what did Andrew Johnson's New Proclamation of Amnesty do?
he issued pardons to many confederate officials and officers and return confiscated land to landowners of New State constitutions, but they must agree to ratify the 13th amendment to reenter the union
Who helped end the reconstruction in 1865?
Why did Johnson opposed to the Freedmen's Bureau?
He felt that targeting former slaves for special assistance would be detrimental to the South and he believed the bureau was an example of federal government assuming political power reserved to the States
Which amendment caused a riot Memphis and New Orleans and why?
Congress require the states to ratify the 14th amendment to reenter the Union
what was the Redeemers' focus during the Bourbon Reconstruction?
cutting back the size and cost of the government, reduce government debt, and establish boards of agriculture public health and colleges (for women and teacher, etc.)
what act eliminated the Black Codes that was proposed by a small group of leaders in the Radical Republican Party?
The Civil Rights Act (1866)
Why was the crop lien system created?
after the civil war, the south suffered an acute shortage of capital
Who built the Central Pacific railroad?
who built the Union Pacific railroad?
Why did the Long Drive fail?
Because farmers were afraid that transient cattle would trample crops and transfer cattle fever to other animals, they formed groups to threaten to shoot or beat cattlemen found on their lands
What did the failure of the Long Drive lead to?
another railroad route in Abilene, Kansas for cattle
Who were the Old immigrants?
Northwestern Europe (Britain, Scandinavia, Germany)
who were the new immigrants?
Eastern and southern Europe (Jews, Italians, Slavs)
what were the main reasons for immigration and name the causes for it?
rural ways of life in Europe were threatened by industrialization and urbanization, European village artisans were unable to compete with mass-produced goods, and commercial agriculture and competition from U.S. grain exports force peasants off land
what were the causes of immigration?
religious or political persecution, and economic hardship
what made the Labor unhappy when working for an industry?
long working hours, low wages, periods of boom and bust (fluctuations of employment and unemployment)
what are the reasons Jews immigrated to US?
economic reasons and anti-semitism
what were the intolerable working conditions?
no safety devices, no government regulation, no fire escape, not enough restrooms, fatigue led to accidents, and illnesses
in company towns, the company would transfer workers here to work nearby the mining areas and the workers get paid in what?
who was the president of American Federation of Labor (AFL) ?
what did the Knights of labor demand?
An end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories
Who founded the Knights of Labor?
Uriah S. Stephens
What was the failure of the political machine?
however, he was not concerned about the long-term issues of the workers (working conditions, wages, etc.)
why did congress pass the Pendleton Civil Service Act?
to stop political corruption
under the crop lien system, what led the farmers to become tenant farmers?
merchants charged them with high interest rates
what do farmers do to attempt to make more money, but actually caused the price of the crops to go down. What did they do?
Overproduce (farmers did not understand that ex: corn-perishable)
Who organized the The National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry?
Oliver H. Kelley
What was the People's Party (Populists) Platform in 1892?
unlimited coinage of silver, graduated income tax for the wealthy, government ownership of railroads and communication industries (telephones and telegraphs), postal savings banks, and a sub-treasury plan
What was the focus issue during the Election of 1896?