear memories of emotionally significant moments or events. Misinformation Effect: Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event. *While tapping our memories, we filter or fill in missing pieces of information to make our recall more coherent. *Eyewitness is actually really not accurate. Eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories when questioned about the event. Ex: How fast were the 2 cars going when they smashed into each other? How fast were the 2 cars going when they bumped into each other. *We construct most of our memory and make it up. Recovered Memories: aka Constructed Memories: Loftus’ research shows that if false memories (lost at the mall or drowned in a lake) are implanted in individuals, they construct (fabricate) their memories.
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